Operation Flash was a brief Croatian Army offensive conducted against the forces of the self-declared Republic of Serbian Krajina from 1–3 May 1995. The offensive occurred in the stages of the Croatian War of Independence and was the first major confrontation after ceasefire and economic cooperation agreements were signed between Croatia and the RSK in 1994; the last organised RSK resistance formally ceased on 3 May, with the majority of troops surrendering the next day near Pakrac, although mop-up operations continued for another two weeks. Operation Flash was a strategic victory for Croatia resulting in the capture of a 558-square-kilometre salient held by RSK forces centred in and around the town of Okučani; the town, which sat astride the Zagreb–Belgrade motorway and railroad, had presented Croatia with significant transport problems between the nation's capital Zagreb and the eastern region of Slavonia as well as between non-contiguous territories held by the RSK. The area was a part of United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation Sector West under the United Nations Security Council peacekeeping mandate in Croatia.
The attacking force consisted of 7,200 HV troops, supported by the Croatian special police, arrayed against 3,500 RSK soldiers. In response to the operation, the RSK military bombarded Zagreb and other civilian centres, causing seven fatalities and injuries to 205. Forty-two HV soldiers and Croatian policemen were killed in 162 wounded. RSK casualties are disputed—Croatian authorities cited the deaths of 188 Serb soldiers and civilians with an estimated 1,000–1,200 wounded. Serbian sources, on the other hand, claimed that 283 Serb civilians were killed, contrary to the 83 reported by the Croatian Helsinki Committee, it is estimated that out of 14,000 Serbs living in the region, two-thirds fled with more following in subsequent weeks. By the end of June, it is estimated. Subsequently, the personal representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations Yasushi Akashi criticised Croatia for "mass violations" of human rights, but his statements were refuted by the Human Rights Watch and to some extent by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights rapporteur Tadeusz Mazowiecki.
The 1990 revolt of the Croatian Serbs was centred on the predominantly Serb-populated areas of the Dalmatian hinterland around Knin, parts of the Lika, Banovina regions and in eastern Croatian settlements with significant Serb populations, as well as parts of western Slavonia centred on Pakrac and Okučani. In the early stages of the Log Revolution, tens of thousands of Serbs fled from Croatian controlled cities, leading to the formation of a single political entity known as the Republic of Serbian Krajina; the RSK's proclaimed intention to integrate politically with Serbia was viewed by the Croatian Government as an act of rebellion. By March 1991, the conflict had escalated to war—the Croatian War of Independence. In June 1991, with the breakup of Yugoslavia, Croatia declared its independence, which came into effect on 8 October after a three-month moratorium. From late October to late December 1991, the HV conducted Operations Otkos 10 and Orkan 91 recapturing 60% of RSK-occupied western Slavonia, resulting in Serbs fleeing from the area, while some were killed in a death camp in Pakračka Poljana.
A campaign of ethnic cleansing was initiated by the RSK against Croatian civilians and most non-Serbs were expelled by early 1993. After the end of the war, thousands of civilians murdered by the Serb troops were exhumed from mass graves; as the Yugoslav People's Army supported the RSK and the Croatian Police was unable to cope with the situation, the Croatian National Guard was formed in May 1991. The ZNG was renamed the Croatian Army in November; the establishment of the military of Croatia was hampered by a United Nations arms embargo introduced in September. The final months of 1991 saw the fiercest fighting of the war, culminating in the Battle of the barracks, the Siege of Dubrovnik, the Battle of Vukovar; the western Slavonia area became the scene of a JNA offensive in September and October aimed at severing all transport links between the Croatian capital and Slavonia. Though the HV managed to reclaim much territory gained by the JNA advance in operations Otkos 10 and Orkan 91, it failed to secure the Zagreb–Belgrade motorway and railroad significant for the defence of Slavonia.
