The Pernambucan revolt of 1817 occurred in the province of Pernambuco in the Northeastern region of Brazil, was sparked by the decline of sugar production rates and the influence of the Freemasonry in the region. Other important reasons for the revolt include: the ongoing struggle for the independence of Spanish colonies all over in South America; the movement was led by Domingos José Martins, with the support of Antônio Carlos de Andrada e Silva and Frei Caneca. Although a republic was declared, there were no measures adopted to abolish slavery; the Consulate General of the United States in Recife, America’s oldest diplomatic post in the Southern Hemisphere, publicly supported the Pernambucan revolutionaries. This revolution is notable for being one of the first attempts to establish an independent government in Brazil, as it was preceded by the Inconfidência Mineira; the revolt can be traced from the presence of the Portuguese royal family in Brazil, which benefited the plantation owners and bureaucrats of the Central and Southern regions of the country.
However, the inhabitants of other regions of the country, namely the Northeast, were not satisfied by the monarch's stay, given that southern Brazilians had knowledge of the favors and new privileges conceded to them by the Portuguese monarch from which they had received great wealth. However, the northern Brazilians were separated from the monarch and the benefits thereof, but, at the same time, had the responsibility to support him. Another group not content with the politics of the monarch, John VI of Portugal, were formed by military officials of Brazilian descent. In order to protect the cities and provide aid in military actions in Caiena and in the region of Prata, John brought troops from Portugal in order to organize military forces – however, he reserved the highest ranks for the Portuguese nobility; because of this, the level of taxes rose, but the colony was forced to maintain the expenditures of the military campaigns. The historical analyst, Maria Odila Silva Dias, remarked that "the costs related to the installation of public works rose the taxes above the exportation of sugar and leather, creating a series of troubles that directly affected the capitanias of the North, while the Portuguese Court did not hesitate to overcharge or over recruit the people to support the current wars in Portugal, in Guiana and in the Prata region.
For the governors and functionaries of serious capitanias, the same thing led the to Lisboa or to Rio." The Northeastern region had been affected by a famine causing a blow to cotton and sugar production in 1816, creating another reason for the fervent desire for independence in that region. In Recife, the capital of Pernambuco, in the principal ports of the region, the desire for independence and a general feeling of hostility for the Portuguese was extreme; the general sentiment was described as the "Portuguese of New Lisbon" exploit and oppress the "Pernambucan patriots."Liberal ideas that entered Brazil by way with foreign travelers, books by foreign publications, other sources incited the sentiment of revolt into the Pernambucans. Secret societies had formed from the end of the 18th century in the form of mason stores, several of which had existed in Pernambuco – all of which served as locations for the spreading and general discussion of the so-called "infamous French ideas."In the peak of the revolt, one finds that the strongest Pernambucan patriots marked their identity in several methods – including drinking aguardente instead of wine and host made of wheat.
Further patriotic feelings were expressed with the chants: Argentine historian Emilio Ocampo investigated the life of Carlos María de Alvear, found British documents about a Bonapartist plot in Pernambuco to free Napoleón Bonaparte, take him to some strategic location in South America, in order to create a new Napoleonic Empire. Alvear's plans were never carried out because of the defeat of the revolution; the governor of Pernambuco, Caetano Pinto de Mirando Montenegro, had some knowledge of the plans of the revolutionaries, thus sent out to arrest the primary leaders in the plot. These revolutionaries anticipated the danger to the movement, which began after the Pernambucan capitan, José de Barros Lima, killed the Portuguese officer assigned to arrest him; the revolutionaries organized a provisional government – with the leader aiming to extend the movement to other capitanias and obtain recognition from other nations. The revolt extended to Ceará, Paraíba and to Rio Grande do Norte, but was only able to survive two months before Recife was surrounded by sea and land by troops of the Portuguese monarch.
