Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction. Kin altruism can look like altruistic behaviour whose evolution is driven by kin selection. Kin selection is an instance of inclusive fitness, which combines the number of offspring produced with the number an individual can ensure the production of by supporting others, such as siblings. Charles Darwin discussed the concept of kin selection in his 1859 book, On the Origin of Species, where he reflected on the puzzle of sterile social insects, such as honey bees, which leave reproduction to their mothers, arguing that a selection benefit to related organisms would allow the evolution of a trait that confers the benefit but destroys an individual at the same time. R. A. Fisher in 1930 and J. B. S. Haldane in 1932 set out the mathematics of kin selection, with Haldane famously joking that he would willingly die for two brothers or eight cousins.
In 1964, W. D. Hamilton popularised the concept and the major advance in the mathematical treatment of the phenomenon by George R. Price which has become known as Hamilton's rule. In the same year, John Maynard Smith used the actual term kin selection for the first time. According to Hamilton's rule, kin selection causes genes to increase in frequency when the genetic relatedness of a recipient to an actor multiplied by the benefit to the recipient is greater than the reproductive cost to the actor. Hamilton proposed two mechanisms for kin selection. First, kin recognition allows individuals to be able to identify their relatives. Second, in viscous populations, populations in which the movement of organisms from their place of birth is slow, local interactions tend to be among relatives by default; the viscous population mechanism makes kin selection and social cooperation possible in the absence of kin recognition. In this case, nurture kinship, the treatment of individuals as kin as a result of living together, is sufficient for kin selection, given reasonable assumptions about population dispersal rates.
Note that kin selection is not the same thing as group selection, where natural selection is believed to act on the group as a whole. In humans, altruism is both more and on a larger scale with kin than with unrelated individuals. In other species, vervet monkeys use allomothering, where related females such as older sisters or grandmothers care for young, according to their relatedness; the social shrimp Synalpheus regalis protects juveniles within related colonies. Charles Darwin was the first to discuss the concept of kin selection. In On the Origin of Species, he wrote about the conundrum represented by altruistic sterile social insects that This difficulty, though appearing insuperable, is lessened, or, as I believe, when it is remembered that selection may be applied to the family, as well as to the individual, may thus gain the desired end. Breeders of cattle wish the fat to be well marbled together. An animal thus characterised has been slaughtered, but the breeder has gone with confidence to the same stock and has succeeded.
In this passage "the family" and "stock" stand for a kin group. These passages and others by Darwin about "kin selection" are highlighted in D. J. Futuyma's textbook of reference Evolutionary Biology and in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology; the earliest mathematically formal treatments of kin selection were by R. A. Fisher in 1930 and J. B. S. Haldane in 1932 and 1955. J. B. S. Haldane grasped the basic quantities and considerations in kin selection, famously writing "I would lay down my life for two brothers or eight cousins". Haldane's remark alluded to the fact that if an individual loses its life to save two siblings, four nephews, or eight cousins, it is a "fair deal" in evolutionary terms, as siblings are on average 50% identical by descent, nephews 25%, cousins 12.5%. But Haldane joked that he would die only to save more than a single identical twin of his or more than two full siblings. In 1955 he clarified: Let us suppose that you carry a rare gene that affects your behaviour so that you jump into a flooded river and save a child, but you have one chance in ten of being drowned, while I do not possess the gene, stand on the bank and watch the child drown.
If the child's your own child or your brother or sister, there is an chance that this child will have this gene, so five genes will be saved in children for one lost in an adult. If you save a grandchild or a nephew, the advantage is only two and a half to one. If you only save a first cousin, the effect is slight. If you try to save your first cousin once removed the population is more to lose this valuable gene than to gain it. … It is clear that genes making for conduct of this kind would only have a chance of spreading in rather small populations when most of the children were near relatives of the man who risked his life. W. D. Hamilton, in 1963 and in 1964 popularised the concept and the more thorough mathematical treatment given to it by George Price. John Maynard Smith may have coined the actual term "kin selection" in 1964: These processes I will call kin selection and group selection respectively. Kin selection has been discussed by Hamilton. … By kin selection I mean the evolution of characteristics which favour the survival of close relatives of the affected individual, by processes which do not require any discontinuities in the population breeding structure.
