Kerrville is a city in Kerr County, United States. It is the county seat of Kerr County; as of 2016, the population of Kerrville is 23,434. Kerrville is named after James Kerr, a major in the Texas Revolution, friend of settler-founder Joshua Brown, who settled in the area to start a shingle-making camp. Being nestled in the hills of Texas Hill Country, Kerrville is best known for its beautiful parks that line the Guadalupe River, which runs directly through the city, it is the home of Texas' Official State Arts & Crafts Fair, the Kerrville Folk Festival, Mooney Aviation Company, James Avery Jewelry, Schreiner University. The Museum of Western Art features the work of living artists specializing in the themes of the American West. Archeological evidence suggests that humans dwelled in the area known as Kerrville as early as 10,000 years ago; the early modern residents were successful shinglemakers whose mercantile business became a hub that served the middle and upper Hill Country area in the late 1840s.
One of the earliest shinglemakers was Joshua D. Brown. With his family, Joshua Brown had led several other families on an exploration of the Guadalupe Valley; these early pioneers organized their settlements near a bluff just north of the Guadalupe River in the eastern half today's county line. The settlement was referred to as "Brownsborough," but after the area was formally platted in 1856 by James Kerr, a major in the Texas Revolution, the settlement was formally known as "Kerrville" and maintained a county seat with Texas. Starting in 1857, a German master-miller named Christian Dietert and millwright Balthasar Lich started a large grist and saw mill on the bluff; this mill established a permanent source of power and protection from floods, became the most extensive operation of its kind in the Hill Country area west of New Braunfels and San Antonio. Soon afterwards, Charles A. Schreiner rode Kerrville's newly found popularity, by serving Kerrville's mercantile needs. Schreiner established a family-run empire that helped build Kerrville's early prosperity by owning all of Kerrville's business sectors, including freighting enterprises, wholesale, ranching and brokering operations.
Schreiner's elegant downtown home, a Romanesque stone structure at 226 Earl Garrett Street, is the site of the Hill Country Museum in downtown Kerrville. The Civil War slowed Kerrville's development, but with the start of the Reconstruction era, Kerrville's economic boom and ethnic diversification continued anew as demand grew in San Antonio for lumber and craftsmen. Kerrville's boom was catalyzed by the combination of the cessation of Indian raids and the expansion into the business of cattle and goat ranching. Cattle drives punctuated the boom-years of the 1890s. In 1887, the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway reached Kerrville, in 1889 the town incorporated, with an "Aldermanic" form of city government; the Kerrville Water Works Company began to provide water for town dwellers in 1894. Telephone service was introduced in 1896, the city began to pave streets in 1912. Kerrville adopted a "commission" form of city government in 1917 changed to the "city-manager" form in 1928. In 1942, the town adopted a home-rule charter, while continuing with a city manager.
Kerrville has displayed steady population growth throughout the 20th century, increasing from 1,423 residents in 1900 to 2,353 in 1920, 5,572 in 1940, 8,901 in 1960, 15,276 in 1980. Its economic base has diversified and broadened through business, light manufacturing, health care, services, the arts, tourism. By the mid-1990s the Wall Street Journal described Kerrville as one of the wealthiest small towns in America. By 1995, the city's official population was still under 18,000, with another 20,000 people in affluent residential areas south of the river and in the rest of the county. In 2000, the population reached 20,425. Much of the growth in population included young professionals and semiprofessionals. Kerrville is located at _region:US-TX 30°02′47″N 99°8′26″W; this is 58 miles northwest of San Antonio and 85 miles west of Austin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.9 square miles. 16.7 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is covered by water.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Kerrville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, 20,425 people, 8,563 households, 5,411 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,222.5 people per square mile. The 9,477 housing units averaged 567.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.89% White, 2.99% African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 8.20% from other races, 1.73% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 22.73% of the population. Of the 8,563 households, 8.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.8% were not families. About 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 19.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.79.