In January 1992, the Sarajevo Agreement was signed by representatives of Croatia, the JNA and the UN, fighting between the two sides was paused. Ending the series of unsuccessful ceasefires, United Nations Protection Force was deployed to Croatia to supervise and maintain the agreement; the conflict passed on to entrenched positions and the JNA soon retreated from Croatia into Bosnia and Herzegovina, where a new conflict was anticipated, but Serbia continued to support the RSK. HV advances restored small areas to Croatian control—through Operation Maslenica. and as the siege of Dubrovnik was lifted. Croatian towns and villages were intermittently attacked by missiles. Cities in the RSK were fired on by Croatian forces; the Republika Srpska, Serb-held territory in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was involved in the war in a limited capacity, through military and other aid to the RSK, occasional air raids launched from Banja Luka, most through artillery attacks against several cities. The HV deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina in a campaign against the Bosnian Serbs.
The intervention was formalized on 22 July 1995, when Croatian President Franjo Tuđman and the Bosnian president, Alija Izetbegović, signed Split Agreement on
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Battle of Osijek
The Battle of Osijek was the artillery bombardment of the Croatian city of Osijek by the Yugoslav People's Army which took place from August 1991 to June 1992 during the Croatian War of Independence. Shelling peaked in late November and December 1991 diminished in 1992 after the Vance plan was accepted by the combatants. Airstrikes and attacks by JNA infantry and armored units against targets in the city accompanied the bombardment, which caused 800 deaths and resulted in a large portion of the city's population leaving. Croatian sources estimated. After the JNA captured Vukovar on 18 November 1991, Osijek was the next target for its campaign in Croatia; the JNA units subordinated to the 12th Corps, supported by the Serb Volunteer Guard, achieved modest advances in late November and early December, capturing several villages south of Osijek, but the Croatian Army maintained its defensive front and limited the JNA's advances. In the aftermath of the Battle of Osijek, Croatian authorities charged thirteen JNA officers with war crimes against civilians, but no arrests have been made to date.
Croatian authorities charged the wartime commander of Osijek's defence, Branimir Glavaš, five others with war crimes committed in the city in 1991. The five were convicted and received sentences ranging between eight and ten years, as of March 2015, judicial proceedings against Glavaš are in progress. In 1990, following the electoral defeat of the government of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, ethnic tensions worsened; the Yugoslav People's Army confiscated the weapons of Croatia's Territorial Defence to minimize potential resistance. On 17 August 1990, the escalating tensions turned into open revolt by the Croatian Serbs; the revolt took place in the predominantly Serb-populated areas of the Dalmatian hinterland around Knin and in parts of the Lika, Banovina regions and eastern Croatia. In January 1991, supported by Montenegro and Serbia's provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo, made two unsuccessful attempts to obtain approval from the Yugoslav Presidency to deploy the JNA to disarm Croatian security forces.
After a bloodless skirmish between Serb insurgents and Croatian special police in March, the JNA itself, supported by Serbia and its allies, asked the federal Presidency to grant it wartime powers and declare a state of emergency. The request was denied on 15 March 1991, the JNA came under the control of Serbian President Slobodan Milošević in the summer of 1991 as the Yugoslav federation started to fall apart. By the end of the month, the conflict had escalated; the JNA stepped in to support the insurgents and prevent Croatian police from intervening. In early April, leaders of the Serb revolt in Croatia announced their intention to integrate the areas under their control with Serbia; the Government of Croatia considered this an act of secession. The JNA intervened directly against Croatia for the first time on 3 July 1991, driving Croatian forces out of Baranja, north of the city of Osijek, out of Erdut, Aljmaš and Dalj east of Osijek; the advance was followed by intermittent fighting around Osijek and Vinkovci.
At several points, JNA positions approached to within several hundred yards of Osijek city limits. The JNA units near Osijek were subordinated to the 12th Corps, commanded by Major General Andrija Biorčević. In the city itself, the JNA had several barracks which housed the 12th Proletarian Mechanised Brigade and the 12th Mixed Artillery Regiment; the 12th Proletarian Mechanised Brigade contained one of a handful battalions maintained by the JNA at full combat readiness. Osijek was established as their starting point in a planned westward offensive toward Našice and Bjelovar. Croatian forces in the area were formally subordinated to the Operational Zone Command in Osijek headed by Colonel Karl Gorinšek. In practice, the city's defense was overseen by Branimir Glavaš head of the National Defence Office in Osijek, according to information presented at Glavaš trial in the 2000s. Glavaš formally became commander of city defenses on 7 December 1991; the JNA first attacked Osijek by mortar fire on 31 July 1991, bombarded the city's center on 19 August 1991.
