Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier was a French poet, novelist and art and literary critic. While an ardent defender of Romanticism, Gautier's work is difficult to classify and remains a point of reference for many subsequent literary traditions such as Parnassianism, Symbolism and Modernism, he was esteemed by writers as disparate as Balzac, the Goncourt brothers, Pound, James and Wilde. Gautier was born on 30 August 1811 in capital of Hautes-Pyrénées département, his father was Jean-Pierre Gautier, a cultured minor government official, his mother was Antoinette-Adelaïde Cocard. The family moved to Paris in 1814. Gautier's education commenced at the prestigious Collège Louis-le-Grand in Paris, which he attended for three months before being brought home due to illness. Although he completed the remainder of his education at Collège Charlemagne, Gautier's most significant instruction came from his father, who prompted him to become a Latin scholar by age eighteen. While at school, Gautier befriended Gérard de Nerval and the two became lifelong friends.
It is through Nerval that Gautier was introduced to Victor Hugo, by already a well-known, established leading dramatist and author of Hernani. Hugo became a major influence on Gautier and is credited for giving him, an aspiring painter at the time, an appetite for literature, it was at the legendary premiere of Hernani that Gautier is remembered for wearing his anachronistic red doublet. In the aftermath of the 1830 Revolution, Gautier's family experienced hardship and was forced to move to the outskirts of Paris. Deciding to experiment with his own independence and freedom, Gautier chose to stay with friends in the Doyenné district of Paris, living a rather pleasant bohemian life. Towards the end of 1830, Gautier began to frequent meetings of Le Petit Cénacle, a group of artists who met in the studio of Jehan Du Seigneur; the group was a more irresponsible version of Hugo's Cénacle. The group counted among its members the artists Gérard de Nerval, Alexandre Dumas, père, Petrus Borel, Alphonse Brot, Joseph Bouchardy and Philothée O’Neddy.
Le Petit Cénacle soon gained a reputation for extravagance and eccentricity, but for being a unique refuge from society. Gautier began writing poetry as early as 1826, but the majority of his life was spent as a contributor to various journals La Presse, which gave him the opportunity for foreign travel and for meeting many influential contacts in high society and in the world of the arts. Throughout his life, Gautier was well-traveled, taking trips to Spain, Russia and Algeria. Gautier's many travels inspired many of his writings including Voyage en Espagne, Trésors d’Art de la Russie, Voyage en Russie. Gautier's travel literature is considered by many as being some of the best from the nineteenth century. Gautier was a celebrated abandonné of the Romantic Ballet, writing several scenarios, the most famous of, Giselle, whose first interpreter, the ballerina Carlotta Grisi, was the great love of his life, she could not return his affection, so he linked her sister Ernestina, a singer. Absorbed by the 1848 Revolution, Gautier wrote one hundred articles, equivalent to four large books, within nine months in 1848.
In his essay La République de l'avenir, he celebrated the advent of the new republic and the onward march of individual liberty. Gautier experienced a prominent time in his life when the original romantics such as Hugo, François-René de Chateaubriand, Alphonse de Lamartine, Alfred de Vigny and Alfred de Musset were no longer participating in the literary world, his prestige was confirmed by his role as director of Revue de Paris from 1851–1856. During this time, Gautier left La Presse and became a journalist for Le Moniteur universel, finding the burden of regular journalism quite unbearable and "humiliating". Gautier acquired the editorship of the influential review L’Artiste in 1856, it is in this review. The 1860s were years of assured literary fame for Gautier. Although he was rejected by the French Academy three times, Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve, the most influential critic of the day, set the seal of approval on the poet by devoting no less than three major articles in 1863 to reviews of Gautier's entire published works.
In 1865, Gautier was admitted into the prestigious salon of Princess Mathilde Bonaparte, cousin of Napoleon III and niece to Bonaparte. The Princess offered Gautier a sinecure as her librarian in 1868, a position that gave him access to the court of Napoleon III. Elected in 1862 as chairman of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, he was surrounded by a committee of important painters: Eugène Delacroix, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Édouard Manet, Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse and Gustave Doré. During the Franco-Prussian War, Gautier made his way back to Paris upon hearing of the Prussian advance on the capital, he remained with his family throughout the invasion and the aftermath of the Commune dying on 23 October 1872 due to a long-standing cardiac disease. Gautier was sixty-one years old, he is interred at the Cimetière de Montmartre in Paris. Early in his life, Gautier befriended Gérard de Nerval, w
Taldom is a town and the administrative center of Taldomsky District in Moscow Oblast, located 110 kilometers north of Moscow, on a suburban railway connecting Moscow to Savyolovo. Population: 13,819 , it was known as Taldom, Leninsk. It was founded in 1677. In 1918, it was granted town status and renamed Leninsk—the first town to be renamed after Vladimir Lenin. In 1929, the original name was restored. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Taldom serves as the administrative center of Taldomsky District; as an administrative division, it is, together with five rural localities, incorporated within Taldomsky District as the Town of Taldom. As a municipal division, the Town of Taldom is incorporated within Taldomsky Municipal District as Taldom Urban Settlement. Taldom transmitter, the most powerful broadcasting station in the world, is located in the vicinity of Taldom. Губернатор Московской области. Постановление №123-ПГ от 28 сентября 2010 г. «Об учётных данных административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области», в ред.
