El Dorado El Hombre Dorado or El Rey Dorado, was the term used by the Spanish Empire to describe a mythical tribal chief of the Muisca native people in Spanish colonial province of Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita. The legends surrounding El Dorado changed over time, as it went from being a man, to a city, to a kingdom, finally to an empire. A second location for El Dorado was inferred from rumors, which inspired several unsuccessful expeditions in the late 1500s in search of a city called Manõa on the shores of Lake Parime. Two of the most famous of these expeditions were led by Sir Walter Raleigh. In pursuit of the legend, Spanish conquistadors and numerous others searched Colombia and parts of Guyana and northern Brazil for the city and its fabulous king. In the course of these explorations, much of northern South America, including the Amazon River, was mapped. By the beginning of the 19th century, most people dismissed the existence of the city as a myth.
Several literary works have used the name in their titles, sometimes as "El Dorado", other times as "Eldorado". The Muisca occupied the highlands of Cundinamarca and Boyacá departments of Colombia in two migrations from outlying lowland areas, one starting c. 1270 BCE, a second between 800 BCE and 500 BCE. At those times, other more ancient civilizations flourished in the highlands; the Muisca Confederation was as advanced as the Aztec and Inca civilizations. In the mythology of the Muisca, Mnya the Gold or golden color, represents the energy contained in the trinity of Chiminigagua, which constitutes the creative power of everything that exists. Chiminigagua is related to Bachué, Chibchacum and Nencatacoa; the original narrative can be found in the rambling chronicle El Carnero of Juan Rodriguez Freyle. According to Freyle, the zipa of the Muisca, in a ritual at Lake Guatavita near present-day Bogotá, was said to be covered with gold dust, which he washed off in the lake while his attendants threw objects made of gold and precious stones into the lake - such as tunjos.
In 1638, Freyle wrote this account of the ceremony, addressed to the cacique or governor of Guatavita: The ceremony took place on the appointment of a new ruler. Before taking office, he spent some time secluded in a cave, without women, forbidden to eat salt, or to go out during daylight; the first journey he had to make was to go to the great lagoon of Guatavita, to make offerings and sacrifices to the demon which they worshipped as their god and lord. During the ceremony which took place at the lagoon, they made a raft of rushes and decorating it with the most attractive things they had, they put on it four lighted braziers in which they burned much moque, the incense of these natives, resin and many other perfumes. The lagoon was large and deep, so that a ship with high sides could sail on it, all loaded with an infinity of men and women dressed in fine plumes, golden plaques and crowns.... As soon as those on the raft began to burn incense, they lit braziers on the shore, so that the smoke hid the light of day.
At this time, they stripped the heir to his skin, anointed him with a sticky earth on which they placed gold dust so that he was covered with this metal. They placed him on the raft... and at his feet they placed a great heap of gold and emeralds for him to offer to his god. In the raft with him went four principal subject chiefs, decked in plumes, bracelets and ear rings all of gold. They, were naked, each one carried his offering... when the raft reached the centre of the lagoon, they raised a banner as a signal for silence. The gilded Indian then... out all the pile of gold into the middle of the lake, the chiefs who had accompanied him did the same on their own accounts.... After this they lowered the flag, which had remained up during the whole time of offering, and, as the raft moved towards the shore, the shouting began again, with pipes and large teams of singers and dancers. With this ceremony the new ruler was received, was recognised as lord and king; this is the ceremony that became the famous El Dorado, which has taken so many fortunes.
There is an account, titled The Quest of El Dorado, by poet-priest and historian of the Conquest Juan de Castellanos, who had served under Jiménez de Quesada in his campaign against the Muisca, written in the mid-16th century but not published until 1850: According to Spanish historian Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo: He went about all covered with powdered gold, as casually as if it were powdered salt. For it seemed to him that to wear any other finery was less beautiful, that to put on ornaments or arms made of gold worked by hammering, stamping, or by other means, was a vulgar and common thing. In the Muisca territories, there were a number of natural locations considered sacred, including lakes, rivers and large rocks. People gathered here to perform rituals and sacrifices with gold and emeralds. Important lakes were Lake Guatavita, Lake Iguaque, Lake Fúquene, Lake Tota, the Siecha Lakes, Lake Teusacá and Lake Ubaque. El Dorado is applied to a legendary story in which precious stones were found in fabulous abundance along with gold coins.