In the city, the population was distributed as 21.0% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 1
The Comanche are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma; the Comanche were the dominant tribe on the southern Great Plains in the 19th centuries. They are characterized as "Lords of the Plains" and, reflecting their prominence, they presided over a large area called Comancheria which a modern historian has characterized as the "Comanche Empire." Comanche power was based on bison, horses and raiding. They hunted the bison of the Great Plains for food and skins, they took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, using them as slaves or selling them to the Spanish and Mexican settlers. They took thousands of captives from the Spanish and American settlers and incorporated them into Comanche society.
Decimated by European diseases and encroachment by Americans on Comancheria, the Comanche were defeated by the United States army in 1875 and confined to a reservation in Oklahoma. In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around Lawton, Fort Sill, the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma; the Comanche Homecoming Annual Dance is held annually in Oklahoma, in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, sometimes classified as a Shoshoni dialect. Only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today; the name "Comanche" is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, but known to the French as Padoucas, an adaption of their Sioux name, among themselves as Nʉmʉnʉ. The Comanche Nation is headquartered in Oklahoma, their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson, Kiowa and Tillman Counties. Membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum; the tribe issues tribal vehicle tags.
They have their own Department of Higher Education awarding scholarships and financial aid for members' college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton, they own four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton. In 2002, the tribe founded a two-year tribal college in Lawton, it has since closed. Each July, Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters at the annual Comanche Homecoming powwow; the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Year's and one in May; the Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people living along the upper Platte River in Wyoming. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt, they separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds. The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture.
It was of such strategic importance that some scholars suggested that the Comanche broke away from the Shoshone and moved southward to search for additional sources of horses among the settlers of New Spain to the south The Comanche may have been the first group of Plains natives to incorporate the horse into their culture and may have introduced the animal to the other Plains peoples. From Natchitoches in Spanish Louisiana, Athanase de Mézières reported in 1770 that the Comanches were "so skilful in horsemanship that they have no equal, so daring that they never ask for or grant truces, in possession of such a territory that... they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians."Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people southward, defeating them in a nine-day battle along the Rio del Fierro in 1723.
The river may be the location mentioned by Athanase de Mézières in 1772, containing "a mass of metal which the Indians say is hard, thick and composed of iron", which they "venerate...as an extraordinary manifestation of nature", the Comanche's calling it Ta-pic-ta-carre, Po-i-wisht-carre, or Po-a-cat-le-pi-le-carre, the general area containing a "large number of meteoric masses". By 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the Mescalero Apache to Coahuila. During that time, their population increased because of the abundance of buffalo, an influx of Shoshone migrants, their adoption of significant numbers of women and children taken captive from rival groups; the Comanche never formed a single cohesive tribal unit, but were divided into a dozen autonomous groups, called bands. These groups shared the same language and culture, fought each other, they were estimate
Battle of the Alamo
The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna reclaimed the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar, killing the Texian and immigrant occupiers. Santa Anna's cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians, both legal Texas settlers and illegal immigrants from the United States, to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the rebellion. Several months Texians had driven all Mexican troops out of Mexican Texas. About 100 Texians were garrisoned at the Alamo; the Texian force grew with the arrival of reinforcements led by eventual Alamo co-commanders James Bowie and William B. Travis. On February 23 1,500 Mexicans marched into San Antonio de Béxar as the first step in a campaign to retake Texas. For the next 10 days, the two armies engaged in several skirmishes with minimal casualties.
Aware that his garrison could not withstand an attack by such a large force, Travis wrote multiple letters pleading for more men and supplies from Texas and from the United States, but the Texians were reinforced by fewer than 100 men because the United States had a treaty with Mexico, supplying men and weapons would have been an overt act of war. In the early morning hours of March 6, the Mexican Army advanced on the Alamo. After repelling two attacks, the Texians were unable to fend off a third attack; as Mexican soldiers scaled the walls, most of the Texian fighters withdrew into interior buildings. Occupiers unable to reach these points were slain by the Mexican cavalry as they attempted to escape. Between five and seven Texians may have surrendered. Most eyewitness accounts reported between 182 and 257 Texians died, while most historians of the Alamo agree that around 600 Mexicans were killed or wounded. Several noncombatants were sent to Gonzales to spread word of the Texian defeat; the news sparked both a strong rush to join the Texian army and a panic, known as "The Runaway Scrape", in which the Texian army, most settlers, the new, self-proclaimed but unrecognized, Republic of Texas government fled eastward toward the United States ahead of the advancing Mexican Army.
