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Kingdom Hall

A Kingdom Hall is a place of worship used by Jehovah's Witnesses. The term was first suggested in 1935 by Joseph Franklin Rutherford president of the Watch Tower Society, for a building in Hawaii. Rutherford's reasoning was that these buildings would be used for "preaching the good news of the Kingdom". Jehovah's Witnesses use Kingdom Halls for the majority of Bible instruction. Witnesses prefer the term "Kingdom Hall" over "church", noting that the term translated "church" in the Bible refers to the congregation of people rather than a structure. Kingdom Halls are modest, functional structures with practicality in mind; as Witnesses do not use religious symbols, such are not displayed in Kingdom Halls. An annual yeartext, or "theme scripture", the same for all congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses worldwide, is prominently displayed in each Kingdom Hall; this text can be displayed in several languages if the Hall is used by foreign language congregations. A Kingdom Hall has a library, contribution boxes, a literature counter, where publications are displayed and dispensed.

Some Kingdom Halls have multiple auditoriums to allow more than one congregation to conduct meetings simultaneously. Where there is more than one auditorium, each auditorium or the entire structure may be referred to as "a Kingdom Hall". Larger Assembly Halls or Convention Centers of Jehovah's Witnesses, or any rented arena or stadium used for larger gatherings of Jehovah's Witnesses are regarded'as a large Kingdom Hall'. Congregations meet in their Kingdom Halls two days each week for worship. Meetings open and close with song and prayer. Meetings held in the Kingdom Hall include Bible readings and public talks on matters such as the Bible, family life, Christian qualities and prophecy. There are discussions of specially prepared study articles in The Watchtower magazine and other publications of Jehovah's Witnesses. Witnesses meet in Kingdom Halls for preparation and prayer before engaging in their door-to-door ministry. Kingdom Halls may be used to teach sign language or other foreign language classes.

Kingdom Halls are used for sessions developed for particular areas of service, such as the Pioneer Service School for full-time preachers, the Kingdom Ministry School for elders and ministerial servants. In areas where the literacy rate is low, congregations may arrange to use Kingdom Halls to conduct literacy classes, which non-Witnesses may attend. Kingdom Halls may be used for wedding ceremonies of Witness-baptized couples. A couple sends a request in writing to the congregation's "service committee", which assesses whether the couple is "in good standing, living in harmony with Bible principles and Jehovah’s righteous standards" and that they approve of the members of the couple's wedding party. Jehovah's Witnesses attach no special significance to a Kingdom Hall wedding over a secular service, Witness couples may choose to be married elsewhere for personal or practical reasons. Kingdom Halls are not used for other social events. Funeral services may be held in a Kingdom Hall if the body of elders considers that "the deceased had a clean reputation and was a member of the congregation or the minor child of a member".

The family of the deceased may ask any respected male member of the congregation to conduct the service, which involves a simple Bible-based discourse. Depending on family preference and local custom, a Kingdom Hall funeral may or may not have the casketed deceased present. Disaster relief efforts of Jehovah's Witnesses are channeled through permanent local Disaster Relief Committees under the various branch offices, are staged at Kingdom Halls and Assembly Halls as close as practical to the disaster area; the construction crews of Kingdom Halls and larger Assembly Halls consist of volunteering Jehovah's Witnesses, sometimes from other countries, who have been pre-approved for work on construction sites. Witnesses in many countries use a number of standard designs for construction that can be built in just a few days; the act of constructing a Kingdom Hall in this manner is called a quick-build, although the preparation work involving the structural foundation and surrounding surface may take several weeks prior to the scheduled build.

For various reasons, not all Kingdom Halls are constructed as quick-builds or using the standard designs. However, a noticeably dominant architectural style of Kingdom Halls is used based on standardized design concepts and models, depending on needs. A Kingdom Hall or Assembly Hall may originate from the renovation of an existing structure, such as a theater or non-Witness house of worship. In areas of repeated or reputed vandalism in cities, some Kingdom Halls are built without windows to reduce the risk of property damage. In 2015 it was announced to elders in the United States that new Kingdom Halls worldwide would all be based on one of three similar design plans, depending on the required size. Jehovah's Witnesses' branch offices appointed local Regional Building Committees to oversee the construction and maintenance of their places of worship; such committees - which consisted of five to seven persons with experience in construction trades - aimed to coordinate the efforts of those involved so as to provide attractive and functional facilities that are financially viable.

RBCs cooperated with local congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses seeking to build or renovate a place of worship, under the direction of the local branch office. Committees helped in assessi

1996–97 European Challenge Cup pool stage

The 1996–97 European Challenge Cup pool stage was the opening stage of the first season of the European Challenge Cup, the second-tier competition for European rugby union clubs. Matches took place between 12 October and 2 November 1996. Twenty four teams participated in this phase of the competition. Teams were awarded two points for one point for a draw; the winner and runner-up of each pool progressed to the knockout stage of the tournament. These teams competed in a single-elimination tournament that ended with the final at the Stade de la Méditerranée in Béziers, France on 26 January 1997; the Treorchy v Bridgend match was not played. European Challenge Cup 1996–97 Heineken Cup

Little Midland

The Little Midland or LM was a British 4-wheeled cyclecar made from 1910 to 1922 by the Little Midland Light Car Co Ltd in various places in Lancashire. The company was founded in Clitheroe by William Cunningham, his first car made in 1905 had a lightweight two-seat open body and was powered by a 7.5 hp single cylinder engine. In 1907 a larger 9 hp four cylinder model appeared with five seat coachwork but only one was made; the 1911 model was powered by a JAP 964cc 7 hp V twin air-cooled engine driving the rear axle via a 2 speed gearbox and chain drive. A review of the 1913 model, on display at the 1912 Motor Cycle and Cycle Car Show at Olympia, stated that it was one of the first cycle cars made in this country, that it had benefitted from the production of only one model for the past 2 years; the emphasis was on its ability as a touring car rather than for sporting purposes. The engine was an air-cooled 8 h.p. JAP V-twin with Bosch magneto ignition and B and B carburetor. Transmission was through a metal-to-metal disc clutch by Renold chain to the gearbox offering two forward speeds, with the gear always in mesh and selected by substantial dog-clutches.

There was Renold chain back to the back axle, remarkably strong with double radius rods, a massive differential. It was stated that the engine could be started from the driver's seat, though the mechanism was not explained; the weight was 5cwt, the cost 95 guineas. After World War I in 1919 the make was revived under new ownership and the company was registered as the Little Midland Light Car Co Ltd and based in Duke Street, Blackburn; the company was moved to Southgate Works, Preston. The post war car used a 980cc JAP water cooled V-twin engine, cone clutch and three speed gearbox with chain to the rear axle; the suspension used. The body had two seats plus a dickey seat and cost £200 in 1920