Kiowa people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains of the US. They migrated southward from western Montana into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the 17th and 18th centuries, into the Southern Plains by the early 19th century. In 1867, the Kiowa were moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Today, they are federally recognized as Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma with headquarters in Carnegie, Oklahoma; as of 2011, there were 12,000 members. The Kiowa language, part of the Tanoan language family, is still spoken today. Kiowa call themselves Ka'igwu, Cáuigù or Gaigwu, most given with the meaning "Principal People"; the first part of the name is the element Kae-, Cáui- or Gai- which means the Kiowa themselves – it may derive from the word ka' or from ka-a. The true origin is lost. Kae-kia means a Kiowa man; the second element -gua refers to "men or people", so the meaning of the two elements is "Kiowa people". Ancient names were Kútjàu or Kwu-da and Tep-da, relating to the tribal origin myth of a creator pulling people out of a hollow log until a pregnant woman got stuck.

They called themselves Kom-pa-bianta for "people with large tipi flaps", before they met Southern Plains tribes or before they met white men. Another explanation of their name "Kiowa" originated after their migration through what the Kiowa refer to as "The Mountains of the Kiowa" in the present eastern edge of Glacier National Park, just south of the border with Canada; the mountain pass they came through was populated by grizzly bear Kgyi-yo and Blackfoot people. Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa used sign language to describe them, by holding two straight fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these fingers back past the ear; this corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower outside edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a functional practice to keep their hair from getting tangled while they shot an arrow from a bow string. George Catlin painted Kiowa warriors with this hairstyle. For a time, the Kiowa are thought to have shared land in present-day eastern Colorado, with the Arapaho.

An Arapaho name for the Kiowa is "creek people", the Arapaho word for "creek" is koh'owu', which when pronounced has some resemblance to the current name "Kiowa". For example, the Kiowa are referred to as "creek people" in an oral narrative recited in 1993 by native Arapaho speaker Paul Moss. "Kiowa" may have been a transliteration by European Americans of a name by which the tribe was known among the Arapaho. The first part of the name is the element Kae-, Cáui- or Gai- which means the Kiowa themselves – it may derive from the word ka' or from ka-a; the true origin is lost. Kae-kia means a Kiowa man; the Kiowa language is a member of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family. The relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in 1910, was definitively established in 1967. Parker McKenzie, born 1897, was a noted authority on the Kiowa language, learning English only when he began school, he worked with John P. Harrington on the Kiowa language, he went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language changed to incorporate new items of material culture.

McKenzie's letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa language. Kiowa /ˈkaɪ.əwə/ or Cáuijògà / Cáuijò:gyà is a Tanoan language spoken by the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma in Caddo and Comanche counties. Additionally, Kiowa were one of the numerous nations across the US, Canada and Mexico that spoke Plains Sign Talk. A trade language, it became a language in its own right that remained in use across North America; the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes Caddo, Cotton, Kiowa and Washita Counties. Enrollment in the tribe requires a minimum blood quantum of ¼ Kiowa descent; as of 2020, the Kiowa Tribal chairman is Matthew M. Komalty, the vice-chairman is Rhonda J. Ahhaitty; the Kiowa Tribe issues its own vehicle tags. As of 2011, the tribe owns one smoke shop, two casinos, the Kiowa Red River Casino, Morningstar Steakhouse and Grill, Morningstar Buffet, The Winner's Circle restaurant in Devol and Kiowa Bingo near Carnegie, Oklahoma.

From the Northern Plains and migrating to the Southern Plains, Kiowa society follows bilateral descent, that is, both maternal and paternal lines are significant. They don't have clans but have a complex kinship-based system, societies based on age and gender. Tipis, conical lodges made from hide or canvas, provided lightweight, portable housing, they traded with neighboring agrarian tribes for produce. The Kiowa migrated seasonally with the American bison, they hunted antelope, deer and other wild game. Women collected varieties of wild berries and fruit and processed them with prepared meats to make pemmican. Dogs were used to pull rawhide parfleche that contained camping goods for short moves; the Kiowa tended to stay in areas for long periods of time. When they adopted horse culture, after acquiring horses from Spanish rancherias south of the Rio Grande, the Kiowa revolutionized their lifeways, they had much larger ranges for their seasonal hunting, horses could carry

Datun Sahib

Datun Sahib is the name of a tree in the main bazaar at Leh, Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Guru Nanak visited this site around 1516. There is no Gurudwara at the site, but the remains of a large meswak tree are located behind the Jamia Masjid in the main bazaar at Leh; the Datun Sahib is located close to the Leh Palace, on a lane which houses bread makers. Datun Sahib contains a tree wrapped with orange cloth. A yellow board in front of the tree refers to the visit of Rimpoche Nanak around 1516. Guru Nanak was revered by both Muslims, it is said that Leh was devoid of greenery at the time, but Nanak blessed the city with greenery by planting a meswak tree. There are two main Singh Sabha Gurudwaras located within one kilometre of the site. Datun Sahib

