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Kingdom of Essex

The Kingdom of the East Saxons, today referred to as the Kingdom of Essex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. It was founded in the 6th century and covered the territory occupied by the counties of Essex, Hertfordshire and Kent; the last king of Essex was Sigered and in 825, he ceded the kingdom to Ecgberht, King of Wessex. The kingdom was bounded to the north by the River Stour and the Kingdom of East Anglia, to the south by the River Thames and Kent, to the east lay the North Sea and to the west Mercia; the territory included the remains of two provincial Roman capitals and London. The early kingdom included the land of the Middle Saxons Middlesex, most if not all of Hertfordshire and may at times have included Surrey. For a brief period in the 8th century, the Kingdom of Essex controlled; the modern English county of Essex maintains the historic northern and the southern borders, but only covers the territory east of the River Lea, the other parts being lost to neighbouring Mercia during the 8th century.

In the Tribal Hidage it is listed as containing 7,000 hides. Although the kingdom of Essex was one of the kingdoms of the Heptarchy, its history is not well documented, it produced few Anglo-Saxon charters and no version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. As a result, the kingdom is regarded as comparatively obscure. For most of the kingdom's existence, the Essex king was subservient to an overlord – variously the kings of Kent, Anglia or Mercia. Saxon occupation of land, to form the kingdom had begun by the early 5th century at Mucking and other locations. A large proportion of these original settlers came from Old Saxony. According to British legend the territory known as Essex was ceded by the Britons to the Saxons following the infamous Treachery of the Long Knives, which occurred ca. 460 during the reign of High King Vortigern. Della Hooke relates the territory ruled by the kings of Essex to the pre-Roman territory of the Trinovantes; the kingdom of Essex grew by the absorption of Saxon tribal groups.

There are a number of suggestions for the location of these subkingdoms including: The Rodings, the Haemele, Hemel Hempstead Vange - "marsh district" Denge Ginges Berecingas - Barking, in the south west of the kingdom Haeferingas in the London Borough of Havering Uppingas - Epping. Essex emerged as a single kingdom during the 6th century; the dates and achievements of the Essex kings, like those of most early rulers in the Heptarchy, remain conjectural. The historical identification of the kings of Essex, including the evidence and a reconstructed genealogy are discussed extensively by Yorke; the dynasty claimed descent from Woden via Seaxnēat. A genealogy of the Essex royal house was prepared in Wessex in the 9th century; the surviving copy is somewhat mutilated. At times during the history of the kingdom several sub-kings within Essex appear to have been able to rule simultaneously, they may have exercised authority over different parts of the kingdom. The first recorded king, according to the East Saxon King List, was Æscwine of Essex, to which a date of 527 is given for the start of his reign, although there are some difficulties with the date of his reign, Sledd of Essex is listed as the founder of the Essex royal house by other sources.

The Essex kings issued coins that echoed those issued by Cunobeline asserting a link to the first century rulers while emphasising independence from Mercia. The tomb of Sæbbi of Essex was visible in Old St Paul's Cathedral until the Great Fire of London of 1666 when the cathedral and the tombs within it were lost; the earliest English record of the kingdom dates to Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, which noted the arrival of Bishop Mellitus in London in 604. Æthelberht was in a position to exercise some authority in Essex shortly after 604, when his intervention helped in the conversion of King Saebert of Essex, his nephew, to Christianity. It was Æthelberht, not Sæberht, who built and endowed St. Pauls in London, where St. Paul’s Cathedral now stands. Bede describes Æthelberht as Sæberht’s overlord. After the death of Saebert in AD 616, Mellitus was driven out and the kingdom reverted to paganism; this may have been the result of opposition to Kentish influence in Essex affairs rather than being anti-Christian.

The kingdom reconverted to Christianity under Sigeberht II the Good following a mission by St Cedd who established monasteries at Tilaburg and Ithancester. A royal tomb at Prittlewell was discovered and excavated in 2003. Finds included. If the occupant was a king, it was either Saebert or Sigeberht, it is, however possible that the occupant was not royal, but a wealthy and powerful individual whose identity has gone unrecorded. Essex reverted to Paganism again in 660 with the ascension of the Pagan King Swithelm of Essex, he converted in 662, but died in 664. He was succeeded by Sigehere and Sæbbi. A plague the same year caused Sigehere and his people to recant their Christianity and Essex reverted to Paganism a third time; this rebellion was suppressed by Wulfhere of Mercia. Bede describes Sigehere and Sæbbi as "rulers … under Wulfhere, king of the Mercians". Wulfhere s

Independence Mines

The Independence Mines, now Independence Mine State Historic Park, is the site of a former gold mining operation in the Talkeetna Mountains, across Hatcher Pass from Palmer, Alaska. The area's mining history dates to at least 1897, when active claims were reported in the vicinity of Fishook Creek; these early mining efforts were joined to form the Wasilla Mining Company, which worked the mines from 1934 to 1943, again from 1948 to 1950. The mining operation at Independence was the second-largest hard-rock gold mining operation in the state, after a larger site near Juneau; the company and the miners that preceded it built a substantial mining camp, with as many as sixteen wood frame buildings, which were connected to each other by sheltered wooden "tunnels". When the company ended operations in 1950, it had expected to resume operations, but never did; the mining camp was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. The land was donated to the state in 1980; the Mine resumed underground operations in 1979 via Starkey Wilson and Chuck Hawley's Coronado Mining Inc, with the intent to base milling and mine operations on the Willow side.

See link: http://dggs.alaska.gov/webpubs/dggs/sr/text/sr033.pdf Which is from: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Alaska Office of Mineral Development, Special Report #33: The Independence Gold Mine, located 70 mi north of Anchorage, has produced in excess of 165,500 oz of gold. In 1979, Starkey Wilson obtained an option on the property and, in 1981, Enserch Corporation became a 50-percent partner. Coronado Mining became the mill operator for the partners. During 1981, extensive underground exploration and development were conducted, 3,000 tons of ore grading 0.5 oz/ton was stockpiled. The ore occurs in quartz veins that occupy north-northwest-trending shear zones along the southern border of the Talkeetna Batholith; the veins contain pyrite, molybdenite, galena and free gold. Stockpiled ore has been treated in a 150-TPD mill near the mine site; the mill contains jig and flotation units, a batch- cyanide system, a Merrill-Crowe precipitation circuit. The mine and mill facility were dedicated in August 1982.

In November 1982, Coronado suspended operations for an undisclosed period, citing problems with recovery in the mill as the reason for closure. Company officials have not released total expenditures for the project, but sources estimate development costs through 1983 at $6 million; this figure includes construction of the new mill, living quarters for 30 workers, several thousand feet of development drifting. In 1983, the tailings pond was extract. Test runs of mill ore produced satisfactory results, but production of gold from mill runs is unknown. An undisclosed amount of subsurface work was conducted on the property. National Register of Historic Places listings in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska List of Alaska state parks Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Alaska Office of Mineral Development, Special Report #33

George Balcan

George Balcan, born George Adelard Alfred Balcaen, was a Canadian radio broadcaster and artist. Balcan was one of the most recognizable voices on the airwaves of Montreal for 30 years. Born in Saint Boniface, Manitoba in 1931, Balcan first worked as a sketch artist in the engineering department of the Canadian Pacific Railway in his native province. Balcan began his broadcast career in 1951, when he was the first announcer to sign on with CKDM, a radio station in his hometown of Dauphin, Manitoba, he was discovered working at CKOC in Hamilton by H. T. "Mac" McCurdy, who brought Balcan to Montreal in 1963 to serve as the afternoon host at CJAD. He became the station's morning man in 1967. Balcan moved to crosstown competitor CFCF in 1973, where he served as an on-air host for the television service, he returned to CJAD as the morning man in 1975, where he remained until his retirement in 1998, the longest to hold the position in any Montreal radio station. He was a member of the Pastel Society of Canada.

His works have graced the walls of the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa. In 1991, he and his family established the George Balcan Bursary at Concordia University and awards given to Fine Arts students pursuing a major in painting and drawing. Balcan worked tirelessly in his community in support of many causes, including the fight against breast cancer and for juvenile diabetes research. Balcan was appointed a Member of the Order of Canada in 1996. In 2005, he was inducted into the Canadian Association of Broadcasters Hall of Fame, he died on May 4, 2004. Canadian Association of Broadcasters Official Site Bio from www.broadcasting-history.ca From Mountain to the City: A Brief History of CJAD CJAD's Official site