House of Lusignan
The House of Lusignan was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages. It had great influence in England and France; the family originated in Poitou, near Lusignan in western France, in the early 10th century. By the end of the 11th century, the family had risen to become the most prominent petty lords in the region from their castle at Lusignan. In the late 12th century, through marriages and inheritance, a cadet branch of the family came to control the kingdoms of Jerusalem and Cyprus. In the early 13th century, the main branch succeded in the Counties of La Angoulême; as Crusader kings in the Latin East, they soon had connections with the Hethumid rulers of the Kingdom of Cilicia, which they inherited through marriage in the mid-14th century. The Armenian branch fled to France, Russia, after the Mamluk conquest of their kingdom.
The claim was taken by the Cypriot branch. This kingdom was annexed by the Republic of Venice in the late 15th century; the Château de Lusignan, near Poitiers, was the principal seat of the Lusignans. It was destroyed during the Wars of Religion, only its foundations remain in Lusignan. According to legend, the earliest castle was built by the folklore water-spirit Melusine; the lords of the castle at Lusignan were counts of La Marche, over which they fought with the counts of Angoulême. Hugh I Hugh II Hugh III Hugh IV Hugh V Hugh VI inherited by collateral succession the County of La Marche as a descendant of Almodis. Hugh VI Hugh VII Hugh VIII Hugh IX Raoul I Raoul II Marie Hugh IX's son, Hugh X, married Isabelle of Angoulême, thus securing Angoulême. Hugh X Hugh XI Hugh XII Hugh XIII Guy Yolande Yolande sold the fiefs of Lusignan, La Marche, Angoulême, Fougères to Philip IV of France in 1308, they became a common appanage of the crown. In the 1170s, Amalric de Lusignan arrived in Jerusalem, having been expelled by Richard Lionheart from his realm, which included the family lands of Lusignan near Poitiers.
Amalric married Eschiva, the daughter of Baldwin of Ibelin, entered court circles. He had obtained the patronage of Agnes of Courtenay, the divorced mother of King Baldwin IV, who held the county of Jaffa and Ascalon and was married to Reginald of Sidon, he was appointed Agnes' constable in Jaffa, as constable of the kingdom. Hostile rumours alleged he was Agnes' lover, it is that his promotions were aimed at weaning him away from the political orbit of the Ibelin family, who were associated with Raymond III of Tripoli, Amalric I's cousin and the former bailli or regent. Amalric's younger brother, Guy de Lusignan, arrived at some date before Easter 1180; when he arrived is quite unknown, although Ernoul said that he arrived at that time on Amalric's advice. Many modern historians believe that Guy was well established in Jerusalem by 1180, but there is no supporting contemporary evidence. But, Amalric of Lusignan's success facilitated the social and political advancement of his brother Guy. Older accounts claim that Agnes was concerned that her political rivals, headed by Raymond of Tripoli, intended to exercise more control by forcing Agnes' daughter, the widowed princess Sibylla, to marry someone of their choosing.
Agnes was said to have foiled these plans by advising her son to have Sibylla married to Guy. But, the King, now believed to have been less malleable than earlier historians have portrayed, was considering the international implications: Sibylla had to marry someone who could rally external help to the kingdom, not a local noble; as the new King of France, Philip II, was still a minor, Baldwin's first cousin Henry II of England seemed the best prospect. He owed the Pope a penitential pilgrimage on account of the Thomas Becket affair. Guy was a vassal of Richard of Poitou and Henry II, had been rebellious, so they wanted to keep him overseas. Guy and Sibylla were hastily married at Eastertide 1180 preventing a coup by Raymond's faction to marry her to Baldwin of Ibelin, the father-in-law of Almaric. By his marriage Guy became bailli of Jerusalem, he and Sibylla had two daughters and Maria. Sibylla had a son from her first marriage to William of Montferrat. An ambitious man, Guy convinced Baldwin IV to name him regent in early 1182.
