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United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves

The United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves was a pluricontinental monarchy formed by the elevation of the Portuguese colony named State of Brazil to the status of a kingdom and by the simultaneous union of that Kingdom of Brazil with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of the Algarves, constituting a single state consisting of three kingdoms. The United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves was formed in 1815, following the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil during the Napoleonic invasions of Portugal, it continued to exist for about one year after the return of the Court to Europe, being de facto dissolved in 1822, when Brazil proclaimed its independence; the dissolution of the United Kingdom was accepted by Portugal and formalized de jure in 1825, when Portugal recognized the independent Empire of Brazil. During its period of existence the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves did not correspond to the whole of the Portuguese Empire: rather, the united kingdom was the transatlantic metropolis that controlled the Portuguese colonial empire, with its overseas possessions in Africa and Asia.

Thus, from the point of view of Brazil, the elevation to the rank of a kingdom and the creation of the United Kingdom represented a change in status, from that of a colony to that of an equal member of a political union. In the wake of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Portugal, attempts to compromise the autonomy and the unity of Brazil, led to the breakdown of the union; the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves came into being in the wake of Portugal's war with Napoleonic France. The Portuguese Prince Regent, with his incapacitated mother and the Royal Court, fled to the colony of Brazil in 1808. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, there were calls for the return of the Portuguese Monarch to Lisbon. However, those advocating the return of the Court to Lisbon argued that Brazil was only a colony and that it was not right for Portugal to be governed from a colony. On the other hand, leading Brazilian courtiers pressed for the elevation of Brazil from the rank of a colony, so that they could enjoy the full status of being nationals of the mother-country.

Brazilian nationalists supported the move, because it indicated that Brazil would no longer be submissive to the interests of Portugal, but would be of equal status within a transatlantic monarchy. By a law issued by the Prince Regent on 16 December 1815, the colony of Brazil was thus elevated to the rank of a Kingdom and by the same law the separate kingdoms of Portugal and the Algarves were united as a single State under the title of The United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves; this united kingdom included the historical Kingdom of the Algarves, the present-day Portuguese region of Algarve. The titles of the Portuguese royalty were changed to reflect the creation of this transatlantic united kingdom; the styles of the Queen and of the Prince Regent were changed accordingly to Queen and Prince Regent of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. The title Prince of Brazil, a title that used to pertain to the heir apparent of the Portuguese Crown, was dropped shortly afterwards, in 1817, being replaced by the title of Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, or Prince Royal for short.

A new flag and coat of arms were adopted for the new State. On 20 March 1816 Queen Maria I died in Rio de Janeiro. Prince John, the Prince Regent became King John VI, the second monarch of the United Kingdom, retaining the numbering of Portuguese Sovereigns. After a period of mourning and several delays, the festivities of the acclamation of the new King were held in Rio de Janeiro on 6 February 1818. On the date of his Acclamation, King John VI created the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa, the only order of knighthood to be created during the United Kingdom era; this Order existed in the United Kingdom alongside the old Portuguese Orders of chivalry and the Order of the Tower and Sword, an ancient Order, dormant and, revived by the Portuguese monarchy in November 1808, when the Royal Court was in Brazil. After the dissolution of the United Kingdom, while Brazilian branches of the old Orders of chivalry were created, resulting in Brazilian and Portuguese Orders Saint James of the Sword, of Saint Benedict of Aviz, of Christ, the newer Orders remained in existence as Portuguese Orders only.

After the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Portugal, the King left Brazil and returned to the European portion of the United Kingdom, arriving in Lisbon on 4 July 1821. Before his departure, the King, acceding to requests made by Brazilian courtiers, decided to leave behind his heir apparent, Prince Pedro, the Prince Royal of the United Kingdom. By a decree issued on 22 April 1821, the King invested Pedro with the title of "Regent of Brazil", granted him delegated powers to discharge the "general government and entire administration of the Kingdom of Brazil" as the King's placeholder, thus granting the Kingdom of Brazil a devolved administration within the United Kingdom. Accordingly, with the appointment of Prince Royal Pedro as Regent of Brazil, the Brazilian provinces – that in the colonial period were united under a vice-regal administration, that during the stay of Queen Maria I and King

Bernardo de Gálvez (statue)

Bernardo de Gálvez is a bronze equestrian statue, sculpted by Juan de Ávalos of Spain. Located in the American national capital of Washington, D. C. it was dedicated on June 3, 1976, one month and a day before Independence Day of the Fourth of July, 1776. Evidently, it was a gift from Spain to the United States upon the occasion of the U. S. A.'s Bicentennial commemoration, 200 years after the American Revolution and subsequent American Revolutionary War. The Bernardo de Gálvez sculpture is located along with the Statues of the Liberators, at Virginia Avenue and 22nd Street, N. W. near the United States Department of State building in the old Foggy Bottom neighborhood in Washington, D. C, it was dedicated by King Juan Carlos I of the Kingdom of SpainThe inscription on the base reads: BERNARDO DE GALVEZ 1746–1786 BERNARDO DE GALVEZ THE GREAT SPANISH SOLDIER CARRIED OUT A COURAGEOUS CAMPAIGN IN LANDS BORDERING THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI. THIS MASTERPIECE OF MILITARY STRATEGY LIGHTENED THE PRESSURE OF THE ENGLISH IN THE WAR AGAINST THE AMERICAN SETTLERS WHO WERE FIGHTING FOR THEIR INDEPENDENCE.