The revolution, soon after, was dismantled. Before the fall of the movement, the revolutionaries sought out the support of the United States and England, without success. Known casualties of the conflict include the eventual execution of the rebel leaders: Domingos José Martins, José Luis de Mendonça, Domingos Teotônio Jorge and the Catholic priests Miguelinho and Pedro de Sousa Tenório; the corpses of the condemned were mutilated by having their hands and heads cut off. Other corpses were dragged by their heads to a burial ground; the general layout of the flag used by the revolutionaries still endures today, as the flag of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. The first flag was formed from the require
John VI of Portugal
John VI, nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825. Although the United Kingdom over which he ruled ceased to exist de facto beginning in 1822, he remained its monarch de jure between 1822 and 1825. After the recognition of the independence of Brazil under the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro of 1825, he continued as King of Portugal until his death in 1826. Under the same treaty, he became titular Emperor of Brazil for life, while his son, Pedro I of Brazil, was both de facto and de jure the monarch of the newly-independent country. Born in Lisbon in 1767, the son of Maria I and Peter III of Portugal, he was an infante of Portugal, he only became heir to the throne when his older brother José, Prince of Brazil, died of smallpox in 1788 at the age of 27. Before his accession to the Portuguese throne, John VI bore the titles Duke of Braganza and Duke of Beja, as well as Prince of Brazil. From 1799, he served as prince regent of Portugal, due to the mental illness of his mother, Queen Maria I.
In 1816, he succeeded his mother as monarch of the Portuguese Empire, with no real change in his authority, since he possessed absolute powers as regent. One of the last representatives of absolute monarchy in Europe, he lived during a turbulent period. Throughout his period of rule, major powers, such as Spain and Great Britain, continually intervened in Portuguese affairs. Forced to flee to South America across the Atlantic Ocean into Brazil when troops of the Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, he found himself faced there with liberal revolts, his marriage was no less conflictual, as his wife, Carlota Joaquina of Spain conspired against her husband in favor of personal interests or those of her native Spain. He lost Brazil when his son Pedro declared independence, his other son Miguel led a rebellion that sought to depose him. According to recent scholarly research, his death may well have been caused by arsenic poisoning. Notwithstanding these tribulations he left a lasting mark in Brazil, where he helped to create numerous institutions and services that laid a foundation for national autonomy, he is considered by many historians to be a true mastermind of the modern Brazilian state.
Still, he has been viewed as a cartoonish figure in Portuguese-Brazilian history, accused of laziness, lack of political acumen and constant indecision, is portrayed as physically grotesque. João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael was born 13 May 1767, during the reign of his maternal grandfather and paternal uncle Joseph I of Portugal, he was the second son, paternal cousin, nephew by marriage of the future Queen Maria I, Joseph's daughter, her husband, the future King Peter III. At the time of John's birth they were Princess of Brazil and Infante of Portugal, he was ten years old when his grandfather died and his mother ascended to the throne. His childhood and youth were lived as he was a mere infante in the shadow of his elder brother José, Prince of Brazil and 14th Duke of Braganza, the heir-apparent to the throne. Folklore has John as a rather uncultured youth, but according to Jorge Pedreira e Costa, he received as rigorous an education as José did. Still, a French ambassador of the time painted him in unfavorable colors, seeing him as hesitant and dim.
The record of this period of his life is too vague for historians to form any definitive picture. Little is known of the substance of his education, he received instruction in religion, law and etiquette, would have learned history through reading the works of Duarte Nunes de Leão and João de Barros. In 1785, Henrique de Meneses, 3rd Marquis of Louriçal, arranged a marriage between John and the Infanta Carlota Joaquina of Spain, daughter of King Charles IV of Spain and Queen Maria Luisa of Parma. Like her betrothed, Carlota was a junior member of a royal family. Fearing a new Iberian Union, some in the Portuguese court viewed the marriage to a Spanish infanta unfavorably, she endured four days of testing by the Portuguese ambassadors before the marriage pact was confirmed. Because John and Carlota were related, because of the bride's youth, the marriage required a papal dispensation. After being confirmed, the marriage capitulation was signed in the throne room of the Spanish court with great pomp and with the participation of both kingdoms.