But he and Raynald of Châtillon provoked Saladin during a two-year period of truce. More important to Baldwin IV's disillusionment with him was Guy's military hesitation during the siege of Kerak. Throughout late 1183 and 1184 Baldwin IV tried to have his sister's marriage to Guy annulled, showing that Baldwin still held his sister with some favour. Baldwin IV had wanted a loyal brother-in-law, was frustrated in Guy's hardheadedness and disobedience. Sibylla remained at Ascalon, though not against her will. Unsuccessful in prying his sister and close heir away from Guy, the king and the Haute Cour altered the succession, they placed Sibylla's son from her first marriage, in precedence over Sibylla. They established a process to choose the monarch afterwards between Sibylla and Isabella, though Sibylla was not herself
Antalya is the eighth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of Antalya Province. Located on Anatolia's southwest coast bordered by the Taurus Mountains, Antalya is the largest Turkish city on the Mediterranean coast with over one million people in its metropolitan area; the city, now Antalya was first settled around 200 BC by the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon, soon subdued by the Romans. Roman rule saw Antalya thrive, including the construction of several new monuments, such as Hadrian's Gate, the proliferation of neighboring cities; the city has changed hands several times, including to the Seljuk Sultanate in 1207 and an expanding Ottoman Empire in 1391. Ottoman rule brought relative stability for the next five hundred years; the city was transferred to Italian suzerainty in the aftermath of World War I, but was recaptured by a newly independent Turkey in the War of Independence. Antalya is Turkey's biggest international sea resort, located on the Turkish Riviera. Large-scale development and governmental funding has promoted tourism.
A record 12.5 million tourists passed through the city in 2014. The city was founded as "Attaleia", named after its founder Attalos II, king of Pergamon; this name, still in use in Greek, was evolved in Turkish as Adalia and Antalya. Attaleia was the name of a festival at Delphi and Attalis was the name of an old Greek tribe at Athens. Despite the close similarity, there is no connection with the name Anatolia. King Attalus II of Pergamon is looked on as founder of the city in about 150 BC, during the Hellenistic period, it was named Attalia in his honour. The city served as a naval base for Attalus's powerful fleet. Excavations in 2008, in the Doğu Garajı plot, uncovered remains dating to the 3rd century BC, suggesting that Attalea was a rebuilding and expansion of an earlier town. Attalea became part of the Roman Republic in 133 BC when Attalus III, a nephew of Attalus II bequeathed his kingdom to Rome at his death in 133 BC; the city grew and prospered during the Ancient Roman period and was part of the Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda, whose capital was Perga.
Christianity started to spread to the region in the 1st century: Antalya was visited by Paul of Tarsus and Barnabas, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles: "Then they passed through Pisidia and came to Pamphylia. And when they had spoken the word in Perga, they went down to Attalia, from there they sailed to Antioch"; some of the bishops attributed to the episcopal see of Attalea in Pamphylia may instead have been bishops of Attalea in Lydia, since Lequien lists them under both sees. No longer a residential bishopric, Attalea in Pamphylia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see; the 13th-century Seljuk mosque at Attalea, now in ruins, had been a Christian Byzantine basilica from the 7th century. The Great Mosque had been a Christian basilica and the Kesik Minare Mosque had been the 5th-century Christian Church of the Panaghia or Virgin and was decorated with finely carved marble; the archaeological museum at Attalia houses some sarcophagi and mosaics from nearby Perga and a casket of bones reputed to be those of St. Nicholas, the bishop of Myra, further down the Turquoise coast.
Antalya was a major city in the Byzantine Empire. It was the capital of the Byzantine Theme of the Cibyrrhaeots, which occupied the southern coasts of Anatolia. According to the research of Speros Vryonis, it was the major naval station on the southern Anatolian coast, a major commercial center, the most convenient harbor between the Aegean Sea and Cyprus and points further east. Besides the local merchants, "one could expect to see Armenians, Saracens and Italians."At the time of the accession of John II Comnenus in 1118 Antalya was an isolated outpost surrounded by Turkish beyliks, accessible only by sea. Following the fall of Constantinople in 1204, Niketas Choniates records that one Aldebrandus, "an Italian by birth, raised according to Roman tradition" controlled Antalya as his own fief; when Kaykhusraw, sultan of the Seljuk Turks attempted to capture the city in 1206, Aldebrandus sent to Cyprus for help and received 200 Latin infantry who defeated the attackers after a siege of less than 16 days.
Kaykhusraw would build its first mosque. The city and the surrounding region were conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the early 13th century. Antalya was the capital of the Turkish beylik of Teke until its conquest by the Ottomans, except for a period of Cypriot rule between 1361 and 1373; the Arabic traveler Ibn Battuta, who visited the city in 1335–1340, noted: From Alanya I went to Antaliya, a most beautiful city. It covers an immense area, though of vast bulk is one of the most attractive towns to be seen anywhere, besides being exceedingly populous and well laid out; each section of the inhabitants lives in a separate quarter. The Christian merchants live in a quarter of the town known as the Mina, are surrounded by a wall, the gates of which are shut upon them from without at night and during the Friday service; the Greeks, who were its former inhabitants, live by themselves in another quarter, the Jews in another, the king and his court and Mamluks in another, each of these quarters being walled off likewise.