The attacks came from positions north and south of Osijek, were supported by JNA garrisons stationed in Osijek itself. On 7 -- 9 September, an inconclusive battle was fought within three kilometres of the city; the JNA garrisons were besieged by Croatian forces in mid-September. After a barracks in the city centre was captured on 15 September 1991, the remaining JNA garrison tried to break through the Croatian troops besieging the barracks and, after heavy fighting, reached JNA positions south of Osijek on 17 September 1991; the intensity of the shelling increased thereafter, peaking through December. After a ceasefire was arranged in January 1992, following the acceptance of the Vance plan, the artillery attacks dropped off and became intermittent, ceased by June. During its height, the intensity of the bombardment was reported to reach as high as one shell per minute, the artillery attacks were compounded by Yugoslav Air Force strikes against the city. According to Croatian sources, a total of 6,000 artillery shells were fired against Osijek in the period.
Prior to the start of the bombardment, the civilian population of Osijek totaled 104,761 city residents and 129,792 municipal residents. These numbers were reduced as civilians fled the fighting, it is estimated that only about a third of the population remained in the city by the end of November, with some sour
Sanjak of Syrmia
Sanjak of Syrmia was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire formed in 1541. It was part of the Budin Province. Administrative center of the Sanjak of Syrmia was from 1542 Uyluk and in the second half of the 17th century it was Dimitrofça. Most of the sanjak was ceded to Austria according to Treaty of Karlovitz in 1699. Remainder of the territory of sanjak was transferred to Sanjak of Semendire and was also ceded to Austria according to Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718. In 1583-87, Sanjak was divided into several nahijas: Dimitrofça Ilok Grgurevci Irig Podgajica Varadin Syrmia MorovićIn 1667, Sanjak was divided into several kadiluks: Dimitrofça Ilok Budim Irig Nijemci Rača Vukovar Grgurevci Slankamen Sanjak was populated by Orthodox Serbs and Muslims of various ethnic origins. Population of villages was Serb, while population of towns and cities was ethnically and religiously diverse; the largest city in sanjak was Dimitrofça, according to 1545-48 data was populated by Serbs and according to 1566-69 data by Muslims.
Subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire Syrmia Dr. Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 1, Novi Sad, 1990. Istorijski atlas, Beograd, 1999. N. Moačanin, Slavonija i Srijem u razdoblju osmanske vladavine, 2001. Željko Holjevac, Nenad Moačanin: Hrvatsko-slavonska Vojna krajina i Hrvati pod vlašću Osmanskoga carstva u ranome novom vijeku,2007. Seher Mitrovica - Mitrovica under the Turkish rule
Ban of Croatia
Ban of Croatia was the title of local rulers or office holders and after 1102, viceroys of Croatia. From earliest periods of Croatian state, some provinces were ruled by bans as a ruler's representative and supreme military commander. In the 18th century, Croatian bans became chief government officials in Croatia, they were at the head of Ban's Government the first prime ministers of Croatia. The institution of ban in Croatia persisted until the 20th century. South Slavic ban comes from the Turkic word bajan, which entered the Croatian language through the Avars. There are theories that it is an Illyrian derivative; the long form is directly attested in 10th-century Constantine Porphyrogenitus' book De Administrando Imperio as βοάνος, in a chapter dedicated to Croats and the organisation of their state, describing how their ban "has under his rule Krbava and Gacka." References from the earliest periods are scarce, but history recalls that the first known Croatian ban is Pribina from the 10th century.