It was followed by a proxy marriage. The marriage was consummated five years later; the infanta was received at the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa at the beginning of May 1785, on 9 June 1785, the couple received a nuptial benediction at the palace chapel. At the same time, John's sister, the Infanta Mariana Victoria, was married to the Infante Gabriel of the Spanish royal family. An assiduous correspondence between John and Mariana at that time reveals that the absence of his sister weighed upon him and, comparing her to his young wife, he wrote, "She is smart and has a lot of judgment, whereas you have rather little, I like her a lot, but for all that I cannot love her equally." John's young bride was little given to docility, requiring at times the correction of Queen Maria herself. Furthermore, the difference in their ages made him anxious; because Carlota was so young, the marriage had not been consumm
Kingdom of the Algarve
The Kingdom of the Algarve, after 1471 Kingdom of the Algarves, was a nominal kingdom within the Kingdom of Portugal, located in the southernmost region of continental Portugal. It was the second dominion of the Portuguese Crown and a kingdom apart from Portugal, though in fact the Algarvian kingdom had no institutions, special privileges, or autonomy. In actuality, it was just an honorific title for the Algarve based on its history and was similar to the rest of the Portuguese provinces; the title King of Silves was first used by Sancho I of Portugal after the first conquest of the city Silves in 1189. As this conquest did not take all of the Algarve, Sancho never used the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, but instead it was adopted by his grandson Afonso III of Portugal as a part of the titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown. During the Reconquista and Castilian conquests went south, to retake lands, conquered by Muslim armies in the 8th century. Portugal conquered and secured much of its southern borders during the reigns of King Sancho II of Portugal and King Afonso III of Portugal.
In 1189, King Sancho I of Portugal conquered Silves, one of the most prosperous cities in Al-Andalus, aligned at the time with the Almohad Caliphate. Portuguese control over Silves would be short, with the Almohads conquering the city again in 1191 in a massive counter-attack led by Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur the Almohad Caliph in person. With the decline of the Almohads, the southern taifa city-states united under a single Emir, Mûsâ Ibn Muhammad Ibn Nassir Ibn Mahfûz, former governor of Niebla, known among the Christians as Aben Mafom. Aben Mafom, King of Niebla and Emir of the Algarve, trying to counter the achievements made by the Portuguese in their territories, declared himself a vassal to Alfonso X of Castile. Through his vassals, Alfonso X hoped to claim dominion over the Algarve not yet conquered by the Portuguese; the Emir's vow of vassalage to Castille however did not stop the knights of the Order of Santiago, under the command of the Grand-Master Paio Peres Correia, from conquering most of the region city by city, between 1242 and 1249, including Silves.
In March 1249, King Afonso III of Portugal captured Faro, the last Muslim stronghold in Algarve, ending the Portuguese Reconquista. The entitlement of Afonso III of Portugal as King of Portugal and the Algarve would serve as a reaction to Alfonso X of Castile's claim to the Algarve and was designed to demonstrate the rights of the Portuguese monarch on the region concerned; the issue between the sovereigns of Castille and Portugal was settled by the Treaty of Badajoz, where King Alfonso X gave up his claims of the Algarve, making his grandson Dinis the heir to the throne of the Algarve, which dictated the terms of its incorporation into the Portuguese crown. The treaty, allowed the use of the title of King of the Algarve for King Alfonso X and his descendants, since King Alfonso X had acquired the territories of Al-Gharb Al-Andalus on the other side of the Guadiana river; the kings of Castile, Spain, would add the title to their repertoire of titles until the ascent of Queen Isabel II of Spain to the throne.
During the Age of Discovery, the Algarve served as the location for the embarkment for many voyages those funded by the Infante D. Henrique. Prince Henry set up his famous school of navigation at Sagres Point, though the idea of a real school building and campus is disputed. Most of the voyages set sail from Lagos; the name of the Algarvian Kingdom suffered some minor changes due to the Portuguese North African conquests, which were considered an extension of the kingdom of Algarve. John I of Portugal added to the title of "King of Portugal and the Algarve", the title "Lord of Ceuta", his grandson Afonso V of Portugal, in turn, styled himself "Lord of Ceuta and Alcacer-Ceguer in Africa"; the 1471 conquest of Asilah and Larache, together with North African previous holdings, led to the creation of the title "the Algarves from either side of the sea in Africa", leaving the European Algarve to become "the Algarve behind the sea." Thus, it was not until 1471 that "the Kingdom of the Algarve" led to "the Kingdom of the Algarves", due to the increase of Portuguese possessions in Northern Africa, which were made as possessions of the Kingdom of the Algarve.