The rest of the Muslims live in the main city. Round the whole town and all the quarters mentioned; the town contains orchards and produces fine fruits, including an admirable kind of apricot, called by them Qamar ad-Din, which has a sweet almond in its kernel. This fruit is exported to Egypt, where it is regarded as a great luxury. In the second half of the 17th century Evliya Çelebi wr
Berengaria of Navarre
Berengaria of Navarre was Queen of England as the wife of Richard I of England. She was the eldest daughter of Sancho VI of Sancha of Castile; as is the case with many of the medieval English queens little is known of her life. Traditionally known as "the only English queen never to set foot in the country", she may in fact have visited the country after her husband's death, but did not do so before, nor did she see much of him during her marriage, childless, she did accompany him on the start of the Third Crusade, but lived in his French possessions, where she gave generously to the Church, despite difficulties in collecting the pension she was due from Richard's brother and successor John after she became a widow. In 1185, Berengaria was given the fief of Monreal by her father. Eleanor of Aquitaine promoted the engagement of Berengaria to Richard the Lionheart. An alliance with Navarre meant protection for the southern borders of Eleanor's Duchy of Aquitaine, helped create better relations with neighbouring Castile whose queen was Eleanor, a sister of Richard.
Navarre had assimilated the troubadour culture of Aquitaine and Berengaria's reputation was unbesmirched. It seems that Berengaria and Richard did in fact meet once, years before their marriage, writers have claimed that there was an attraction between them at that time. In 1190, Eleanor met Sancho in Pamplona and he hosted a banquet in the Royal Palace of Olite in her honour; the betrothal could not be celebrated for Richard had been betrothed for many years to Alys, half-sister of King Philip II of France. Richard terminated his betrothal to Alys in 1190 while at Messina, it has been suggested that Alys had become the mistress of Richard's own father, Henry II of England, the mother of an illegitimate child. Richard had Berengaria brought to him by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine. Since Richard was on the Third Crusade, having wasted no time in setting off after his coronation, the two women had a long and difficult journey to catch up with him, they arrived at Messina in Sicily during Lent in 1191 and were joined by Richard's sister Joan, the widowed Queen of Sicily.
The two women became Berengaria was left in Joan's custody. En route to the Holy Land, the ship carrying Berengaria and Joan ran aground off the coast of Cyprus, they were threatened by the island's ruler, Isaac Comnenus. Richard came to their rescue, captured the island, overthrew Comnenus. Berengaria married Richard the Lionheart on 12 May 1191, in the Chapel of St George at Limassol on Cyprus, was crowned the same day by the Archbishop of Bordeaux and Bishops of Évreux and Bayonne. Whether the marriage was even consummated is a matter for conjecture. In any case, Richard took his new wife with him for the first part of the Third Crusade; this was unusual, although Richard's mother and Berengaria's predecessor, Eleanor of Aquitaine, when Queen of France, been with her husband throughout the Second Crusade, though the stresses and disputes of the unsuccessful campaign did serious damage to their relationship. Berengaria returned well. Berengaria remained in Europe, based at Beaufort-en-Vallée, attempting to raise money for his ransom.
After his release, Richard was not joined by his wife. When Richard returned to England, he had to regain all the territory that had either been lost by his brother John or taken by King Philip of France, his focus was on his kingdom, not his queen. King Richard was ordered by Pope Celestine III to reunite with Queen Berengaria and to show fidelity to her in the future. Richard, now spending his time in France and took Berengaria to church every week thereafter; when he died in 1199, she was distressed more so at being deliberately overlooked as Queen of England and Cyprus. Some historians believe that Berengaria loved her husband, while Richard's feelings for her were formal, as the marriage was a political rather than a romantic union. Berengaria never visited England during King Richard's lifetime. There is evidence, that she may have done so in the years following his death; the traditional description of her as "the only English queen never to set foot in the country" would still be true, as she did not visit England during the time she was Richard's consort.