Постановления №252-ПГ от 26 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в учётные данные административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области». Опубликован: "Информационный вестник Правительства МО", №10, 30 октября 2010 г.. Московская областная Дума. Закон №42/2005-ОЗ от 15 февраля 2005 г. «О статусе и границах Талдомского муниципального района, вновь образованных в его составе городских и сельских поселений и существующих на территории Талдомского района Московской области муниципального образования», в ред. Закона №167/2011-ОЗ от 21 октября 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Талдомского муниципального района, вновь образованных в его составе городских и сельских поселений и существующих на территории Талдомского района Московской области муниципального образования" и Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Дмитровского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №35, 26 февраля 2005 г
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st
Tver Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Tver. From 1935 to 1990, it was known as Kalinin Oblast, named after Mikhail Kalinin. Population: 1,353,392. Tver Oblast is a region such as Seliger and Brosno. Much of the remaining area is occupied by the Valdai Hills, where the Volga, the Western Dvina, the Dnieper have their source. Tver Oblast is one of the tourist regions of Russia with a modern tourist infrastructure. There are many historic towns: Torzhok, Zubtsov, Vyshny Volochyok, Kalyazin; the oldest of these is Rzhev known for the Battles of Rzhev in World War II. Staritsa was the seat of the last appanage principality in Russia. Ostashkov is a major tourist center. Tver Oblast is located in the west of the middle part of the East European Plain, it stretches for 260 km from north to 450 km from west to east. The area borders Yaroslavl Oblast in the east, Vologda Oblast in the northeast, Novgorod Oblast in the northwest and north, Moscow in the southeast, Smolensk Oblast in the southwest, Pskov Oblast in the west.
The area of Tver Oblast is the 38th of 85 subjects. This is 0.49% of the territory of Russia. The largest area the size of the territory of the Central Federal District. Tver Oblast as a whole is characterized by flat terrain with alternating highlands. In the western part of the province, occupying about one-third of its area is Valdai Hills, with elevations of 200–300 m above sea level, it is surrounded by depressions, lowlands have a height of 100–150 m highest point of the area has a height of 347 m, is located on a hill Tsninsky. The low point - the extreme north-west area of the river's edge Kunya on the border with the Novgorod Oblast. Minerals discovered and developed in the Tver Oblast are deposits of ancient seas and swamps, a consequence of glaciers. Minerals of industrial importance are the seams of brown coal Moscow coal basin; the largest deposit is Bolshoy Nelidovskiy, which gave between 1996 about 21 million tons. Widespread powerful peat deposits totaling 15.4 billion m³. The estimated reserves of peat are 2,051 million tonnes, representing 7% of the stock of European Russia.
On an industrial scale mastered 43 peat deposits with a total area of about 300 hectares, the main exploited stocks are concentrated in five fields located in the central and southern parts of the oblast. From 1971 to 1999, has developed more than 44 million tons of peat. Distributed limestones. Dolomitic limestones are common along rivers Vazuza, Tsna, there are deposits of tile and pottery of clay and quartz sand, sapropel are numerous underground fresh water and mineral formations, open sources; the region is a watershed of the Caspian Baltic Sea. In the south, Belsky district has several tributaries of the upper reaches of the river Vop, the right tributary of the Dnieper River. Go to the Caspian Sea basin owns 70% of the region, the Baltic Sea - 29.7%. In the region of more than 800 rivers longer than 10 km total length of about 17,000 km; the main river - Volga. Its source is in Ostashkov area; the most important tributaries of the Volga: Mologa, Tvertsa. Other important rivers: the Western Dvina and its tributary Meza and Cna.