The Portuguese monarchs therefore adopted the title that they would use until the fall of the monarchy in 1910: "Kings of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa". The title would continue to be used after the abandonment of the last North African holding in Mazagan. During the 19th century, a serious clash between liberals and Miguelites, caused an exodus of people from the Algarvian inlands to the coastal cities. José Joaquim Sousa Reis, the Remexido, fought in the inlands and attacked the coastal cities, bringing the urban population into turmoil; the turmoil of the Algarve intensified in the years between 1834 and 1838, when the Algarve saw battles on a level it had never seen before. On November 26, 1836, Miguel I of Portugal named Remexido Governor of the Kingdom of the Algarve and Acting Commander in Chief of all the Royalist Troops and Irregular Armies, the Operations in the South. Remexido, was shot in Faro on August 2, 1838. Kingdom of Portugal United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves Algarve
Maria Leopoldina of Austria
Dona Maria Leopoldina of Austria was an archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of Portugal. She was born Caroline Josepha Leopoldine Franziska Ferdinanda of Habsburg-Lorraine in Vienna, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, his second wife, Maria Teresa of Naples and Sicily. Among her many siblings were Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria and Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, the wife of Napoleon Bonaparte. Leopoldina was born on 22 January 1797 in Schönbrunn Palace, in Vienna, Archduchy of Austria, she was given the name Caroline Josepha Leopoldine Franziska Ferdinanda, according to her biographer Carlos H. Oberacker, confirmed by Bettina Kann in her work "Cartas de uma Imperatriz", who mentioned a contemporary source: the Austrian newspaper Wiener Zeitung of 25 January 1797, who gave the news of the birth of the Archduchess three days before with her full name. According to Oberacker, the name "Maria" wasn't present in the preserved baptismal record of the Archduchess, she began to use it only during her journey to Brazil, where she began to be named Maria Leopoldina in all documents, including the Constitutional oath of 1822.
According to another theory presented by Oberacker, the Archduchess began to use the name "Maria" due to her great devotion to the Virgin Mary and because all her sisters-in-law used this name. She was raised in accordance with the educational principles laid down by her grandfather, Emperor Leopold II. Among these was the habit of exercising her handwriting by writing the following text: In addition and her sisters were taught to speak French and Latin, they were educated in drawing, piano and hunting. Her mother died when she was ten years old and her father went on to remarry Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este, her late mother was a soprano and Leopoldina had the chance of meeting Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1810 and 1812, when she went to Carlsbad with her stepmother. Her passions included natural sciences botany and mineralogy, she was formed according to a sense of duty. Although Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily was her birth mother, Leopoldina always considered Maria Ludovika d'Este, her stepmother, to be her mother and she grew up with Ludovika as her "spiritual mother".
On 24 September 1816 it was announced by Leopoldina's father that Pedro of Braganza wished to take a Habsburg princess as his wife. Klemens von Metternich suggested that it should be Leopoldina to go get married, as it was "her turn" to become a wife. Two ships were prepared and in April 1817 scientists, gardeners and a taxidermist, all with assistants, travelled to Rio de Janeiro ahead of Leopoldina, whom, in the meantime, studied the history and geography of her future home and learned Portuguese. During these weeks Leopoldina compiled and wrote a vade mecum, a unique document the like of which has never been produced by any other Habsburg princess. On 13 May 1817 Leopoldina was married to Dom Pedro per procuram in Vienna. At the ceremony the bridegroom was represented by Archduke Charles. Embarkation took place in Livorno on 13 August 1817 among much celebration, after an adventure-filled voyage lasting 81 days, Leopoldina arrived in Rio de Janeiro on 5 November and met her husband. From a distance Pedro appeared to Leopoldina to be a perfect, well-educated gentleman, but the reality was different.
Dom Pedro was a year younger than Leopoldina and sadly measured up to the descriptions given by the matchmakers. His temperament was impulsive and choleric, his education but modest. Spoken communication between the young married couple proved difficult, as Pedro spoke little French and his Portuguese could only be described as vulgar. In keeping with Portuguese tradition, at the age of eighteen Pedro of Braganza not only had a string of amorous adventures behind him and was principally interested in horse racing and love affairs, but in 1817 he was living as if in wedlock with French dancer Noemie Thierry, removed from the court by his father a month after Leopoldina's arrival in Rio de Janeiro; the young married couple took up residence in six small rooms in the Palace of São Cristóvão. The inner courtyard and path to the stables were unpaved and the tropical rainfall turned everything to mud. There were insects everywhere, including in their clothing, for the uniforms and court regalia made of velvet and plush rotted and turned mouldy in the heat and humidity.