The concept of El Dorado underwent several transformations, accounts of the previous myth were combined with those of a legendary lost city. The resulting El Dorado myth enticed European explorers for two centuries. Among the earliest stories was the one told on his deathbed by Juan Martinez, a captain of munitions for Spanish adventurer Di
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica; the Indian Ocean is named after India. Called the Sindhu Mahasagara or the great sea of the Sindhu by the Ancient Indians, this ocean has been variously called Hindu Ocean, Indic Ocean, etc. in various languages. The Indian Ocean was known earlier as the Eastern Ocean; the term was still in use during the mid-18th century. The borders of the Indian Ocean, as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization in 1953 included the Southern Ocean but not the marginal seas along the northern rim, but in 2000 the IHO delimited the Southern Ocean separately, which removed waters south of 60°S from the Indian Ocean, but included the northern marginal seas. Meridionally, the Indian Ocean is delimited from the Atlantic Ocean by the 20° east meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas, from the Pacific Ocean by the meridian of 146°49'E, running south from the southernmost point of Tasmania.
The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is 30° north in the Persian Gulf. The Indian Ocean covers 70,560,000 km2, including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf but excluding the Southern Ocean, or 19.5% of the world's oceans. The ocean's continental shelves are narrow. An exception is found off Australia's western coast; the average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m. Its deepest point is Sunda Trench at a depth of 7,450 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the main basin is covered by pelagic sediments, of which more than half is globigerina ooze; the remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments. Glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes; the major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca and the Palk Strait. Seas include the Gulf of Aden, Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Laccadive Sea, Gulf of Mannar, Mozambique Channel, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea and other tributary water bodies.
The Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, accessible via the Red Sea. All of the Indian Ocean is in the Eastern Hemisphere and the centre of the Eastern Hemisphere, the 90th meridian east, passes through the Ninety East Ridge. Marginal seas, gulfs and straits of the Indian Ocean include: Several features make the Indian Ocean unique, it constitutes the core of the large-scale Tropical Warm Pool which, when interacting with the atmosphere, affects the climate both regionally and globally. Asia prevents the ventilation of the Indian Ocean thermocline; that continent drives the Indian Ocean monsoon, the strongest on Earth, which causes large-scale seasonal variations in ocean currents, including the reversal of the Somali Current and Indian Monsoon Current. Because of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation there is no continuous equatorial easterlies. Upwelling occurs near the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula in the Northern Hemisphere and north of the trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Indonesian Throughflow is a unique Equatorial connection to the Pacific. The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April. In the Arabian Sea the violent Monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere, the winds are milder, but summer storms near Mauritius can be severe; when the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean in the world. Long-term ocean temperature records show a rapid, continuous warming in the Indian Ocean, at about 0.7–1.2 °C during 1901–2012. Indian Ocean warming is the largest among the tropical oceans, about 3 times faster than the warming observed in the Pacific. Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, changes in the frequency and magnitude of El Niño events are a trigger to this strong warming in the Indian Ocean. South of the Equator the Indian Ocean is gaining heat from June to October, during the austral winter, while it is losing heat from November to March, during the austral summer.
Among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi and Jubba in Africa. The ocean's currents are controlled by the monsoon. Two large gyres, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, constitute the dominant flow pattern. During the winter monsoon, circulation is reversed north of 30°S and winds are weakened during winter and the transitional periods between the monsoons. Deep water circulation is controlled by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, Antarctic currents. North of 20 ° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, including several countries. The term southern Africa or Southern Africa includes Angola, Eswatini, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, though Angola may be included in Central Africa and Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe in East Africa. From a political perspective the region is said to be unipolar with South Africa as a first regional power. Another geographic delineation for the region is the portion of Africa south of the Cunene and Zambezi Rivers – that is: South Africa, Eswatini, Botswana and the part of Mozambique which lies south of the Zambezi River; this definition is most used in South Africa for natural sciences and in guide books such as Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa, the Southern African Bird Atlas Project and Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. It is not used in political, economic or human geography contexts because this definition cuts Mozambique in two.