In the early Middle Ages, the ban was the royal district governor of Lika and Krbava. The meaning of the title was elevated to that of provincial governor in the Kingdom of Croatia with some bans being successors to the Croatian Kingdom After the Croats elected King Coloman of Hungary as King of Croatia 1102, the title of ban acquired the meaning of viceroy. Bans were appointed by the Hungarian king as his representatives in Kingdom of Croatia, heads of the parliament and as supreme commander of Croatian Army. Croatia was governed by the viceregal ban as a whole from 1102 until 1225, when it was split into two separate regions of Slavonia and Croatia. Two different bans were appointed until 1476, when the institution of a single ban was resumed. Most bans were native nobles but some were of Hungarian ancestry. Most notable bans from this period were Pavao Šubić and Peter Berislavić. From 1225 to 1476, there were parallel Bans of Croatia and Dalmatia and of "Whole Slavonia"; the following is the list of the former, the latter are listed at the article Ban of Slavonia.
During the period of separate titles of ban, several persons held both titles, indicated in the notes. After the death of King Louis I of Hungary, his daughter Mary succeeded to the throne, which led to kings Charles III and Ladislaus of Naples claiming the Kigndom of Hungary. A war erupted between forces loyal to Mary, to her husband and successor Sigismund of Luxembourg, those loyal to Ladislaus. During this time, Sigismund appointed Nicholas II Garai the Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia in 1392, Butko Kurjaković in 1394, again Garai in the period from 1394 to 1397. Nicholas II Garai was at the time the Ban of Slavonia, succeeded by Ladislav Grđevački, Paul Besenyő, Pavao Peć, Hermann II of Celje. Ladislaus in turn appointed his own bans, including Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić. In 1409, this dynastic struggle was resolved when Ladislaus sold his rights over Dalmatia to the Republic of Venice. From 1476 onwards, the titles of Ban of Dalmatia and Croatia, Ban of "Whole Slavonia" are again united in the single title of Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia.
The title of ban persisted in Croatia after 1527 when the country became part of the Habsburg Monarchy, continued all the way until 1918. Among the most distinguished bans in Croatian history were the three members of Zrinski family Nikola Šubić Zrinski and his great-grandsons Nikola Zrinski and Petar Zrinski. There are two notable Erdődys: Toma Erdődy, great warrior and statesman, Ivan Erdődy, to whom Croatia owes much for protecting her rights against the Hungarian nobility, his most known saying in Latin is Regnum regno non praescribit leges In the 18th century, Croatian bans became chief government officials in Croatia, they were at the head of Ban's Government the first prime ministers of Croatia. The most known bans of that era were Josip Jelačić, Ivan Mažuranić and Josip Šokčević; the Habsburg dynasty ruled Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Slavonia between 1527 and 1918. Croatia was a Habsburg crown territory during the Revolutions of 1848 and up until 1867. Croatia was returned to Hungarian control in 1867 when the Habsburg Empire was reconstituted as the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
Between and 1918 the following bans were appointed: Ban was the title of the governor of each province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. The weight of the title was far less than that of a medieval ban's feudal office. Most of Croatian territory was divided between the Sava and Littoral Banovina, but some parts were outside this provinces. In 1939 Banovina of Croatia was created with Cvetković-Maček agreement as a unit of limited autonomy, it consisted of the Sava and Littoral Banovinas along with smaller parts of Vrbas, Zeta and Danube Banovina's. Ivan Šubašić was appointed for the Ban of Banovina of Croatia until the collapse of Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941. Šubašić was the last person who held the position of Croatian Ban. Following a brief period of self-rule at the end of World War I, Croatia was incorporated into the Kingdom of the Serbs and Slovenes in 1918, under the Karađorđević dynasty. In 1929, the new Constitution of the Kingdom renamed it Kingdom of Yugoslavia and split up the country into banovinas.
In 1939, the Banovina of Croatia was created with Cvetković-Maček agreement as a unit of limited autonomy wit
Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim was the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 May 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia; the son of Croatian Baron Franjo Jelačić Bužimski, a lieutenant Field Marshal, Austrian mother Anna Portner von Höflein, Jelačić was born in the town of Petrovaradin, at the time part of the Slavonian Military Frontier of the Habsburg Empire. He was educated in Vienna at the Theresian Military Academy, where he received a versatile education, showing particular interest in history and foreign languages, he entrained in the Austrian army on 11 March 1819 with the rank of lieutenant Vinko Freiherr von Knežević Regiment, named for his uncle. He was fluent in all South-Slavic languages, as well as German and French. On 1 May 1825 he was promoted to first lieutenant, to captain by 1 September 1830 in Karlovac, Croatia. On 17 October 1835, he led a military campaign against Bosnian Ottoman troops in Velika Kladuša for which he received a medal.