Kin selection causes changes in gene frequency across generations, driven by interactions between relate
The silvery-throated jay is a species of bird in the family Corvidae. It is found in the Talamancan montane forests of western Panama; the IUCN has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern". The silvery-throated jay is a distinctive small jay, unlikely to be confused with any other bird found within its range; the sexes are similar, with the adult being about 26 cm in length including the long tail. The head is black with a narrow but obvious white supercilium, it bears an inconspicuous crest of short stiff feathers on the forehead; the throat and breast are silvery-white, sometimes with a violet sheen. The mantle and sides of breast are black which blends into the dark purplish-blue of the rest of the plumage; the upper surfaces of the wings and tail are a brighter, paler shade of blue and the undersides are blackish. The irises are deep red and the bill and legs are black; the plumage of the juvenile lacks the white on the head. A sociable bird, it moves through the upper parts of the forest canopy in groups of four to ten.
Outside the breeding season, larger groups of up to thirty may form, they tend to roost communally, settling down for the night with much chatter. When foraging, they move methodically through the crowns of trees, searching in crevices and probing into mosses and other epiphytes, they feed on insects and other invertebrates, lizards and berries. The breeding season is in the period March to June, but little is known about the nest and eggs of this bird. C. argentigula is native to Costa Rica and Panama where it lives in moist cloud forest at altitudes between 2,000 and 3,200 m. It is a uncommon species, at around 3,900 square kilometres its total area of occupancy is small, but the population seems stable and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern". Media related to Cyanolyca argentigula at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Cyanolyca argentigula at Wikispecies
Cameron Scott "Cam" Long is an American professional basketball player who last played for Maccabi Rishon LeZion of the Israeli Premier League. A combo guard, he played college basketball for the George Mason University before playing professionally in Lithuania, Germany and Israel, he was named the Israeli League Cup MVP in 2018. Long attended Freedom High School in Woodbridge, where he averaged 18.9 points, six assists, seven rebounds and two steals per game as a senior. Long was named Cardinal District Player of the Year, Northwest Region Co-Player of the Year and was a nominee for McDonald's All-American. Long played college basketball for George Mason University's Patriots, where he ranked 10th in the conference in scoring with 15.1 points per game, sixth in steals, 11th in field goal percentage and 14th in assists. He shot 43.2 percent from three-point range, the third highest mark in the league, scored double figures in 30 of Mason's 34 contests. Long completed his career with Mason ranked fifth in career assists, sixth in steals 14th in career scoring, ninth in field goal percentage, 16th in rebounds.
He appeared in 132 games for the Gold, more than any other player in program history. On March 3, 2011, Long earned a spot in the First-team All-CAA. In 2011, Long started his professional career with the Lithuanian team Šiauliai. On February 14, 2012, Long recorded a career-high 31 points, shooting 12-of-19 from the field, along with six rebounds, four assists and two steals in a 99–105 loss to Nevėžis. On March 12, 2012, Long participated in the 2012 LKL Slam Dunk Contest as part of the Lithuanian League All-Star Game event. Long helped Šiauliai reach the 2012 Lithuanian League Playoffs as the third seed, but they were eliminated by Lietuvos rytas in the Semifinals. On June 25, 2012, Long signed with the French team Le Mans for the 2012–13 season. On April 6, 2013, Long recorded a season-high 28 points, shooting 9-of-16 from the field, along with five assists in an 82–89 loss to Cholet Basket. Long helped Le Mans reach the 2013 French League Playoffs as the sixth seed, but they were eliminated by ASVEL Basket.
On July 13, 2013, Long joined the German team ratiopharm Ulm, signing a one-year deal with an option for another one. Long helped Ulm reach the 2014 German League Quarterfinals, as well as reaching the 2014 German Cup Finals, where they lost to Alba Berlin. On July 10, 2014, Long parted ways with ratiopharm Ulm due to an injury. On July 28, 2015, Long returned to Germany for a second stint, signing a one-year deal with s. Oliver Würzburg after missing the entire 2014–15 season. Long helped Würzburg reach the 2016 German League Playoffs as the eighth seed, where they were eliminated by Brose Bamberg. On June 14, 2016, Long signed with the Romanian team Steaua București for the 2016–17 season. On March 9, 2017, Long parted ways with Steaua to join the Israeli team Maccabi Rishon LeZion for the rest of the season. On April 9, 2017, Long recorded a season-high 28 points, shooting 5-of-8 from the 3-point range, along with three rebounds, two assists and three steals in a 94–87 win over Maccabi Kiryat Gat.