In the United Nations scheme of geographic regions, five states constitute Southern Africa: Botswana Eswatini Lesotho Namibia South AfricaThe Southern African Customs Union, created in 1969 comprises the five states in the UN subregion of Southern Africa. The Southern African Development Community was established in 1980 to facilitate co-operation in the region, it includes: Angola Botswana Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Eswatini Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe The region is sometimes reckoned to include other territories: Angola – part of Central Africa in the UN scheme. Comoros, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Zambia, Zimbabwe – part of Eastern Africa in the UN scheme; the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, though more reckoned in Central and Eastern Africa are included in Southern Africa as they are SADC members. The terrain of Southern Africa is varied; the region has both low-lying coastal areas, mountains.
In terms of natural resources, the region has the world's largest resources of platinum and the platinum group elements, chromium and cobalt, as well as uranium, copper, titanium and diamonds. The region is distinct from the rest of Africa, with some of its main exports including platinum, gold, copper and uranium, but it is similar in that it shares some of the problems of the rest of the continent. While colonialism has left its mark on the development over the course of history, today poverty, HIV/AIDS are some of the biggest factors impeding economic growth; the pursuit of economic and political stability is an important part of the region's goals, as demonstrated by the SADC. In terms of economic strength, South Africa is by far the dominant power of the region. South Africa's GDP alone is many times greater than the GDP's of all other countries in the region. Mining and tourism sectors dominate the economies of Southern African countries, apart from South Africa which has a mature and flourishing financial sector, retail sector, construction sector.
Most global banks have their regional offices for Southern Africa based in Johannesburg, South Africa. Over the years, some the other Southern African nations have invested in economic diversification, invested public funds into rail and air transportation as part of a concerted effort through SADC to boost regional trade and improve communication and transportation; the countries in this region belong to the Southern Africa Power Pool, which facilitates the development of a competitive electricity market within the SADC region and ensures sustainable energy developments through sound economic and social practices. The main objective of the power pool is to develop a world class and safe interconnected electrical system across the Southern African Region. According to a report by Southern Africa Power Pool, the three largest producers of electricity in Southern Africa as at 2017, include Eskom in South Africa with an estimated 46,963MW, Zesco in Zambia with 2,877MW and SNL of Angola with 2,442MW.
Southern Africa has a wide diversity of ecoregions including grassland, karoo and riparian zones. Though considerable disturbance has occurred in some regions from habitat loss due to human overpopulation or export-focused development, there remain significant numbers of various wildlife species, including white rhino, African leopard, kudu, blue wildebeest, vervet monkey and elephant, it has complex Plateaus. There are numerous environmental issues in Southern Africa, including air pollution and desertification. Southern Africa is home to many people, it was populated by indigenous or native Africans San and Pygmies in dispersed concentrations. Due to the Bantu expansion which edged the previous native African peoples to the more remote areas of the region, the majority of African ethnic groups in this region, including the Xhosa, Tsonga, Northern Ndebele, Southern Ndebele, Tswana and Shona people, BaLunda, Ovimbundu, Shona and Sukuma, speak Bantu languages; the process of colonization and settling resulted in a significant population of native European and Asian descent in many southern African co
A prince is a male ruler ranked below a king and above a duke or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is a title of nobility hereditary, in some European states; the feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus and capio, meaning "the chief, most distinguished, prince"; the Latin word prīnceps, became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire, the princeps senatus. Emperor Augustus established the formal position of monarch on the basis of principate, not dominion, he tasked his grandsons as summer rulers of the city when most of the government were on holiday in the country or attending religious rituals, for that task, granted them the title of princeps. The title has generic and substantive meanings: generically, prince refers to a member of a family that ruled by hereditary right, the title referring either to sovereigns or to cadets of a sovereign's family.