Within Mexico, the battle has been overshadowed by events from the Mexican–American War of 1846–48. In 19th-century Texas, the Alamo complex became known as a battle site rather than a former mission; the Texas Legislature purchased the land and buildings in the early part of the 20th century and designated the Alamo chapel as an official Texas State Shrine. The Alamo has been the subject of numerous non-fiction works beginning in 1843. Most Americans, are more familiar with the myths and legends spread by many of the movie and television adaptations, including the 1950s Disney mini-series Davy Crockett and John Wayne's 1960 film The Alamo. In 1835, there was a drastic shift in the Mexican nation; the triumph of conservative forces in the elections unleashed a series of events that culminated on October 23, 1835, under a new constitution, after the repeal of the federalist Constitution of 1824. Las Siete Leyes (Spanish:, or Seven Laws were a series of constitutional changes that fundamentally altered the organizational structure of Mexico, ending the first federal period and creating a unitary republic the Mexican Republic.
Formalized under President Antonio López de Santa Anna on 15 December 1835, they were enacted in 1836. They were intended to strengthen the national government; the aim of the previous constitution was to create a political system that would emulate the success of the United States, but after a decade of political turmoil, economic stagnation, threats and actual foreign invasion, conservatives concluded that a better path for Mexico was centralized power. The new policies, the increased enforcement of immigration laws and import tariffs, incited many immigrants to revolt; the border region of Mexican Texas was populated by immigrants from the United States, some legal but most illegal. These people were accustomed to a federalist government and to extensive individual rights, they were quite vocal in their displeasure at Mexico's law enforcement and shift towards centralism. Suspicious after previous American attempts to purchase Mexican Texas, Mexican authorities blamed much of the Texian unrest on American immigrants, most of whom had entered illegally and made little effort to adapt to the Mexican culture.
In October, Texians engaged Mexican troops in the first official battle of the Texas Revolution. Determined to quell the rebellion of immigrants, Santa Anna began assembling a large force, the Army of Operations in Texas, to restore order. Most of his soldiers were raw recruits, a large number had been forcibly conscripted; the Texians systematically defeated the Mexican troops stationed in Texas. The last group of Mexican soldiers in the region—commanded by Santa Anna's brother-in-law, General Martín Perfecto de Cos—surrendered on December 9 following the siege of Béxar. By this point, the Texian Army was dominated by recent arrivals to the region illegal immigrants from the United States. Many Texas settlers, unprepared for a long campaign, had returned home. Angered by what he perceived to be American interference in Mexican affairs, Santa Anna spearheaded a resolution classifying foreign immigrants found fighting in Texas as pirates; the resolution banned the taking of prisoners of war: in this period of time, captured pirates were executed immediately
The Edwards Plateau is a region of west-central Texas, bounded by the Balcones Fault to the south and east, the Llano Uplift and the Llano Estacado to the north, the Pecos River and Chihuahuan Desert to the west. San Angelo, San Antonio and Del Rio outline the area; the eastern portion of the plateau is known as the Texas Hill Country. According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, the following 41 counties comprise the Edwards Plateau: The bedrock consists of limestone, with elevations ranging between 100 and 3000 ft. Caves are numerous; the landscape of the plateau is savanna scattered with trees. It lacks deep soil suitable for farming, though the soil is fertile mollisols and some cotton, grain sorghum, oats are grown. For the most part, the thin soil and rough terrain areas are grazing regions, with cattle and Angora goats predominant. Several rivers cross the region, which flow to the south and east through the Texas Hill Country toward the Gulf of Mexico; the area is well drained.