He was promoted to major on 20 February 1837 in the Freiherr von Gollner regiment, on the first of May in 1841 to lieutenant colonel in the 1st Croatian Frontier Guard Regiment in Glina, Croatia promoted to colonel on October 18. On 22 March, Jelačić was promoted to major-general, the Sabor elected him as Ban of Croatia; the Sabor declared that the first elections or representatives to the assembly would be held in May 1848. Jelačić was promoted to Lieutenant Field Marshal on 7 April 1848, becoming the commander of all Habsburg troops in Croatia. In 1850 he married daughter of Count Georg Stockau, in Napajedla. Jelačić supported independence for Croatia from the Austrian throne. However, in pursuit of this goal Jelačić sought to support this goal by ingratiating himself with the Austrian throne by supporting Austrian interests in putting down revolutionary movements in northern Italy in 1848 and in opposing the Hungarian Revolution of 1848–1849. Jelačić's, reputation differs in Austria where he was looked upon as a rebel seeking to break up the Austrian Empire, Croatia where he is a national hero, Hungary where he looked up as a traitor to the Hungarian Revolution for independence from Austrian throne.
He traveled to Vienna to take oaths to become counsel of Austrian Emperor, Ferdinand I of Austria, but refused to take the oath as Ban of Croatia, because it was a Hungarian dependent territory. The relations between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Austrian Empire deteriorated after the outbreak of the Hungarian Revolution on 15 March 1848, but he took the oath as Ban of Croatia on 5 June 1848. Because of the absence of Bishop Juraj Haulik, he took the oath before the Orthodox Patriarch Josif Rajačić. Jelačić, now Ban, supported the Croatian aim to maintain autonomy from the Kingdom of Hungary. Jelačić proceeded to sever all official ties of Croatia from Hungary; the Austrian Imperial Court opposed this act as one of disobedience and separatism, declaring him to be a rebel and the Sabor to be illegitimate. But the court soon realized Jelačić and his Croatian army were a support against the newly formed Batthyány Government. Traveling back to Zagreb in April, Jelačić refused to cede to this new government, refused any cooperation, called for elections to the Sabor on 25 March 1848.
The Sabor – now acting as the National Assembly – declared the following demands to the Habsburg emperor: The union of all Croatian provinces. Separation from the Kingdom of Hungary. Abolition of serfdom. Full civil rights. Affirmation of the equality of nations. Many of his points about civil rights were part of the Hungarian twelve points, were enacted by the Batthyány Government; the Sabor opposed the "massive nationalist Magyarization politics of the Kingdom of Hungary from the Carpathians to Adria, which the newly formed government represents Lajos Kossuth." On 8 April Jelačić took his banal oath and was appointed a field-marshal-lieutenant and made commander of the Military Frontier. On 19 April 1848 Jelačić proclaimed the union of Croatian provinces, the separation from the Kingdom of Hungary. At the same time, he proclaimed unconditional loyalty to the Habsburg monarchy; the Croatian Constitution of 24 April 1848 declared "languages of all ethnicities should be inviolable". On serfdom, it was apparent that changing the status of the Croatian peasantry would have to wait until the end of the revolution.