The term may be broadly used of persons in various continents or eras. In Europe, it is the title borne by dynastic cadets in monarchies, borne by courtesy by members of reigning dynasties. as a substantive title, a prince was a monarch of the lowest rank in post-Napoleonic Europe, e.g. Princes of Andorra, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Monaco and Pyrmont, etc. substantively, the title was granted by popes and secular monarchs to specific individuals and to the heads of some high-ranking European families who, never exercised dynastic sovereignty and whose cadets are not entitled to share the princely title, viz the Princes de Beauvau-Craon, von Bismarck, von Dohna-Schlobitten, von Eulenburg, de Faucigny-Lucinge, von Lichnowsky, von Pless, Ruffo di Calabria, von Sagan, van Ursel, etc. generically, cadets of some non-sovereign families whose head bears the non-dynastic title of prince were sometimes authorized to use the princely title, e.g. von Carolath-Beuthen, de Broglie, Demidoff di San Donato, Lieven, de Merode, Radziwill, von Wrede, etc. substantively, the heirs apparent in some monarchies use a specific princely title associated with a territory within the monarch's realm, e.g. the Princes of Asturias, Grão Pará, Viana, etc. substantively, it became the fashion from the 17th century for the heirs apparent of the leading ducal families to assume a princely title, associated with a seigneurie in the family's possession.
These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, e.g. the princes de Bidache, Tonnay-Charente, Poix, Léon, The original, but now less common use of the word, originated in the application of the Latin word princeps, from late Roman law, the classical system of government that gave way to the European feudal society. In this sense, a prince is a ruler of a territory, sovereign, or quasi-sovereign, i.e. exercising substantial prerogatives associated with monarchs of independent nations, such as the immediate states within the historical boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories in Italy and Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, "prince" is used of all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank; this is the Renaissance use of the term found in Il Principe. As a title, by the end of the medieval era, prince was borne by rulers of territories that were either smaller than or exercised fewer of the rights of sovereignty than did emperors and kings.
A lord of a quite small territory might come to be referred to as a prince before the 13th century, either from translations of a native title into the Latin princeps, or when the lord's territory was allodial. The lord of an allodium owned his lands and exercised prerogatives over the subjects in his territory owing no feudal homage or duty as a vassal to a liege lord, nor being subject to any higher jurisdiction. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the Princedom of Dombes. Lords who exercised lawful authority over territories and people within a feudal hierarchy were sometimes regarded as princes in the general sense if they held the rank of count or higher; this is attested in some surviving styles for e.g. British earls and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high and noble princes. In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles.
While this meant that offices, such as emperor and elector could only be occupied by one dynast at a time, holders of such other titles as duke, landgrave, count palatine, prince could only differentiate themselves by adding the name of their appanage to the family's original title. Not only did this tend to proliferate unwieldy titles, but as agnatic primogeniture became the norm in the Holy Roman Empire by the end of the 18th century, another me
Willem Janszoon Blaeu abbreviated to Willem Jansz. Blaeu, was a Dutch cartographer, atlas publisher. Along with his son Johannes Blaeu, Willem is considered one of the notable figures of the Netherlandish/Dutch school of cartography in its golden age. Blaeu was born at Alkmaar; as the son of a well-to-do herring salesman, he was destined to succeed his father in the trade, but his interests lay more in mathematics and astronomy. Between 1594 and 1596, as a student of the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, he qualified as an instrument and globe maker. In 1600 he discovered the second variable star, now known as P Cygni. Once he returned to Holland, he made country maps and world globes, as he possessed his own printing works, he was able to produce country maps in an atlas format, some of which appeared in the Atlas Novus published in 1635. In 1633 he was appointed map-maker of the Dutch East India Company, he was an editor and published works of Willebrord Snell, Adriaan Metius, Roemer Visscher, Gerhard Johann Vossius, Hugo Grotius and the historian and poet Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft.