Rainfall varies from 15 to 33 inches per year, on average, from northwest to southeast, the area has a moderate temperature and a reasonably long growing season. Trees of the savanna include juniper and oak species scattered over grasses, a vegetation type shaped by droughts and regular fires; some pecan trees are found near the rivers. The Balcones Fault is associated with the Edwards Plateau formation; this fault line is an ecological demarcation for the range definition of a number of species. Caves of the Edwards Plateau are important habitats for a great deal of wildlife; the area is home to some of the largest colonies of bats in the world, including millions of Mexican free-tailed bats. The largest colony of these inhabits Bracken Cave near San Antonio, while the Congress Avenue Bridge in Austin is the summer home for over half a million and is the largest bat colony anywhere in an urban area; the Edwards Plateau is home to at least 14 endemic freshwater fishes, including two subterranean species of catfish and 13 fish species considered to be spring-associated.
Mechanisms for spring association of fishes is not understood, but thought to mediated by water temperature. The large numbers of reptiles and birds include breeding populations of the Texan endemic golden-cheeked warbler. Nearly all the natural habitat of the plateau has been converted to ranchland, farmland, or urban areas, such as Austin and San Antonio, with only about 2% remaining in scattered fragments to the east of the plateau. Further alteration to the savanna has incurred though the encroachment of shrubs now that grassland fires are controlled. Small areas of intact habitat remain around Austin, where areas are protected, such as the Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge. Another important area for wildlife is Fort Hood military base. Earliest human settlement of this area was by Native Americans. First it was used and wandered about by Jumano and Coahuiltecan groups the Apacheria extended into the Southern Plains by the forerunners of the Lipan and Mescalero Apaches. After the expulsion of the Apachean groups from the Plains by the Comanche, this area was dominated by the Penateka band of the Southern Comanche.
Texas Hill Country Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge Colorado River Mount Bonnell List of ecoregions in the United States Johnson, E. H.. "Edwards Plateau". TSHA Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. "Plateaus and Canyonlands". Texas Beyond History. University of Texas at Austin. Texas counties map showing the ecoregion
The Llano River is a tributary of the Colorado River 105 miles long, in central Texas in the United States. It drains part of the Edwards Plateau in Texas Hill Country northwest of Austin. Two spring-fed tributaries, the North and South Llano, stretch across the otherwise arid lands of West Texas before merging just east of the small town of Junction, Texas, in Kimble County, forming the head of the Llano River proper; the Llano River runs east-northeast through the rolling limestone terrain of the Edwards Plateau as it flows through Kimble County and across rural Mason County, passing to the south of the town of Mason, Texas. Continuing in an easterly direction, the river carves its way through the Llano Uplift, a circular geologic dome of Precambrian rock granite, located in Central Texas. Flowing through Llano County, the river passes to the north of Enchanted Rock and flows through the town of Llano, Texas. Northeast of Llano, it turns to the southeast, joining the Colorado from the northwest as an arm of Lake Lyndon B.
Johnson, about 15 miles southeast of Llano at Kingsland. This river is one of the few popular fly fishing destinations in the state of Texas, contains Guadalupe bass, the state fish of Texas; the Llano contains largemouth bass, alligator gar, various sunfish
U.S. Route 83
U. S. Route 83 is a major north–south U. S. Highway that extends 1,885 miles in the central United States. Only four other north–south routes are longer: U. S. Routes 1, 41, 59, 87; the highway's northern terminus is north of Westhope, North Dakota, at the Canada–United States border, where it continues as Manitoba Highway 83. The southern terminus is in Brownsville, Texas, at the Veterans International Bridge on the Mexico–United States border, connecting with both Mexican Federal Highway 101 and Mexican Federal Highway 180. Despite its length it has comparatively few concurrencies with any Interstate highways, those segments are short. In no place has it been decommissioned as a route. US 83 is a north–south highway, 893 miles in length, in Texas except for a segment parallel to the Rio Grande River, where it takes an east–west course, much of which runs concurrently with the Interstate 2 freeway, it enters the United States and Texas near Brownsville concurrent with US 77 and splits from US 77 at Harlingen.
