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Kim Tu-bong

Kim Tu-bong was the first Chairman of the Workers' Party of North Korea from 1946 to 1949. He was known in Korean history as a linguist and politician, his most famous work was under Ju Sigyeong. He and other members of the Yan'an faction formed the New People's Party when they returned from exile. After the New People's Party merged into the Workers Party of North Korea in 1946 at the 1st WPNK Congress, he became WPNK Chairman, he was the first head of state of North Korea from 1948 to 1957. He is most remembered in South Korea for his efforts in establishing the Korean linguistic field and that of Hangul. Much of his work both political and linguistically was done while living in China with the exiled government of Korea, he is known by his pen name Baekyeon. He was purged by Kim Il-sung in 1957. Born on February 2, 1889, in South Korea's South Gyeongsang Province, near modern-day Pusan, he spent his early years being homeschooled during the time of imperial rule, he would move to Seoul at the age of 20 to attend both Geho School and Baechae School and in that same year graduate from Bogo High School.

While he was in Seoul he would join the Korea Youth organization in 1913 and the following year leave Baechae School. He was an editor for the So nyoun magazine. After graduating from Bosungkobo in 1908, Kim Tu-bong worked with a Linguistic professor from Bosungkobo named Ju Sigyeong, at that time beginning his work in the study of Hangul for which his name would be known for as he would dedicate his life to bring it about, he worked as a teacher. In 1916 he spent a majority of his time working on the first Korean dictionary. After the March 1st Movement he and other members of the independence club fled into China and in April 1919 set up a provisional government in Shanghai. During which he was first exposed to Communism and accepted it in 1920 after first supporting the Democratic Party. In 1924 he was entrusted with the department of children education and schooling where he served as the president and taught both Korean and Korean History. After the Japanese invaded China he and other members of the Korean government in Shanghai fled to Yan'an, there Kim would become the head of the independence club and became a important figure in combining the conflicting views of both communist and democratic ideas.

The December following World War II and the Japanese's surrender Kim Tu-bong and other members returned to the then-divided Korea. Like many other Communist-minded people of the time, Kim Tu-bong and other Communist leaders took residence in what is now North Korea under the Soviet occupation. In February 1946 Kim Tu-bong became the chairman of the new People's Party; that year in August it merged to form the Workers' Party. He would become the chairman in 1948, though from the outset the real power was held by Premier Kim Il-sung. Kim Tu-bong designed the new flag, still used in North Korea today in an effort to throw off what he saw as feudal rule. Kim Il-sung became chairman of the Workers' Party after it merged with its southern counterpart in 1949, thus becoming in name as well as in fact the country's leader. In most Communist states, the party leader is understood to be the most powerful man in the country. Kim Tu-bong remained as chairman of the SPA Presidium, thus nominal head of state.

After the Korean War Kim Tu-bong had served his usefulness in the government, whether real or imagined, many scholars believe he had become a perceived threat to Kim Il-sung's dictatorship. Rumors began that it had to do with a scandal, as he had married a much younger woman in life. Whatever the reason, he was purged in March 1958, accused of involvement in the 1956 August Faction Incident. Like many others of Kim Il-sung's political opponents, he disappeared with no records to indicate whether he had been sentenced to hard labor or exile, he is believed either to have been executed or to have died some time in the 1960s in internal exile. Yanan faction Kim Il-sung Cold War North Korea Korean independence movement Dae-Sook Suh. Kim Il Sung: The North Korean Leader. Columbia University Press, 1988. Pg. 351 n.d. Kim Dubong. Naver encolopidia. November 20, 2013. Http://terms.naver.com/. "Kim Tu-bong and Historical Linguistics" by Andrei Lankov

Insects (album)

Insects is a 2009 album released by Gibraltarian flamenco/metal quintet Breed 77. It was released on 16 November 2009 on LaRocka Records and contains 12 songs, including 2 bonus tracks. Breed 77 headlined a United Kingdom tour in support of the album in November 2009, titled "The Insects Are Here" tour. Support acts were Our Malevolent Tyranny. Cars On Fire supported the band on some of the tour dates as well. In December 2009 the band are touring in support of the album in Spain. "The Battle of Hatin" was available as a free download from their website prior to the release of Insects. Wake Up was the first single released from the album, a music video, directed by Mario Ruiz has been produced. Zombie is to be released as a single around March 2010, a music video has been produced; the album was given an international re-release in May and June 2010, with Breed 77 signing a worldwide deal with earMusic / Edel GmbH. The re-released version of the album comes packaged in a digipak, with an extra bonus track'Save Us', which featured on the'Wake Up' single.