He died in Amsterdam. He had two sons and Cornelis Blaeu, who continued their father's mapmaking and publishing business after his death in 1638. Prints of the family's works are still sold today. Original maps are rare collector items. Blaeu's maps were featured in the works of the Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer of Delft, who holds a position of great honor among map historians. Several of his paintings illustrate maps hanging on globes standing on tables or cabinets. Vermeer painted these cartographical documents with such detail that it is possible to identify the actual maps. Evidently, Vermeer was attached to a Willem Blaeu – Balthasar Florisz van Berckenrode map of Holland and West Friesland, as he represented it as a wall decoration in three of his paintings. Though no longer extant, the map's existence is known from archival sources and the second edition published by Willem Blaeu in 1621, titled Nova et Accurata Totius Hollandiae Westfriesiaeq. Topographia, Descriptore Balthazaro Florentio a Berkerode Batavo.
Vermeer must have had a copy at his disposal. Around 1658 he showed it as a wall decoration in his painting Officer and Laughing Girl, which depicts a soldier in a large hat sitting with his back to viewer, talking with a smiling girl who holds a glass in her hand. Bright sunlight bathes the large map on the wall. Vermeer's gift for realism is evidenced by the fact that the wall map, mounted on linen and wooden rods, is identifiable as Blaeu's 1621 map of Holland and West Friesland, he captures faithfully its characteristic design and geographic content. His maps formed the bulk of the Atlas Maior. Aardglobe Hemelglobe Nieuw Graetboeck Nywe Paskaerte't Licht der zeevaert Spieghel der Schrijfkonste "Nova et Accurata Totius Hollandiae Westfriesiaeq. Topographia, Descriptore Balthazaro Florentio a Berkerode Batavo" Tafelen van de declinatie der Sonne Tafelen van de breedte van de opgang der Sonne Zeespiegel, inhoudende een korte onderwysinghe inde konst der zeevaert, en beschryvinghe der seen en kusten van de oostersche, noordsche, en westersche schipvaert Pascaarte van alle de zeecusten van Europa Tweevoudigh onderwijs van de Hemelsche en Aerdsche globen.
Copernicus met een loopenden aerdkloot. Atlantis Appendix Appendix Theatri... et Atlantis... Atlas Novus Atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Toonneel des Aerdrycks Le Theatre du Monde Theatre du monde ou Nouvel Atlas Krogt, van der, Peter CJ, Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici II: The Folio Atlases Published by Willem Jansz. Blaeu and Joan Blaeu, Houten: Hes & De Graaf publishers BV, ISBN 90-6194-438-4 P. J. H. Baudet: Leven en werken van Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Utrecht 1871. Johannes Keuning and Marijke Donkersloot-de Vrij: Willem Jansz. Blaeu: a biography and history of his work as cartographer and publisher, Amsterdam 1973. ISBN 90-221-1253-5 Joan Blaeu Atlas Maior Hessel Gerritsz Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography Cartography in the Dutch Republic History of cartography Information about Willem Blaeu: Galileo Project facts on Willem Blaeu Literature by and about Willem Blaeu in the German National Library catalogue Selection of scanned maps by Willem Blaeu, Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, The National Library of Israel.
List in Library catalog. Books published by Willem Blaeu: Willem Blaeu Het Licht der Zee-vaert, Amsterdam 1608, Universitätsbibliothek MarburgFor maps created by Willem Blaeu, but published by his son Joan Blaeu, go to Joan Blaeu#External links. Information on how Willem Blaeu's maps perpetuated the European notion of America's Indians: “Making Sense of the Pre-Columbian,” Vistas: Visual Culture in Spanish America, 1520-1820
The Zambezi is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its basin is 1,390,000 square kilometres less than half of the Nile's; the 2,574-kilometre-long river rises in Zambia and flows through eastern Angola, along the north-eastern border of Namibia and the northern border of Botswana along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe to Mozambique, where it crosses the country to empty into the Indian Ocean. The Zambezi's most noted feature is Victoria Falls. Other notable falls include the Chavuma Falls at the border between Zambia and Angola, Ngonye Falls, near Sioma in Western Zambia. There are two main sources of hydroelectric power on the river, the Kariba Dam, which provides power to Zambia and Zimbabwe, the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique, which provides power to Mozambique and South Africa. There are additional two smaller power stations along the Zambezi River in Zambia, one at Victoria Falls and the other one near Kalene Hill in Ikelenge District.