On 25 April 1821, the court returned to Portugal. A fleet of 11 ships took the king, the court, the royal house and the royal treasury, only Prince Pedro remained in Brazil as regent of the country, with ample powers counterbalanced by a regency council. At first Pedro was incapable of dominating the chaos: the situation was dominated by the Portuguese troops, in anarchic conditions; the opposition between Portuguese and Brazilians became evident. It is clear from Leopoldina's correspondence that she has warmly espoused the cause of the Brazilian people and desired the independence of the country and is therefore loved and venerated by the Brazilians. According to Ezekiel Ramirez, the signs of a nascent Brazilian unit as an independent nation in the southern provinces were visible, but the north supported the Lisbon Cortes and called for regional independence. If the Prince Regent had left the country at that moment, Brazil would be lost to Portugal because the courts of Lisbon repeated the same error that led the Spanish courts to lose the colonies, seeking to establish direct contacts with each province in particular.
In Rio, thousands of signatures collected require
Battle of Alcácer Quibir
The Battle of Alcácer Quibir was fought in northern Morocco, near the town of Ksar-el-Kebir and Larache, on 4 August 1578. The combatants were the army of the deposed Moroccan Sultan Abu Abdallah Mohammed II, with his ally, the King of Portugal Sebastian I, against a large Moroccan army nominally under the new Sultan of Morocco Abd Al-Malik I; the Christian king, Sebastian I, had planned a crusade after Abu Abdallah asked him to help recover his throne. Abu Abdallah's uncle, Abd Al-Malik, had taken it from him with Ottoman support; the defeat of Portugal and attendant death of the childless Sebastian led to the end of the Aviz dynasty, the integration of the country in the Iberian Union for 60 years under the Philippine Dynasty in a dynastic union with Spain. Sebastian, who would be known in Portugal as the Desired, was the son of the Infante Dom John and Joanna, daughter of the Emperor Charles V, his father died before he was born, he became king at the age of three after the death of his grandfather in 1557.
He was educated entirely by Jesuits, by his guardian and tutor Aleixo de Meneses and by Catherine of Austria, sister of Charles V and wife of King John III. Some, judging him after his defeat, alleged that under these influences his youthful idealism soon mutated into religious fanaticism, although he never joined the Holy League; the Portuguese Cortes asked Sebastian several times to go to Morocco and stop the turmoil of the advancing Turkish military presence, because the Ottomans would be a threat to the security of the Portuguese coasts and to the commerce with Guinea and the Atlantic Islands. But it was only when Abu Abdallah Mohammed II Saadi went to Portugal and asked for Sebastian's help in recovering his throne from his uncle that Sebastian decided to mount a military effort. Sebastian felt driven to revive lost glories by intervening in North Africa, influenced by the events such as the defense of Mazagan in 1562 from a Moroccan siege. Accordingly, in 1568, the kingdom began to prepare for intervention in Morocco.
This policy was not only supported by the mercantile bourgeoisie as it would benefit commerce in this area, but by the nobility. Up to that time Portuguese military action in Africa had been confined to small expeditions and raids. Sebastian proposed to change this strategy entirely. In 1574 Sebastian visited some of the Portuguese bases in North Africa and led a successful raid on Muslim territory beyond the Portuguese city of Tangier, engaging in several skirmishes and in a confrontation of greater magnitude on 21 October. Although in numerical inferiority but with a heavy contingent of cavalry, he was successful, which encouraged him to grander designs against the new Saadian ruler of Morocco, he gave his support to Abu Abdallah Mohammed II Saadi, engaged in a civil war to recover the throne of Morocco from his uncle, the Emir Abd Al-Malik -, aided by the Ottomans. Despite the admonitions of his mother and his uncle Philip II of Spain, Sebastian was determined to wage a military campaign, he used much of Portugal's imperial wealth to equip a large fleet and gather an army which included soldiers of several nationalities: 2,000 volunteers from Spain, 3,000 mercenaries from Flanders and Germany, 600 Italians recruited to aid in an invasion of Ireland under the leadership of the English adventurer, Thomas Stukley.
It is said that the expeditionary force numbered 500 ships, the army in total numbered about 18,000 men, including the flower of the Portuguese nobility. After haranguing his troops from the windows of the Church of Santa Maria in Lagos, Sebastian departed that port in his armada on 24 June 1578, he landed at Arzila, in Portuguese Morocco, where Abu Abdallah joined him with an additional 6,000 Moorish allied troops, marched into the interior. The Emir, gravely ill, had meanwhile collected a large army, rallying his countrymen to jihad against the Portuguese invaders; the two armies approached each other near Ksar-el-Kebir, camping on opposite sides of a Loukkos river. On 4 August 1578, the Portuguese and Moorish allied troops were drawn up in battle array, Sebastian rode around encouraging the ranks, but the Moroccans advanced on a broad front. The Sultan had 10,000 cavalry on the wings, in the center had placed Moors, driven out of Spain and thus bore a special grudge against Christians. Despite his illness, the Sultan led his forces on horseback.