Long helped Rishon LeZion reach the 2017 Israeli League Final Four, where they lost to Hapoel Jerusalem. On July 23, 2017, Long signed with Maccabi Ashdod for the 2017–18 season. On May 6, 2018, Long logged his first career triple-double in a 92–67 win over Hapoel Gilboa Galil. Long recorded 10 rebounds and 10 assists, along with 4 steals, he was subsequently named Israeli League Round 29 MVP. Long helped Ashdod reach the 2018 Israeli League Playoffs as the fourth seed, where they lost to Hapoel Tel Aviv in the Quarterfinals. On July 19, 2018, Long returned to Maccabi Rishon LeZion for a second stint, signing a one-year deal. On October 4, 2018, Long recorded 24 points, seven rebounds and four assists, leading Rishon LeZion to win their first Israeli League Cup title after a 78–66 win over Hapoel Be'er Sheva, he was subsequently named the League Cup Tournament MVP. On April 14, 2019, Long recorded a season-high 29 points, shooting 7-of-9 from the field, along with three assists and two steals in a 87–76 win over Hapoel Tel Aviv.
Winter melon punch called winter melon tea in east Asia, is a sweetened fruit drink with a distinctive taste. It can be found at many stores and street vendors in Taiwan; the preparation process itself is simple and inexpensive, making this folk beverage popular in homes as well as on the streets. In China, winter melon tea is believed to help people deal with hot temperatures, it is called "slim tea", as it is thought to help one lose weight. The winter melon is peeled and its seeds are removed. Melon slices are cooked in boiling water with brown sugar and caramel for many hours; this mixture is filtered by gauze, ridding it of the dregs and impurities. Once the clean, brown liquid cools it is refrigerated and sold as concentrated winter melon punch, it can be dehydrated and cut into solid cubes, sold as winter melon punch cubes. A sugar-free version of the winter melon punch is made for patients suffering from nephropathy and diabetes. In this variation, the cooking process is the same except that only the melon slices and water are boiled to make the mixture.
Some soak the winter melon slices in lime or calcium hydroxide to preserve the melon's original flavor by hardening the flesh before boiling them with sugar and water. Different flavors of winter melon punch appear throughout Taiwan. People may add lemon juice, oolong tea or many other drinks to it, according to their preferences, to make mixed drinks or cocktails. To transfer this popular beverage into a snack food, many street vendors add tapioca balls, nata de coco, or tangyuan to winter melon punch and sell it in bowls. List of juices "冬瓜茶" "冬瓜糖" at Google Books
Wijchmaal is a village in the province of Limburg, which since 1977 has been a subdivision of the municipality of Peer. It has predominantly sandy soil; the village has medieval fishponds that once belonged to the Agnetendal convent in Peer, an arboretum that originated in 1907 as an experimental plantation to grow wood that would make good pit props. A poor and sparsely populated agricultural settlement, in the 20th century it became a commuter village for people employed in Eindhoven and Genk. Wijchmaal lies about 10 kilometres north-east of the junction of the national roads N73 and N74, is served by the bus route between Hamont-Achel and Hasselt operated by De Lijn. Between 1890 and 1948 there was an important interchange on the rural tram system. Trains on the line between Hasselt and Eindhoven that opened in 1866 stopped in the village, but passenger trains stopped running to Wijchmaal in 1958, goods trains in 1980. Bronze Age and Iron Age burial mounds and Roman inhumations were excavated in the village in the years around 1900.