She sent envoys to England several times to inquire about the pension she was due as dowager queen and Richard's widow, which King John failed to pay. Although Queen Eleanor intervened and Pope Innocent III threatened him with an interdict if he did not pay Berengaria what was due, King John still owed her more than £4000 when he died. During the reign of his son Henry III of England, her payments were made as they were supposed to be. Berengaria settled in Le Mans, one of her dower properties, she was a benefactress of L'Épau Abbey in Le Mans, entered the conventual life, was buried in the abbey. In 1240, Archbishop Rodrigo Jimenez de Rada of Toledo wrote of Berengaria that she lived, "as a most praiseworthy widow and stayed for the most part in the city of Le Mans, which she held as part of her marriage dower, devoting herself to almsgiving and good works, witnessing as an example to all women of chastity and religion and in th
Acre, known to locals as Akko or Akka, is a city in the coastal plain region of the Northern District of Israel. The city occupies an important location, sitting in a natural harbour at the extremity of Haifa Bay on the coast of the Mediterranean's Levantine Sea. Aside from coastal trading, it was an important waypoint on the region's coastal road and the road cutting inland along the Jezreel Valley; the first settlement during the Early Bronze Age was abandoned after a few centuries but a large town was established during the Middle Bronze Age. Continuously inhabited since it is among the oldest continuously-inhabited settlements on Earth, it has, been subject to conquest and destruction several times and survived as little more than a large village for centuries at a time. In present-day Israel, the population was 48,303 in 2017, made up of Jews, Christians and Baha'is. In particular, Acre is the holiest city of the Bahá'í Faith and receives many pilgrims of that faith every year; the mayor is Shimon Lankri, reelected in 2011.
The etymology of the name is unknown, but not Semitic. A folk etymology in Hebrew is that, when the ocean was created, it expanded until it reached Acre and stopped, giving the city its name. Acre seems to be recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphics being the "Akka" in the execration texts from around 1800 BC and the "Aak" in the tribute lists of Thutmose III; the Akkadian cuneiform Amarna letters mention an "Akka" in the mid-14th-century BC. On its native currency, Acre's name was written ʿK, it appears once in Biblical Hebrew. Other transcriptions of these names include Acco, Accho and Ocina. Acre was known to the Greeks as Ákē, a homonym for Greek word meaning "cure". Greek legend offered a folk etymology that Hercules had found curative herbs at the site after one of his many fights; this name was latinized as Ace. Josephus's histories transcribed the city into Greek as Akre. Under the successors of Alexander the Great, the Egyptians called the city Ptolemais and the Syrians Antioch or Antiochenes.
As both names were shared by a great many other towns, they were variously distinguished. The Syrians called it "Antioch in Ptolemais", the Romans Ptolemais in Phoenicia. Others knew it as "Antiochia Ptolemais". Under Claudius, it was briefly known as Germanicia in Ptolemais; as a Roman colony, it was notionally refounded and renamed Colonia Claudii Caesaris Ptolemais or Colonia Claudia Felix Ptolemais Garmanica Stabilis after its imperial sponsor Claudius. During the Crusades, it was known again as Acre or as St. John of Acre, after the Knights Hospitaller who had their headquarters there; the remains of the oldest settlement at the site of modern Acre were found at a tell located 1.5 km east of the modern city of Acre. Known as Tel Akko in Hebrew and Tell el-Fukhar in Arabic, its remains date to about 3000 BC, during the Early Bronze Age; this farming community endured for only a couple of centuries, after which the site was abandoned after being inundated by rising seawaters. Acre was resettled as an urban centre during the Middle Bronze Age and has been continuously inhabited since then.
During the Iron Age, Acre culturally affiliated with Phoenicia. In the biblical Book of Judges, Akko appears in a list of the places which the Israelites were not able to conquer from the Canaanites, it is described in the territory of the tribe of Asher and, according to Josephus's account, was reputed to have been ruled by one of Solomon's provincial governors. Around 725 BC, Acre joined Sidon and Tyre in a revolt against the Neo-Assyrian king Shalmaneser V. Strabo refers to the city as once a rendezvous for the Persians in their expeditions against Egypt. According to historians such as Diodurus Siculus and Strabo, King Cambyses II attacked Egypt after massing a huge army on the plains near the city of Acre. In December 2018 archaeologists digging at the site of Tell Keisan in Acre unearthed the remains of a Persian military outpost that might have played a role in the successful 525 B. C. Achaemenid invasion of Egypt; the Persian-period fortifications at Tell Keisan were heavily damaged during Alexander's fourth-century B.