The battle started as both sides exchanged several volleys of gunfire from artillery. Stukley, commanding the Portuguese center, was killed by a cannonball early in the battle; the Moroccan cavalry began to encircle the Portuguese army. Both armies soon became engaged in a melee; the flanks of the Portuguese army began to give way to the Moorish cavalry, the center became threatened as well. Seeing the flanks compromised, having lost its commander early in battle, the Portuguese center lost heart and was overcome; the battle ended after nearly four hours of heavy fighting and resulted in the total defeat of the Portuguese and Abu Abdallah's army with 8,000 dead, including the sl
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent King Dom João VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. João VI returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a successful war against his father's kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil; the new country was sparsely populated and ethnically diverse. Unlike most of the neighboring Hispanic American republics, Brazil had political stability, vibrant economic growth, constitutionally guaranteed freedom of speech, respect for civil rights of its subjects, albeit with legal restrictions on women and slaves, the latter regarded as property and not citizens.
The empire's bicameral parliament was elected under comparatively democratic methods for the era, as were the provincial and local legislatures. This led to a long ideological conflict between Pedro I and a sizable parliamentary faction over the role of the monarch in the government, he faced other obstacles. The unsuccessful Cisplatine War against the neighboring United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1828 led to the secession of the province of Cisplatina. In 1826, despite his role in Brazilian independence, he became the king of Portugal. Two years she was usurped by Pedro I's younger brother Miguel. Unable to deal with both Brazilian and Portuguese affairs, Pedro I abdicated his Brazilian throne on 7 April 1831 and departed for Europe to restore his daughter to the Portuguese throne. Pedro I's successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II; as the latter was still a minor, a weak regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a ruling monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions.
Having inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II, once he was declared of age, managed to bring peace and stability to the country, which became an emerging international power. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under Pedro II's rule, the Empire prevailed in several other international disputes and outbreaks of domestic strife. With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, although Brazil remained Catholic. Slavery, widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888. Brazilian visual arts and theater developed during this time of progress. Although influenced by European styles that ranged from Neoclassicism to Romanticism, each concept was adapted to create a culture, uniquely Brazilian. Though the last four decades of Pedro II's reign were marked by continuous internal peace and economic prosperity, he had no desire to see the monarchy survive beyond his lifetime and made no effort to maintain support for the institution.
The next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable. Lacking any viable heir, the Empire's political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy. After a 58-year reign, on 15 November 1889 the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état led by a clique of military leaders whose goal was the formation of a republic headed by a dictator, forming the First Brazilian Republic; the territory which would come to be known as Brazil was claimed by Portugal on 22 April 1500, when the navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast. Permanent settlement followed in 1532, for the next 300 years the Portuguese expanded westwards until they had reached nearly all of the borders of modern Brazil. In 1808, the army of French Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, forcing the Portuguese royal family—the House of Braganza, a branch of the thousand-year-old Capetian dynasty—into exile, they re-established themselves in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, which became the unofficial seat of the Portuguese Empire.
In 1815, the Portuguese crown prince Dom João, acting as regent, created the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, which raised the status of Brazil from colony to kingdom. He ascended the Portuguese throne the following year, after the death of his mother, Maria I of Portugal, he returned to Portugal in April 1821, leaving behind his son and heir, Prince Dom Pedro, to rule Brazil as his regent. The Portuguese government moved to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had been granted since 1808; the threat of losing their limited control over local affairs ignited widespread opposition among Brazilians. José Bonifácio de Andrada, along with other Brazilian leaders, convinced Pedro to declare Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. On 12 October, the prince was acclaimed Pedro I, first Emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil, a constitutional monarchy; the declaration of independence was opposed throughout Brazil by armed military units loyal to Portugal. The ensuing war of independence was fought across the country, with battles in the northern and southern regions.