MAY THE STATUE OF BERNARDO DE GALVEZ SERVE AS A REMINDER THAT SPAIN OFFERED THE BLOOD OF HER SOLDIERS FOR THE CAUSE OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE. Excerpts of a speechgiven on this locationon June 3, 1976 byHis MajestyDON JUAN CARLOS IKing of SpainSculptor Juan de Ávalos Madrid, Spain List of public art in Washington, D. C. Ward 2 Statues of the Liberators Entry on THE HISTORICAL MARKER DATABASE Victor Lang Remembers- Bernardo de Galvez Statue Should Be Moved To Galveston

British Somaliland

British Somaliland the British Somaliland Protectorate, was a British protectorate in present-day Somaliland. For much of its existence, the territory was bordered by Italian Somalia, French Somaliland and Ethiopia. From 1940 to 1941, it was part of Italian East Africa. On 26 June 1960, British Somaliland declared independence as the State of Somaliland. Five days on 1 July 1960, the State of Somaliland voluntarily united with the Trust Territory of Somalia to form the Somali Republic; the government of Somaliland, a self-declared sovereign state, internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia, regards itself as the successor state to British Somaliland. In 1888, after signing successive treaties with the ruling Somali Sultans from the Isaaq, Issa and Warsangali clans the British established a protectorate in the region referred to as British Somaliland; the British garrisoned the protectorate from Aden and administered it from their British India colony until 1898. British Somaliland was administered by the Foreign Office until 1905 and afterwards by the Colonial Office.

The British did not have much interest in the resource-barren region. The stated purposes of the establishment of the protectorate were to "secure a supply market, check the traffic in slaves, to exclude the interference of foreign powers." The British principally viewed the protectorate as a source for supplies of meat for their British Indian outpost in Aden through the maintenance of order in the coastal areas and protection of the caravan routes from the interior. Hence, the region's nickname of "Aden's butcher's shop". Colonial administration during this period did not extend administrative infrastructure beyond the coast, contrasted with the more interventionist colonial experience of Italian Somalia. Beginning in 1899, the British were forced to expend considerable human and military capital to contain a decades-long resistance movement mounted by the Dervish resistance movement; the movement was led by Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, a Somali religious leader referred to colloquially by the British as the "Mad Mullah".

Repeated military expeditions were unsuccessfully launched against Hassan and his Dervishes before World War I. On 9 August 1913, the Somaliland Camel Constabulary suffered a serious defeat at the Battle of Dul Madoba at the hands of the Dervishes. Hassan had evaded several attempts to capture him. At Dul Madoba, his forces killed or wounded 57 members of the 110-man Constabulary unit, including the British commander, Colonel Richard Corfield. In 1914, the British created the Somaliland Camel Corps to assist in maintaining order in British Somaliland. In 1920, the British launched their final expedition against Hassan and his followers. Employing the then-new technology of military aircraft, the British managed to quell Hassan's twenty-year-long struggle; the aerial attack on the Dervish capital, killed many members of Hassan's family, lured there by the British for an official visit. Hassan and his Dervish supporters fled into the Ogaden, where Hassan died in 1921; the Somaliland Camel Corps referred to as the Somali Camel Corps, was a unit of the British Army based in British Somaliland.

It lasted from the early 20th century until 1944. The troopers of the Somaliland Camel Corps had a distinctive dress, it was based on the standard British Army khaki drill but included a knitted woollen pullover and drill patches on the shoulders. Shorts were worn with "chaplis", boots or bare feet. Equipment consisted of a leather waist belt; the officers wore pith khaki drill uniforms. Other ranks wore a "kullah" with "puggree". A "chaplis" is a colourful sandal. A "kullah" is a type of cap. A "puggree" is a strip of cloth wound around the upper portion of a hat or helmet a pith helmet, falling down behind to act as a shade for the back of the neck. Following the defeat of the Dervish resistance, the two fundamental goals of British policy in British Somaliland were the preservation of stability and the economic self-sufficiency of the protectorate; the second goal remained elusive because of local resistance to taxation that might have been used to support the protectorate's administration. By the 1930s, the British presence had extended to other parts of British Somaliland.

Growth in commercial trade motivated some livestock herders to subsequently leave the pastoral economy and settle in urban areas. Customs taxes helped pay for British India's patrol of Somalia's Red Sea Coast. In August 1940, during the East African Campaign in World War II, British Somaliland was invaded by Italy; the few British forces that were present attempted to defend the main road to Berbera, but were dislodged from their positions and retreated after losing the Battle of Tug Argan. During this period, the British rounded up soldiers and governmental officials to evacuate them from the territory through Berbera. In total, 7,000 people, including civilians, were evacuated; the Somalis serving in the Somaliland Camel Corps were given the choice of evacuation or disbandment. In March 1941, after a six-month Italian occupation, the British Imperial forces recaptured the protectorate during Operation Appearance; the final remnants of the Italian guerrilla movement discontinued all resistance in British Somaliland by the autumn of 1943.

In 1947, the entire budget for the administration of the British Somaliland protectorate was only £213,139. In