As well as this, the iTunes version of the earMusic release of the album features a unreleased track entitled'Missing Me'. "Wake Up" - 4:33 "The Battle of Hatin'" - 5:40 "Revolution on My Mind" - 4:25 "Insects" - 6:04 "Who I Am" - 5:15 "New Disease" - 4:19 "One More Time" - 4:02 "In the Temple of Ram: Rise of the Bugs" - 5:41 "Forever" - 4:38 "Guerra del Sol" - 6:22 "Zombie" - 5:30 "Insectos" - 6:03 "Save Us" - 6:08 "Missing Me" - 3:47 "At a point in their career where many bands would consider desperate changes, Breed 77 have opted to stay on the same track for album number five, writing music for their existing fan base," commented Kerrang critic Steve Beebee. "Not much of a challenge for anyone familiar with them, but still good stiff," he concluded, giving the album a 3 out of 5K's rating. Breed 77 Official Website

National debt of China

The national debt of the People's Republic of China is the total amount of money owed by the government and all state organizations and government branches of China. As of October 2018, it stands at CN¥ 80 trillion, equivalent to about 47.6% of GDP. Standard & Poor's Global Ratings has stated Chinese local governments may have an additional CN¥40 trillion in off-balance sheet debt; the high debt level is a current economic issue facing China. The International Monetary Fund, the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis and other sources, such as the Article IV Consultation Reports, state that, at the end of 2014, the "general government gross debt"-to-GDP ratio for China was 41.54 percent. With China's 2014 GDP being US$10,356.508 billion, this makes the government debt of China US$69.9 trillion. The foreign debt of China, by June 2015, stood at around US$1.68 trillion, according to data from the country's State Administration of Foreign Exchange as quoted by the State Council. The figure excludes the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Macau.

Chinese foreign debt denominated in the U. S. dollar was 80 percent of the total, euros 6 percent, Japanese yen 4 percent. By the mid-2010s, many analysts have expressed concern over the overall "size" of the Chinese government debt. An IMF working paper, published in 2015, states that "financial sector reforms in China are progressing at an uneven pace", adding that "progress in removing implicit state guarantees has been slower." This, according to the IMF paper, means that "with implicit state guarantees still in place, banks have little incentives to seek better projects and price risk."A 2015 International Monetary Fund report concluded that China's public debt is low "and on a stable path in all standard stress tests except for the scenario with contingent liability shocks," such as "a large-scale bank recapitalization or financial system bailout to deal, for example, with a potential rise in NPLs from deleveraging.""Shadow banking" has risen in China, posing risks to the financial system.

Chinese authorities have dismissed analysts' worries, insisting that "the country still has room to increase government debt." Finance Minister Lou Jiwei stated that China's "fiscal income is in a severe situation," yet the government "need to expand the fiscal deficit, but it is hard to say how much room is appropriate."Former Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke, earlier in 2016, commented that "the...debt pile facing China an'internal' problem, given the majority of the borrowings was issued in local currency. Many economists have expressed the same views, dismissing worries over the size of Chinese government debt, either in absolute terms or in proportion to the nation's GDP, as "nonsensical". By 2015, local government entities owed a total of about 18 trillion yuan to state-owned banks who had made loans to the local governments "to fund risky land and property deals." The Chinese central government authorized provinces to issue at least 2.6 trillion yuan in bonds in 2015 in order to stabilize the financial system.

However, demand for provincial bonds from the private market was weak due to inadequate yields, in May 2015, the central government directed state-owned lenders to buy the local bonds, creating a debt swap akin to a bailout. Economy of China Foreign exchange reserves of China Official website of the Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China "An Introduction to Chinese Local Government Debt" by Xun Wu, October 2015

Gary Baker (songwriter)

Gary Baker is an American country music singer and songwriter. In the late 1970s, Baker was a musician with the Carr Band. Baker was a singer musician with the country-pop band, The Shooters, he has written songs for John Michael Montgomery and others. Baker has been writing with his songwriting partner, Frank J. Myers since 1988, both having played in Marie Osmond's band. Baker and Myers' most successful song as songwriters is "I Swear", recorded by both All 4-One and John Michael Montgomery; the song sold more than 20 million copies internationally, won the 1995 Grammy for "Best Country Song". In 1995, he and Myers recorded one album on Curb Records as the duo Myers, he wrote the hit "I'm Already There" for Lonestar. It spent six weeks at the top of the Billboard Hot Country Tracks chart; the song was the band's seventh Number One. Baker lives in Sheffield, Alabama with his wife and his two sons and Cole and daughter Ashley. Baker & Myers Gary Baker on IMDb Gary Baker Interview NAMM Oral History Library

1940s in music

For music from a year in the 1940s, go to 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 This article includes an overview of the major events and trends in popular music in the 1940s. In the Developed World, Big band, Jazz and Country music dominated and defined the decade's music. After World War II, the big band sounds of the earlier part of the decade had been replaced by crooners and vocal pop. Ragtime can be described as the first American music genre and it remained popular for over 20 years. After its best-known exponent, Scott Joplin, died in 1917, the genre faded; as the 1920s unfolded, jazz took over as the dominant form of popular music in the United States. But with the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression, the market for music dried up. Dance halls emptied out and musicians could not find work. By the middle of the 1930s however, with signs of economic recovery approaching, a turnaround in the fortunes of the music industry began; the era of big band swing had started.