The name Wijchmaal is first attested under the form Vuicmale. Other medieval spellings include Wimale and Wyghmale. In the 11th century the settlement's overlord was Sint-Truiden Abbey, the village church, dedicated to St Trudo, was built or renovated by Abbot Adelard II of Sint-Truiden as a chapel of ease. Rights of presentment and tithes continued to belong to the abbey until the end of the 18th century, but during the Middle Ages the lordship passed to the control of the counts of Loon and the prince-bishopric of Liège; the village had its own bench of aldermen until the French Revolution. The church became a parish church in 1608, the first parish priest was appointed in 1611; the parish of Wijchmaal once included a number of hamlets that are no longer distinct from the village itself. After the Concordat of 1801 the church, closed during the years of the revolution, again became a chapel of ease, it was demolished and rebuilt in 1878, extended in 1939. A school is attested as early as 1616, but lessons took place in a room that the village rented from a tavern.
A dedicated classroom was built in 1772. A village school for boys and girls was built in 1861 and demolished in 1976. A separate girls' school opened in 1913, run by Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, who after the interruption of the First World War began work on a convent in 1922. In 1926 they opened a school for neglected and retarded children that would become the special needs school Medisch Pedagogisch Instituut Sint-Elisabeth. An new village school was built in 1983-84. Lucien Ceyssens
Yelena Olegovna Serova is a Russian politician and former cosmonaut. She serves as a Deputy in the State Duma of Russian Federation, she was selected as a cosmonaut in 2006 and was assigned in 2011 to Expedition 41, which launched in September 2014 and returned to Earth in March 2015. Serova became the first Russian woman to visit the International Space Station on 26 September 2014. Serova was born in Vozdvizhenka, a village, part of the city of Ussuriysk in the Far East in Russia, she stayed in Vozdvizhenka until 1988. Serova went to Germany since her father, with the military received a transfer. Afterwards, she came to Moscow, she met her future husband Mark at the Moscow Aviation Institute. In March 2001, Serova graduated from the Aerospace Faculty of the Moscow Aviation Institute qualified as an engineer. In 2003 she graduated from the Moscow State Academy of Instrument Engineering and Information qualified as an economist. Prior to enrollment as a cosmonaut, Serova had worked as an engineer of the 2nd category for the RSC Energia, in the Mission Control Center.
Serova was selected as a test cosmonaut at the age of 30 in the RKKE-14 group in October 2006 while working as a flight engineer. She completed basic training at Star City in 2009. In late 2011, Russian Space Agency Chief Vladimir Popovkin announced that Serova would fly to the International Space Station, expected to spend up to six months in space performing biophysics and medical experiments. On 25 September 2014, she traveled aboard Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft to serve as a flight engineer for Expedition 41/42. Serova is the fourth female cosmonaut to travel to space; the three previous female cosmonauts were Valentina Tereshkova, Svetlana Savitskaya, Yelena Kondakova. They represented Russia; the Soyuz FG rocket carrying TMA-14M commander Aleksandr Samokutyayev, Yelena Serova and NASA astronaut Barry Wilmore blasted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome's Site 1/5 at 20:25 UTC. Nine minutes after launch, the Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft separated from the third stage of the FG rocket to reach orbit. Soon after, the spacecraft deployed its KURS navigation antennas, only one of the two power-generating solar arrays unfolded.
Despite the trouble encountered, TMA-14M linked up with the Space Station four orbits and six hours at 1:12 UTC on 26 September. When leak checks were complete, the hatch on the Poisk module was opened at 5:06 UTC and Serova with Samokutyayev and Wilmore entered the Space Station. On 11 March 2015, the crew returned to Earth after 167 days in space. In 2016, she was elected to the State Duma from the United Russia party and left the cosmonaut squad. Speaking at the plenary meeting of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe on 8 July 2019, she stated that "On the board of the International Space Station, had a chance to see with naked eyes how bombs and shells exploded in Donbass and Luhansk, and they flew from the location of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Meanwhile, unarmed people died there." According to cosmonaut Yuri Baturin, such military operations are unlikely to be visible without special surveillance tools from the ISS. The altitude of the ISS above the ground ranges from 411.5 to 430.3 kilometers.
In July 2017 Serova was a vice chairperson at a meeting to discuss a bill on the protection of animals. Serova is married to cosmonaut Mark Serov, selected in RKKE-13 in 2003, but retired before flying any missions, they have a daughter. Serova was one of five cosmonauts selected to raise the Russian flag at the 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony in Sochi, her interests include flying and economics. Astronaut-politician List of female spacefarers NASA profile Elena Serova's on-orbit updates via Russian Federal Space Agency NASA Interview with Yelena Serova