The climate is humid continental, transitional from continental Russia to the more humid north-western regions. The area lies in a zone of comfort for living and recreation climatic conditions. Average January temperatures range from −8 °C in west to −13 °C in northeast, July from +17 °C to +19 °C °C; the average annual rainfall ranges from 560 to 720 mm, the greatest amount of precipitation falls on the western slopes of the Valdai Hills. The snow cover starts at the mid-November, the period with snow cover lasts 130–150 days, snow depth is about 40–60 cm, with a maximum of 80 cm. There was a settlement on the point of land at the confluence of the Tmaka River and Volga rivers in the 9th and 10th centuries. A fortress was built on the site much during the fighting between the Rostov-Suzdal princes and Novgorod Republic. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tver CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee.
Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament. The Charter of Tver Oblast is the fundamental law of the region; the Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast is the province's standing legislative body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it; the highest executive body is the Oblast Administration, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with t
The Volga is the longest river in Europe with a catchment area of 1,350,000 square kilometres. It is Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and drainage basin; the river flows through central Russia and into the Caspian Sea, is regarded as the national river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, are located in the Volga's drainage basin; some of the largest reservoirs in the world are located along the Volga. The river has a symbolic meaning in Russian culture and is referred to as Волга-матушка Volga-Matushka in Russian literature and folklore; the Russian hydronym Volga derives from Proto-Slavic *vòlga "wetness, moisture", preserved in many Slavic languages, including Ukrainian volóha "moisture", Russian vlaga "moisture", Bulgarian vlaga "moisture", Czech vláha "dampness", Serbian vlaga "moisture", Croatian vlaga "moisture" and Slovene vlaga "moisture" among others. The Slavic name is a loan translation of earlier Scythian Rā "Volga" "wetness", cognate with Avestan Raŋhā "mythical stream" and Vedic Sanskrit rasā́ "dew, juice.
The Scythian name survives in modern Mordvin Rav "Volga". The Turkic peoples living along the river referred to it as Itil or Atil "big river". In modern Turkic languages, the Volga is known as İdel in Tatar, Атăл in Chuvash, Idhel in Bashkir, Edil in Kazakh, İdil in Turkish; the Turkic peoples associated the Itil's origin with the Kama. Thus, a left tributary to the Kama was named the Aq Itil "White Itil" which unites with the Kara Itil "Black Itil" at the modern city of Ufa; the name Indyl is used in Adyge language. Among Asians, the river was known by its other Turkic name Sarı-su "yellow water", but the Oirats used their own name, Ijil mörön or "adaptation river". Presently the Mari, another Uralic group, call the river Jul, they called the river Volgydo, a borrowing from Old East Slavic. The Volga is the longest river in Europe, its catchment area is entirely inside Russia, though the longest river in Russia is the Ob–Irtysh river system, it belongs to the closed basin of the Caspian Sea, being the longest river to flow into a closed basin.
Rising in the Valdai Hills 225 meters above sea level northwest of Moscow and about 320 kilometers southeast of Saint Petersburg, the Volga heads east past Lake Sterzh, Dubna, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan. From there it turns south, flows past Ulyanovsk, Samara and Volgograd, discharges into the Caspian Sea below Astrakhan at 28 meters below sea level. At its most strategic point, it bends toward the Don. Volgograd Stalingrad, is located there; the Volga has many tributaries, most the rivers Kama, the Oka, the Vetluga, the Sura. The Volga and its tributaries form the Volga river system, which flows through an area of about 1,350,000 square kilometres in the most populated part of Russia; the Volga Delta has a length of about 160 kilometres and includes as many as 500 channels and smaller rivers. The largest estuary in Europe, it is the only place in Russia where pelicans and lotuses may be found; the Volga freezes for most of its length for three months each year. The Volga drains most of Western Russia.
Its many large reservoirs provide hydroelectric power. The Moscow Canal, the Volga–Don Canal, the Volga–Baltic Waterway form navigable waterways connecting Moscow to the White Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. High levels of chemical pollution have adversely affected its habitats; the fertile river valley provides large quantities of wheat, has many mineral riches. A substantial petroleum industry centers on the Volga valley. Other resources include natural gas and potash; the Volga Delta and the nearby Caspian Sea offer superb fishing grounds. Astrakhan, at the delta, is the center of the caviar industry. A number of large hydroelectric reservoirs were constructed on the Volga during the Soviet era, they are: Volgograd Reservoir Saratov Reservoir Kuybyshev Reservoir – the largest in Europe by surface Cheboksary Reservoir Gorky Reservoir Rybinsk Reservoir Uglich Reservoir Ivankovo Reservoir Volgograd Nizhny Novgorod Kazan Samara Saratov Tolyatti Yaroslavl Astrakhan Ulyanovsk Cheboksary Tver The area downstream of the Volga believed to have been a cradle of the Proto-Indo-European civilization, was settled by Slavs and other Turkic peoples in the first millennium AD, replacing the Scythians.