C. campaign to drive the Achaemenids out of the Levant. After Alexander's death, his main generals divided his empire among themselves. At first, the Egyptian Ptolemies held the land around Acre. Ptolemy II renamed the city Ptolemais in his own and his father's honour in the 260s BC. Antiochus III conquered the town for the Syrian Seleucids in 200 BC. In the late 170s or early 160s BC, Antiochus IV founded a Greek colony in the town, which he named Antioch after himself. About 165 BC Judas Maccabeus defeated the Seleucids in several battles in Galilee, drove them into Ptolemais. About 153 BC Alexander Balas, son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, contesting the Seleucid crown with Demetrius, seized the city, which opened its gates to him. Demetrius offered many bribes to the Maccabees to obtain Jewish support against his rival, including the revenues of Ptolemais for the benefit of the Temple in Jerusalem, but in vain. Jonathan Apphus threw in his lot with Alexander and in 150 BC he was received by him with great honour in Ptolemais.
Some years however, Tryphon, an officer of the Seleucid Empire, who had grow
Corycus was an ancient city in Cilicia Trachaea, located at the mouth of the valley called Şeytan deresi. Strabo does not mention a town of Corycus, but reports a promontory so called at the location, but a town Corycus is mentioned by Livy, by Pliny, Pomponius Mela, Stephanus of Byzantium. In antiquity, Corycus was commercial town, it was the port of Seleucia, where, in 191 BCE, the fleet of Antiochus the Great was defeated by the Romans. In the Roman times it preserved its ancient laws. Corycus was a mint in antiquity and some of its coins survive. Corycus was controlled by the Byzantine Empire. Justinian I restored a hospital; the admiral Eustathios Kymineianos re-fortified the island on the orders of Alexios I Komnenos at the beginning of the 12th century, adding a supplementary castle on a small island. This castle was called "maidens castle", because it was told that a king held his daughter here in captivity until she was killed by a venomous snake, it was prophesied. So she was taken to the sea castle to protect her, but a serpent was taken by basket to the castle, she was bitten and died.
Corycus was conquered by the Armenians. Until the mid-14th century the Armenians held both the mainland and island castles, which guarded this strategic port for the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Simon, the Baron of Koŕikos, attended the coronation of King Levon I in 1198/99. Subsequent Armenian nobles maintained authority in the area until 1360, when Peter I, the King of Cyprus, removed the Mamelukes and assumed suzerainty. In the late 14th century it fell again to the Turks. From 1448 or 1454 it belonged alternately to the Karamanids, the Egyptians, the Karamanids a second time, to the Ottoman Empire. Archaeological surveys published in 1982 and 1987 found that the Armenians maintained the mainland castle’s simple Byzantine plan with its rectangular double walls, square towers, two chapels, all of which were built with masonry taken from the nearby late antique city; the only original Armenian construction is one small chapel. Kizkalesi on the island has the extensive remains of Armenian rebuilding.
The island was once connected to the mainland fort by a breakwater. The ruins of the city are extensive. Among them are a triumphal arch, a necropolis with a beautiful Christian tomb, etc; the two medieval castles, one on the shore, the other in an islet, connected by a ruined pier, are preserved. The walls of the castle on the mainland contain many pieces of columns. Three churches are found, one decorated with frescoes; the walls of the ancient city may still be traced, there appear to be sufficient remains to invite a careful examination of the spot. The city figures in the Synecdemus of Hierocles, in a Notitia Episcopatuum of about 840; the bishopric of Corycus was a suffragan of Tarsus, the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia Prima, to which Corycus belonged. Of the bishops of the see, Germanus was at the First Council of Constantinople in 381. In the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, Corycus became the seat of Latin Church bishops, one of whom, named Gerardus, took part in a council at Antioch in 1136.
No longer a residential bishopric, Corycus is today listed by the Catholic Church. Two Armenian inscriptions that were discovered at the castles of Korykos were credited to its construction to Levon I and to Hetum I. In the Corycian Cave, 20 stadia inland, says Strabo, the best crocus grows, he describes this cave as a great hollow, of a circular form, surrounded by a margin of rock, on all sides of a considerable height. Pomponius Mela has a long description of the same place from the same authority that Strabo followed, but more embellished; this place is on the top of the mountain above Corycus. This place is famed in Greek mythology, it is the Cilician cave of Pindar, of Aeschylus, it is the lair of Zeus' fiercest opponent, the monster Typhon or Typhoeus. Kızkalesi, Mersin Smith, William. Kizkalesi photo gallery Corycus Castle photo gallery Corycus Church Ruins photo
A gros was a type of silver coinage of France from the time of Saint Louis. There were gros parisis; the gros was sub-divided in half gros and quarter gros. The original gros created by St Louis weighed about 4.52 g of nearly pure silver, was valued at one sou, 12 deniers or 1/20 of a livre tournois. Unlike the gold écu, minted in small numbers for prestige reasons, the gros was a common coin, widely copied by non royal mints
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire