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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when civil discontent led an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, thereby ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions; however if relations with Berlin became friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste, corners of Austria-Hungary populated by Italians.

So during World War I, Italy accepted the British invitation to join the Allied Powers, as the western powers promised territorial compensation for participation, more generous than Vienna's offer in exchange for Italian neutrality. Victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. "Fascist Italy" is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government. The fascists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne, " Fascist government passed through several distinct phases"; the first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship". Came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper, from 1925 to 1929"; the third phase, with less activism, was 1929 to 1934.

The fourth phase, 1935–1940, was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: war against Ethiopia, launched from Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, which resulted in its annexation. The war itself was the fifth phase with its disasters and defeats, while the rump Salò Government under German control was the final stage. Italy was an important member of the Axis powers in World War II, battling on several fronts with initial success. However, after the German-Italian defeat in Africa and in the Soviet Union and the subsequent Allied landings in Sicily, King Victor Emmanuel III placed Mussolini under arrest, the Fascist Party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders was shut down; the new government signed an armistice on September 1943. German forces occupied northern Italy with Fascists' help, setting up the Italian Social Republic, a collaborationist puppet state still led by Mussolini and his Fascist loyalists; as a consequence, the country descended into civil war, with the Italian Co-belligerent Army and the resistance movement contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies.

Shortly after the war and the liberation of the country, civil discontent led to the institutional referendum on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the present-day Italian state; the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which covers present-day Italy and more. The development of the Kingdom's territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870; the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which were annexed in 1919 and remain Italian territories today. The Triple Entente promised to grant to Italy – if the state joined the Allies in World War I – several territories including former Austrian Littoral, western parts of former Duchy of Carniola, Northern Dalmazia and notably Zara and most of the Dalmatian islands, according to the secret London Pact of 1915. After the compromise was nullified under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson with the Treaty of Versailles, Italian claims on Northern Dalmazia were voided.

During World War II, the Kingdom gained additional territory: it gained Corsica and Savoia from France after its surrender in 1940, territory in Slovenia and Dalmazia from Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1941 and Monaco in 1942. After World War II, the borders of present-day Italy were founded and the Kingdom abandoned its land claims; the Italian Empire gained territory until the end of World War II through colonies, military occupations and puppet states. These included Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia, British Somaliland, Tunisia, Kosovo, Montenegro and a 46-hectare concession from China in Tianjin; the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch; the legislative branch was a bicameral Parliament comprising an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdom's constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the former governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, by this time it was impossible for a king to appoint a government entirel

Counter-Strike (video game)

Counter-Strike is a first-person shooter video game developed by Valve. It was developed and released as a Half-Life modification by Minh "Gooseman" Le and Jess Cliffe in 1999, before Le and Cliffe were hired and the game's intellectual property acquired. Counter-Strike was released by Valve on the Microsoft Windows platform in 2000; the game spawned a franchise, is the first installment in the Counter-Strike series. Several remakes and ports of Counter-Strike have been released on the Xbox console, as well as OS X and Linux, it is referred to as Counter-Strike 1.6 to distinguish it from other titles of the series, 1.6 being the final major software update the game received. Set in various locations around the globe, players assume the roles of members of combating teams of the governmental counter-terrorist forces and various terrorist militants opposing them. During each round of gameplay, the two teams are tasked with defeating the other by the means of either achieving the map's objectives or else eliminating all of the enemy combatants.

Each player may customize their arsenal of weapons and accessories at the beginning of every match, with currency being earned after the end of each round. Counter-Strike is a first-person shooter game in which players join either the terrorist team, the counter-terrorist team, or become spectators; each team eliminate the opposing team. Each round starts with the two teams spawning simultaneously. All players have only one life by start with a pistol as well as a knife; the objectives vary depending on the type of map, these are the most usual ones: Bomb defusal: The terrorists must carry a bomb, plant it on one of the designated spots and protect it from being disarmed by the counter-terrorists before it explodes to win. The counter-terrorists win. Hostage rescue: The counter-terrorists must rescue a group of hostages held by the terrorists to win; the terrorists win. Assassination: One of the counter-terrorists is chosen to act as a VIP and the team must escort this player to a designated spot on the map to win the game.

The terrorists win if the time runs out with no conclusion. A player can choose to play as one of eight different default character models. Players are given a few seconds before the round begins to prepare and buy equipment, during which they cannot attack or move, they can return to the buy area within a set amount of time to buy more equipment. Once the round has ended, surviving players retain their equipment for use in the next round. Standard monetary bonuses are awarded for winning a round, losing a round, killing an enemy, being the first to instruct a hostage to follow, rescuing a hostage, planting the bomb or defusing the bomb; the scoreboard displays team scores in addition to statistics for each player: name, kills and ping. The scoreboard indicates whether a player is dead, carrying the bomb, or is the VIP, although information on players on the opposing team is hidden from a player until his/her death, as this information can be important. Killed players become "spectators" for the duration of the round.

Spectators are able to watch the rest of the round from multiple selectable views, although some servers disable some of these views to prevent dead players from relaying information about living players to their teammates through alternative media. This form of cheating is known as "ghosting." Counter-Strike began as a mod atop Half-Life' engine GoldSrc. Minh Le, the mod's co-creator, had started his last semester at university, wanted to do something in game development to help give him better job prospects. Throughout university, Le had worked on mods with the Quake engine, on looking for this latest project, wanted to try something new and opted for GoldSrc. At the onset, Valve had not yet released the software development kit for GoldSrc but affirmed it would be available in a few months, allowing Le to work on the character models in the interim. Once the GoldSrc SDK was available, Le estimated it took him about a month and a half to complete the programming and integrate his models for "Beta One" of Counter-Strike.

To assist, Le had help from Jess Cliffe who managed the game's website and community, had contacts within level map making community to help build some of the levels for the game. The theme of countering terrorists was inspired by Le's own interest in guns and the military, from games like Rainbow Six and Spec Ops. Le and Cliffe continued to release Betas on a frequent basis for feedback; the initial few Betas, released starting in June 1999, had limited audiences but by the fifth one, interest in the project grew. The interest in the game drew numerous players to the website, which helped Le and Cliffe to make revenue from ads hosted on the site. Around 2000 at the time of Beta 5's release, the two were approached by Valve, offering to buy the Counter-Strike intellectual property and offering

Abbot, Maine

Abbot is a town in Piscataquis County, United States. The population was 714 at the 2010 census, it was named for the treasurer of John Abbot. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.70 square miles, of which, 34.53 square miles of it is land and 1.17 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 714 people, 311 households, 214 families living in the town; the population density was 20.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 572 housing units at an average density of 16.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.3% White, 0.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.6% of the population. There were 311 households of which 23.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.2% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.62. The median age in the town was 49.3 years. 17.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.7 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 630 people, 272 households, 196 families living in the town; the population density was 18.1 people per square mile. There were 461 housing units at an average density of 13.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.25% White, 0.16% African American, 0.63% Native American, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.32% from two or more races. There were 272 households out of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.68.

In the town, the population was spread 19.5% under the age of 18, 4.4% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 32.5% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,229, the median income for a family was $36,827. Males had a median income of $29,000 versus $22,955 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,001. About 6.4% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 20.5% of those age 65 or over. Voter registration Photograph of Abbot, Maine, ca. 1900, from the Maine Memory Network