The river rises in a black marshy dambo in dense undulating miombo woodland 50 kilometres north of Mwinilunga and 20 kilometres south of Ikelenge in the Ikelenge District of North-Western Province, Zambia at about 1,524 metres above sea level. The area around the source is forest reserve and Important Bird Area. Eastward of the source, the watershed between the Congo and Zambezi basins is a well-marked belt of high ground, running nearly east-west and falling abruptly to the north and south; this distinctly cuts off the basin of the Lualaba from that of the Zambezi. In the neighborhood of the source the watershed is not as defined, but the two river systems do not connect; the region drained by the Zambezi is a vast broken-edged plateau 900–1200 m high, composed in the remote interior of metamorphic beds and fringed with the igneous rocks of the Victoria Falls. At Shupanga, on the lower Zambezi, thin strata of grey and yellow sandstones, with an occasional band of limestone, crop out on the bed of the river in the dry season, these persist beyond Tete, where they are associated with extensive seams of coal.
Coal is found in the district just below Victoria Falls. Gold-bearing rocks occur in several places; the river flows to the southwest into Angola for about 240 kilometres is joined by sizeable tributaries such as the Luena and the Chifumage flowing from highlands to the north-west. It turns south and develops a floodplain, with extreme width variation between the dry and rainy seasons, it enters dense evergreen Cryptosepalum dry forest, though on its western side, Western Zambezian grasslands occur. Where it re-enters Zambia it is nearly 400 metres wide in the rainy season and flows with rapids ending in the Chavuma Falls, where the river flows through a rocky fissure; the river drops about 400 metres in elevation from its source at 1,500 metres to the Chavuma Falls at 1,100 metres, in a distance of about 400 kilometres. From this point to the Victoria Falls, the level of the basin is uniform, dropping only by another 180 metres in a distance of around 800 kilometres; the first of its large tributaries to enter the Zambezi is the Kabompo River in the northwestern province of Zambia.
A major advantage of the Kabompo River was irrigation. The savanna through which the river has flowed gives way to a wide floodplain, studded with Borassus fan palms. A little farther south is the confluence with the Lungwebungu River; this is the beginning of the Barotse Floodplain, the most notable feature of the upper Zambezi, but this northern part does not flood so much and includes islands of higher land in the middle. Thirty kilometres below the confluence of the Lungwebungu the country becomes flat, the typical Barotse Floodplain landscape unfolds, with the flood reaching a width of 25 km in the rainy season. For more than 200 km downstream the annual flood cycle dominates the natural environment and human life and culture. Eighty kilometres further down, the Luanginga, which with its tributaries drains a large area to the west, joins the Zambezi. A few kilometres higher up on the east the main stream is joined in the rainy season by overflow of the Luampa/Luena system. A short distance downstream of the confluence with the Luanginga is Lealui, one of the capitals of the Lozi people who populate the Zambian region of Barotseland in Western Province.
The chief of the Lozi maintains one of his two compounds at Lealui. The annual move from Lealui to Limulunga is a major event, celebrated as one of Zambia's best known festivals, the Kuomboka. After Lealui, the river turns to south-south-east. From the east it continues to receive numerous small streams, but on the west is without major tributaries for 240 km. Before this, the Ngonye Falls and subsequent rapids interrupt navigation. South of Ngonye Falls, the river borders Namibia's Caprivi Strip; the strip projects from the main body of Namibia, results from the colonial era: it was added to German South-West Africa expressly to give Germany access to the Zambezi. Below the junction of the Cuando River and the Zambezi the river bends due east. Here, the river is broad and shallow, flows but as it flows eastward towards the border of the great central plateau of Africa it reaches a chasm into which the Victoria Falls plunge; the Victoria Falls are considered the boundary between the middle Zambezi.
Below them the river continues to flow due east for about 20