Passing Weslaco with I-2, it begins to veer northward and passes the current western terminus of I-2 at Penitas, follows the Rio Grande River to Laredo where it meets I-35 in a 28-mile concurrency before heading northwestward. It meets I-10 at Junction, where it has a five-mile concurrency with I-10, before heading due-north to Abilene, meeting I-20 on an expressway before heading north again on undivided surface roads, it again heads west of due north to meet US 287 in Childress and I-40 in Shamrock. About 5 1⁄2 miles north of Perryton it enters Oklahoma. Except for Abilene and some cities in the lower Rio Grande Valley it is rural in nature. US-83 traverses the Oklahoma panhandle along the western border of Beaver County, but in this brief 37-mile stretch it encounters no fewer than three other federal highways. Ten miles from the Texas line, US-83 intersects US-412 in the hamlet of Bryan's Corner. Continuing its journey northward, the highway crosses the Beaver River intersects US-64 in Turpin.
US-83 North and US-64 East are co-signed for three northbound miles. At this intersection, US-270 West joins the highway, together with US-83 proceeds northbound for the final six miles to the Kansas line. US 83 enters the Sunflower State in Seward County four miles south of Liberal, where it intersects US 54. North of Liberal, US 83 begins a multiplex with US 160, the highways remain joined until reaching Sublette, the seat of Haskell County. US 83 and US 160 split north of Sublette, with US 160 heading west toward Ulysses, US 83 continuing north toward Garden City. At Garden City, US 50 and US 400 join US 83 for a brief concurrency on a bypass around the east and north sides of the city while U. S. 83 Business follows the former routing through downtown. All three routes cross K-156 known as Kansas Avenue, in the northwest portion of the city. At the north end of the US 50-83 Business route, US 83 splits and heads north toward Scott City, while US 50 and US 400 remain joined through the rest of the state.
The highway passes through unpopulated areas of Finney County and Scott County before reaching a junction with K-96 in downtown Scott City. In northern Scott County, K-4 has its origins at US 83, heading east toward Healy, US 83 traverses through rolling farmlands until reaching Oakley, the seat of Logan County. US 83 reaches US 40 less than a mile west of Interstate 70, the two highways jog west for a brief multiplex before US 83 splits and crosses I-70. North of I-70, US 83 begins a concurrency with K-383 US 383. Passing to the east of Gem in Thomas County, US 83/K-383 takes a sharp northeasterly track through Rexford and Selden. After passing through Selden, K-383 splits from US 83 and continues northeast to US 36, while US 83 meets the beginning of K-23. US 83 returns to a northerly course at the Sheridan County–Decatur County line, passes through Oberlin at US 36. Oberlin is the last area of significant population. U. S. 83 enters Nebraska south of McCook, where it meets U. S. Route 6 and U.
S. Route 34, it continues northward to North Platte, where it intersects Interstate 80 and U. S. Route 30. After leaving North Platte in a northeasterly direction, it turns north near Thedford and goes north through the Sand Hills to Valentine. For 5 miles before Valentine, it runs concurrent with U. S. Route 20. After passing through Valentine, it continues north to enter South Dakota. U. S. 83 enters South Dakota south of Olsonville on a segment of highway which passes through the Rosebud Indian Reservation. After a brief overlap with U. S. Route 18 in Mission, the route meets Interstate 90 at Murdo; the two routes overlap as U. S. 83 goes east with I-90 until Vivian, where U. S. 83 turns north. At Fort Pierre, U. S. 83 meets U. S. Route 14 and South Dakota Highway 34; the three highways overlap as they enter Pierre. At Pierre, SD 34 separates and U. S. 83 turns northeast with U. S. 14. They separate near Blunt and U. S. 83 turns northward. U. S. 83 overlaps with U. S. Route 212 near Gettysburg and with U. S. Route 12 through the Selby area.
U. S. 83 leaves South Dakota north of Herreid. The South Dakota section of U. S. 83, with the exception of concurrencies with U. S. 18, Interstate 90, U. S. 14, U. S. 212, U. S. 12, is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-180. U. S. 83 enters North Dakota at the South Dakota state line, near the town of Hague, runs northward for 68 miles, serving the small cities of Strasburg and Linton before reaching Interstate 94. It follows I-94 west t