Jelačić kept up the institution of the Military Frontier. The people in the region protested to this, but Ban Jelačić quashed the dissent by summary courts martial and by executing many dissenters. In May, Jelačić established the Bansko Vijeće, its scope of authority covered ministerial tasks including Internal Affairs, Justice and Education, Religion and Defense, so this council was acting as a governing body in Croatia. The new Sabor was summoned on 5 June; the Austrian emperor called Jelačić to Innsbruck, to which the Imperial Court had fled, the Emperor there told him that the Croatian and Slavonian troops in the Italian provinces wanted to join forces with those in Croatia, but that this would weaken the forces in Italy. So Jelačić called on all troops stationed in the Italian provinces to stay put; the Austrian court did not grant the separation of Cro
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was a nominally autonomous kingdom and constitutionally defined separate political nation within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868. It was associated with the Hungarian Kingdom within the dual Austro-Hungarian state, being within the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen known as Transleithania. While Croatia has been granted a wide internal autonomy with "national features", in reality, Croatian control over key issues such as tax and military issues was minimal and hampered by Hungary, it was internally referred to as the Triune Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia simply know as the Triune Kingdom and had irredentist claims on Dalmatia, part of the Austrian Cisleithania. The city of Rijeka, following a fraud in the 1868 Settlement, known as the Rijeka Addendum became a Corpus separatum and was owned by Hungary, but administrated by both Croatia and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was ruled by the Habsburg Emperor of Austria under his title as King of Croatia and Dalmatia and was confirmed by the State Sabor upon enthronement. The King's appointed steward was the Ban of Slavonia. On 21 October 1918, Emperor Karl I, known as King Karlo IV in Croatia, issued a Trialist manifest, ratified by the Hungarian side on the next day and which unified all Croatian Crown Lands. One week on 29 October 1918, the Croatian Croatian State Sabor proclaimed an Independent Kingdom which entered the State of Slovenes and Serbs; the kingdom used the formal title of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia, thereby pressing its claim on the Kingdom of Dalmatia, but Dalmatia was a Kronland within the imperial Austrian part of Austria-Hungary. The claim was, for most of the time, supported by the Hungarian government, which backed the Croatia-Slavonia in an effort to increase its share of the dual state; the union between the two Croatian lands of Austria-Hungary never took place, however.
According to the Article 53 of the Croatian–Hungarian Agreement, governing Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary, the ban's official title was "Ban of Kingdom of Dalmatia and Slavonia". Not only would different parts of the Monarchy at the same time use different styles of the titles, but the same institutions would at the same time use different naming standards for the same institution. For instance, when the Imperial and Royal Court in Vienna would list the Croatian Ban as one of the Great Officers of State in the Kingdom of Hungary, the style used would be Regnorum Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae Banus, but when the Court would list the highest officials of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, the title would be styled as "Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia"; the laws passed in Croatia-Slavonia used the phrase "Kingdom of Dalmatia and Slavonia". In Hungarian, Croatia is referred to as Slavonia as Szlavónia; the combined polity was known by the official name of Horvát-Szlavón Királyság.
The short form of the name was Horvát-Szlavónország and, less Horvát-Tótország. The order of mentioning Dalmatia was a contentious issue, as it was ordered differently in the Croatian and Hungarian language versions of the 1868 Settlement; the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was created in 1868, when the former kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were joined into one single kingdom. The Croatian parliament, elected in a questionable manner, confirmed the subordination of Croatia-Slavonia to Hungary in 1868 with signing of Hungarian-Croatian union constitution called the Nagodba; this kingdom included parts of present-day Serbia. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the only remaining open question of the new state was the status of Croatia, which would be solved with the Hungarian-Croatian Compromise of 1868 when agreement was reached between the Parliament of Hungary on one hand and the Parliament of Croatia-Slavonia on the other hand, with regard to the composition by a joint enactment of the constitutional questions at issue between them.
Settlement reached between Hungary and Croatia was in Croatian version of the Settlement named "The Settlement between Kingdom of Hungary, united with Erdély on the one side and the Kingdoms of Dalmatia and Slavonia". In the Hungarian version neither Hungary, nor Croatia and Slavonia are styled kingdoms, Erdély is not mentioned, while Settlement is named as the Settlement between Parliament of Hungary and Parliament of Croatia and Dalmatia. Both versions received Royal sanction and both as such became fundamental laws of the state with constitutional importance, pursuant to article 69. and 70. of the Settlement. With this compromise the parliament of personal union controlled the military, the financial system, Sea Law, Commercial Law, the law of Bills of Exchange and Mining Law, matters of commerce, telegraphs, Post Office, harbours and those roads and riv