The ancient scholar Ptolemy of Alexandria mentions the lower Volga in his Geography. He calls it the Rha, the Scythian name for the river. Ptolemy believed the Don and the Volga shared the same upper branch, which flowed from the Hyperborean Mountains; the Russian ethnicity in Western Russia and around the Volga river evolved among other tribes, out of the East Slavic tribe of the Buzhans. Several localities in Russia are connected to the Buzhans, like for example Sredniy Buzhan in the Orenburg Oblast and the Buzan river in the Astrakhan Oblast. Buzhan is a village in Nishapur, Iran. Subsequently, the river basin played an important role in the movements of peoples from Asia to Europe. A powerful polity of Volga Bulgaria once flourished where the Kama jo
Kashin is a town and the administrative center of Kashinsky District in Tver Oblast, located around a rural agricultural area on the Kashinka River. Population: 16,171 . Kashin was first mentioned in a chronicle under the year of 1238, when it was sacked during the Mongol invasion, it was given by Grand Duke Mikhail Yaroslavich as an appanage to his son Vasily, who founded a short-lived dynasty of local princes. Mikhail Yaroslavich's wife Anna took the veil in Kashin's nunnery, died there on October 2, 1368, was glorified by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1650 as a holy patroness of all women who suffer the loss of relatives, her relics are preserved in the Ascension Cathedral of Kashin. In 1382, Kashin was annexed by Principality of Tver. From 1399 to 1426, it was held by a second dynasty of Kashin princes, who claimed their seniority in the House of Tver. In 1452, Kashin withstood a siege by Dmitry Shemyaka, it passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1486 with the rest of the Principality of Tver.
In 1708, the town became a part of Ingermanland Governorate, but in 1727 it was transferred to Moscow Governorate. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, Kashinsky Uyezd with the seat in Kashin was established. In 1796, Tver Viceroyalty was transformed into Tver Governorate. On October 3, 1927, Kashinsky Uyezd was split between Bezhetsky and Kimrsky Uyezds. On July 12, 1929, Kashinsky District, with the administrative center in the Kashin, was established within Bezhetsk Okrug of Moscow Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935, Kalinin Oblast was established and Kashin was transferred to it. In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kashin serves as the administrative center of Kashinsky District; as an administrative division, it is incorporated within Kashinsky District as Kashin Urban Settlement.
As a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban settlement status and is a part of Kashinsky Municipal District. The mean temperature in Kashin is − +18 °C in July; the town is an important part of the oblast's economy. It is home to one of the largest alcoholic drink producing companies in the region. Another major business is the mineral water company ERA, which produces the Kashinskaya brand of mineral water. There are an electric equipment company, a wool factory, a milk and meat-processing company. Several times a week, a market is organized in the main square of the town where residents can sell various items. Fruit and vegetables from nearby rural farms are sold. Buses provide public transportation within the commute to nearby destinations. A train passes through Kashin twice a day; the morning train travels from Sonkovo to Savyolovo, while the afternoon train travels in the opposite direction. Several times a week, a train from St. Petersburg stops in Kashin. There are several architectural monuments in Kashin, including monasteries and cathedrals.
The most ancient of these, a wooden chapel from 1646, was burned to the ground in 1998. The town contains thirty-six cultural heritage monuments of federal significance, including the ensemble of the Presentation Monastery and a number of churches built in the 18th and the 19th centuries; the Museum of Local Lore is located in Kashin. In the village of Verkhnyaya Troitsa, situated 30 kilometers from Kashin, the house of Mikhail Kalinin, a Soviet statesman, is located. There is a resort area near Kashin where many oblast residents spend their vacation near the Kashinka River. Kashin itself is known as a balneological resort. On holidays and special dates, the town hosts large festivals which involve dancing and various performances. Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №34-ЗО от 17 апреля 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области», в ред. Закона №66-ЗО от 1 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 18 Закона Тверской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области"».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №17, 19 апреля 2006 г.. Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №28-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Кашинский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №19-ЗО от 13 апреля 2009 г. «О внесении изменений в Приложение №1 к Закону Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Кашинский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #28-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Kashinsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #19-ZO of April 13, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law
Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev was a pioneering Soviet aircraft designer. During his career, he designed and oversaw the design of more than 100 types of aircraft, some of which set 78 world records. In recognition of his work, he was made an honorary member of Britain's Royal Aeronautical Society and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, he was honoured in his own country by being made an academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Colonel-General, three times a Hero of Socialist Labor. Tupolev was born in the village of Pustomazovo, near the city of Tver region, Russia. Tupolev was the sixth of seven children born to his parents. After first being educated at home, he studied at the Gymnasium in Tver and finished in 1908, he applied for courses at two Russian universities and was accepted at both: Imperial Moscow Technical School and the Emperor Nicholas II Moscow State University of Railway Engineering. He accepted the place at IMTU. In 1909, Tupolev began studying aerodynamics under the Russian aviation pioneer Nikolay Zhukovski.