The last Portu
Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil
The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil occurred with the strategic retreat of Queen Maria I of Portugal, Prince Regent John referred to as Dom João or Dom João VI, the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807. The Braganza royal family departed for the Portuguese colony of Brazil just days before Napoleonic forces invaded Lisbon on December 1; the Portuguese crown remained in Brazil from 1808 until the Liberal Revolution of 1820 led to the return of John VI of Portugal on April 26, 1821. For thirteen years, Rio de Janeiro, functioned as the capital of the Kingdom of Portugal in what some historians call a "metropolitan reversal", i.e. a colony exercising governance over the entirety of the empire. The period in which the court was located in Rio brought significant changes to the city and its residents, can be interpreted through several perspectives, it had profound impacts on Brazilian society, economics and politics. The transfer of the king and the royal court "represented the first step toward Brazilian independence, since the king opened the ports of Brazil to foreign shipping and turned the colonial capital into the seat of government."
In 1807, at the outset of the Peninsular War, Napoleonic forces invaded Portugal due to the Portuguese alliance with Great Britain. The prince regent of Portugal at the time, John VI, had formally governed the country on behalf of Maria I of Portugal since 1799. Anticipating the invasion of Napoleon's army, John VI ordered the transfer of the Portuguese royal court to Brazil before he could be deposed. Setting sail for Brazil on November 29, the royal party navigated under the protection of the British Royal Navy, eight ships of the line, five frigates, four smaller vessels of the Portuguese Navy, under the command of Admiral Sir Sidney Smith. On December 5 halfway between Lisbon and Madeira, Sidney Smith, along with Britain's envoy to Lisbon, Lord Strangford, returned to Europe with part of the British flotilla. Graham Moore, a British sailor and career officer in the Royal Navy, continued escorting the Portuguese royal family to Brazil with the ships Marlborough, London and Monarch. On January 22, 1808, John and his court arrived in Brazil.
There, Prince John signed the "Abertura dos Portos" law which allowed commerce between Brazil and "friendly nations". This was beneficial for Great Britain and can be seen as one of many ways Prince John found to reward the British Empire for their assistance; this new law, broke the colonial pact that had permitted Brazil to maintain direct commercial relations with Portugal only. This transformed the Brazilian economy, subsequently, its demographics and society. Secret negotiations at London in 1807 by Portuguese ambassador Domingos António de Sousa Coutinho guaranteed British military protection in exchange for British access to Brazil's ports and to Madeira as a naval base. Coutinho's secret negotiations paved the way for Prince John's law to come to fruition in 1808. On, in attempts to modernize the economy and diversify the production of the colony, Dom João allowed for the establishment of manufacturing industries in 1808 through the signing of the "Alvará de Liberdade para as Indústrias".
This meant. In this decree, Dom João said that in an attempt to promote national wealth and recognize that manufacturing, industrial labor, multiplication of labor promote means of subsistence for subjects, Brazil should invest in those sectors effective immediately, he abolished any prohibition to industrial development. This attracted investment from Great Britain and, in a way, did expand the demand for labor; when the Portuguese court arrived in Rio de Janeiro on March 7, 1808, Brazil was sparsely populated, with a little over 3 million inhabitants. Around one-third of the colony’s population consisted of enslaved peoples, most having been captured and shipped from Africa; the indigenous population at the time was of around 800,000 people, having been reduced and isolated during the first 300 years of exploration and colonization. Population density was concentrated along the Atlantic coastline. Rio de Janeiro, around the start of the 19th century, was experiencing a sizeable population boom.
Over the 18th century, the population had increased tenfold due to the discovery of gold and diamonds and the migration of 800,000 individuals that ensued. In addition, it is estimated that 2 million enslaved Africans were brought to Brazil to work in mines and power the sugar industry. Brazilians were illiterate and lacking several basic needs, including medical care and public health services. Only 2.5% of free men were literate. These changes made the city crammed, the population was displeased, rudimentary colonial administrations were not enough to ensure progress; the small city of Rio de Janeiro was not prepared to welcome the Portuguese court. While the royal family was greeted with cheer and festivities that lasted for weeks, 10,000 houses were branded with the letters ‘PR’ standing for príncipe regente or prince regent, which meant that the homeowners had to evacuate to allow for the nobility to move in. In an silent form of protest, Brazilians gave another meaning to the letters, they started to read ‘PR’ as ponha-se na rua, a phrase that directly translates into to “put yourselves out on the street.”
Another example of implicit forms of protest or negative reactions of the relocation of the court was the intensified presence of caricaturized depictions of Dom João and Carlota. Making its way through popular discourse and taking stereotypical exaggerations that built up Brazilian folklore, Dom