In addition, a new form of popular music, emerged during the early 1930s. Technology played a large part in the development of this style, as electronic sound recording had emerged near the end of the 1920s and replaced the earlier acoustic recording. While singers such as Al Jolson and Billy Murray had recorded songs by yelling into a Victrola horn, as this was the only way to get audible sound with acoustic recording, the new electronic equipment allowed for a softer, more intimate style of singing. Many of the older singers such as Jolson and Murray fell out of favor during the 1930s with changing tastes. Bing Crosby was the leading figure of the crooner sound as well as defining artist. By the 1940s, he was an entertainment superstar who mastered all of the major media formats of the day, movies and recorded music. Other popular singers of the day included Eddie Cantor. Bandleaders such as the Dorsey Brothers helped launch the careers of vocalists who went on to popularity as solo artists, such as Frank Sinatra, who rose to fame as a singer during this time.

Sinatra's vast appeal to the "bobby soxers" revealed a whole new audience for popular music, which had appealed to adults up to that time, making Sinatra the first teen idol. Sinatra's music attracted young girls to his concerts; this image of a teen idol would be seen with future artists such as Elvis Presley and The Beatles. Sinatra's massive popularity was one of the reasons why the big band music declined in popularity. Frank Sinatra would go on to become one of the most successful artists of the 1940s and one of the best selling music artists of all time. Sinatra remained relevant through the 1950s and 60s with rock music being the dominant form of music in his years. In the decades, Sinatra's music would be aimed at an older adult audience. Sinatra became one of the critically acclaimed music artists of all time. Big band swing could variably accompany a vocalist. In comparison to its loud, rhythmic sound stood the "sweet" bands which played a softer, more melodic style; the most notable of these, in no small part thanks to a long postwar TV career, was the band of Lawrence Welk.

While swing bands could be found in most major cities during the 1930s-1940s, the most popular and famous were the bands of Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, which had national followings and sold huge numbers. World War II brought an end to big band swing as many musicians were conscripted into the armed forces and travel restrictions made it hard for bands to tour. In 1944, Glenn Miller was killed when his plane crashed into the English Channel en route to a USO show in France, his death is considered to mark the close of the swing era. After the war, a combination of factors such as changing demographics and rapid inflation made large bands unprofitable, so that popular music in the US came to be dominated instead by traditional pop and crooners, as well as bebop and jump blues. In the 1940s, pure jazz began to become more popular, along with the blues, with artists like Ella Fitzgerald and Billie Holiday becoming nationally successful. By the 1940s, Dixieland jazz revival musicians like Jimmy McPartland, Eddie Condon and Bud Freeman had become well-known and established their own unique style.

Most characteristically, players entered solos against riffing by other horns, were followed by a closing with the drummer playing a four-bar tag, answered by the rest of the band. Some of the most notable Jazz artists of the 1940s include Ella Fitzgerald, Billie Holiday, Louis Armstrong and Nat King Cole. Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, became popular through the romanticization of the cowboy and idealized depictions of the west in Hollywood films. Singing cowboys, such as Roy Rogers and Gene Autry, sang cowboy songs in their films and became popular throughout the United States. Film producers began incorporating orchestrated four-part harmonies and sophisticated musical arrangements into their motion pictures. In the post-war period, country music was called "folk" in the trades, "hillbilly" within the industry. In 1944, The Billboard replaced the term "hillbilly" with "folk songs and blues," and switched to "country" or "country and Western" in 1949, but while cowboy and Western music were the most popular styles, a new style – honky tonk – would take root and define the genre of country music for decades

Ashutosh Upadhyay

Ashutosh Upadhyay is an Indian politician and a member of 16th and 17th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh of Deoria, Uttar Pradesh of India. He is a member of the Samajwadi Party. Upadhyay was born in Belpar Pandit, Uttar Pradesh to his father Kameshwar Upadhyay, he married with Nisha Upadhyay in 2008, they have one daughter. He belongs to Brahmin family, he had M. A. and B. Ed. degree from Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University. Upadhyay has MLA for two term. Since 2013, he represent Bhatpar Rani constituency as a member of Samajwadi Party. In 2013, elections he defeated he nearest rivel Sabhakunwar candidate of Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party by a margin of 34,102 votes. In second term 17th Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh, elections, he again defeated Bhartiya Janata Party candidate Jaynath Kushwaha Urf Guddan by a margin of 11,097 votes