During this time he built one of the world's first wind tunnels which led to the formation of an aerodynamic laboratory at IMTU. In 1911, Tupolev was accused of taking part in revolutionary activities, including demonstrations and distribution of subversive literature, was arrested, he was released on condition that he return to his family home in Pustomazovo and was only allowed to return to IMTU in 1914. He completed his studies in 1918 and was awarded the degree of Engineer-Mechanic when he presented his thesis on the development of seaplanes. By 1920 the IMTU had been renamed the Moscow Higher Technical School and Tupolev was teaching a course there on the basics of aerodynamic calculations. Tupolev was a leading light of the Moscow-based Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute from 1929 until his death in 1972; the Central Design Office or TsKB based there produced bombers and some airliners, which in the years before World War II were based especially in his 1930s-era designs, using the all-metal aircraft design concepts pioneered by Hugo Junkers.
In 1925, he designed a twin-engine bomber, the TB-1, considered one of the most advanced designs of the time. By 1934, Tupolev had led the design bureau that designed the largest aircraft flying in the world at the time, the 63-meter wingspan, eight-engined Maksim Gorki, again built with the Junkers metal structure airframe concepts. In 1937, an improved version from the earlier TB-1, the four-engined TB-3 made a landing at the North Pole; as the number of qualified aircraft designers increased, Tupolev set up his own office, producing a number of designs designated with the prefix ANT from his initials. However, on October 21, 1937, Tupolev was arrested together with Vladimir Petlyakov and the entire directorate of the TsAGI and EDO on trumped up charges of sabotage, espionage and of aiding the Russian Fascist Party. Many of his colleagues were executed. In 1939, Tupolev was moved from a prison to an NKVD sharashka for aircraft designers in Bolshevo near Moscow, where many ex-TsAGI people had been sent to work.
The sharashka soon was dubbed "Tupolevka" after its most eminent inmate. Tupolev was convicted in 1940 with a ten-year sentence. During this time he developed the Tupolev Tu-2, He was released in July 1941 "to conduct important defence work." Tupolev headed the major project of reverse engineering the American Boeing B-29 strategic bomber, the world's first nuclear delivery platform. The USSR had asked unsuccessfully for lend-lease B-29s. Using three machines which landed in Siberia after bombing Japan in 1945, Tupolev succeeded in replicating them down to trivial detail. Moreover, he got it into volume production, with crews trained in time for the 1947 May Day parade; the copy was designated Tu-4, with many subsequent Tu aircraft having the number 4 in their designations. By the time of his rehabilitation in 1955, Tupolev had designed and was about to start testing his unique turboprop strategic bomber, the Tu-95. In the years to come, he beat off able competition from Vladimir Myasishchev and his M-4 series of jet-powered strategic bombers, introducing the Tu-16 design.
This was in part thanks to Tupolev's close rapport with Nikita Khrushchev who had denounced Stalin's terror, of which Tupolev had been a victim. At about the same time, Tupolev introduced into service the world's second jet airliner, the Tu-104; the aeroplane was the first jet transport to stay in uninterrupted service, the only one in service anywhere in the world for two years until late 1958. It was followed by a series of Tu passenger jets, including the supersonic Tu-144, designed by Tupolev's son Alexei Tupolev. After Khruschev's removal from office in late 1964, the ageing Tupolev lost positions at the centres of power to rivals. Though the prestige Tu-144 programme enjoyed top level support until 1973, as did the important Tu-154 airliner, the favored position the Tupolev Design Bureau enjoyed through Tupolev's personal political connections was eclipsed by Ilyushin. To his contemporaries, Tupolev was known as a witty but crude master of obscene vocabulary who invariably and energetically insisted on fast and adequate technical fixes at the expense of scholastic ideal solutions.
A hallmark of his was to get an aeroplane into service rapidly.