Clancy Sigal

Clancy Sigal was an American writer, the author of dozens of essays and seven books, the best-known of, the autobiographical novel Going Away. Sigal was born in Illinois, to a poor family, his father, Leo Sigal, mother, Jennie Persily, were both labor organizers. He wrote a book about his mother, A Woman of Uncertain Character. There he describes joining the Communist Party at 15. Marc Cooper, reviewing the book for the Los Angeles Times, explained that "Nothing, he figured, could be a greater affront to Jennie, an ardent socialist but an more ardent anti-Communist." During World War II, "The army saved my life," he wrote. The high point of his time as a soldier in Occupied Germany, he said, came when "I went AWOL to the Nuremberg War Crimes trial bent on shooting Hermann Goering." After the war he worked as an organizer in Detroit for the auto workers' union, but was expelled in a purge of communists and fellow travelers. He moved to Los Angeles and enrolled at the University of California, Los Angeles under the G.

I. Bill, his "drinking buddies," he wrote, "included the Watergate conspirators, Bob Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, the latter of whom reported me to the FBI." After graduating from UCLA in 1950, he got a job at Columbia Pictures, but was fired by Columbia boss Harry Cohn for making copies of radical leaflets on studio equipment. He went to work as a Hollywood agent, during the blacklist years of the 1950s—the basis of his memoir Black Sunset, he was subpoenaed by the House Committee on Un-American Activities, he wrote in that book, but his hearing was abruptly cancelled. Soon after, in 1957, he left Los Angeles and the U. S.—the story he told in Going Away—and settled in Great Britain. In 1961 he published Going Away; the book is set in 1956 and tells the story of the author's drive from Los Angeles to New York "to look at America and figure out why it isn't my country any longer." It won a National Book Award nomination. John Leonard wrote in the New York Times: "Better than any other document I know, Going Away identified, embodied and re‐created the postwar American radical experience.

It was as if On the Road had been written by somebody with brains.... intelligence is always ticking. His ear is superb, his sympathies are promiscuous. His sin is enthusiasm."In London he lived with Doris Lessing, with whom he had a four-year affair. She portrayed him as "Saul Green" in The Golden Notebook, he wrote about those years in The Secret Defector. The New York Times Book Review declared about that book, "Lenin and Stalin may have fallen, but Mr. Sigal still stands, dispensing his memories of the left with wit and sheer pratfall comedy." In London he ran an underground operation for U. S. Army deserters, which he wrote about for the London Review of Books, he was part of the Philadelphia Association experiment with R. D. Laing at Kingsley Hall, drawing on his experiences there for his satirical novel Zone of the Interior; the novel could not find a British publisher in the 1970s willing to risk the libel laws. Sigal was The Observer correspondent for the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games, after 30 years in England decided to return to Los Angeles after falling in love there with writer Janice Tidwell.

They soon married, became a screenwriting team. Together they wrote the screenplay for the Oscar-winning 2002 Salma Hayek film Frida. In 2016 he published his Hollywood memoir, Black Sunset: Hollywood Sex, Glamour and Raging Egos. "The beauty of Black Sunset," Paul Buhle wrote in the Los Angeles Review of Books, "will be found in the details, lovingly or painfully described, page after page... Clancy Sigal brings the innocent and guilty back, once more, at close range, proves himself the liveliest of literary nonagenarians in the process."His final book, The London Lover: My Weekend that Lasted Thirty Years, a memoir of his London years, was published in 2018. National Book Award, runner up for Going Away 2007: PEN Center USA, Lifetime Achievement Award presented by Gore Vidal Sigal's first marriage, to Margaret Walters in 1980, ended in divorce in 1989. In 1995, Sigal had a son, with his second wife, Janice Tidwell. Sigal died July 2017, in Los Angeles, California, of congestive heart failure.

Weekend in Dinlock, Houghton Mifflin, 1960. Going Away: A Report, A Memoir. Houghton Mifflin, 1961. National Book Award nominee. Zone of the Interior, New York: Thomas W. Crowell, 1976. Published in the UK by Pomona Press, 2005. ISBN 1-904590-10-1 The Secret Defector, New York: Harper Collins, 1992 A Woman of Uncertain Character: The amorous and radical adventures of my mother Jennie by her bastard son New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1748-3 Hemingway Lives! Why Reading Ernest Hemingway Matters Today, OR Books, 2013 Black Sunset: Hollywood Sex, Glamour and Raging Egos Soft Skull Press, 2016 The London Lover: My Weekend that Lasted Thirty Years Bloomsbury, 2018. Essays and articles for The Guardian Reviews for The New York Review of Books Writings for CounterPunch Writings for the Paris Review Writings for the Huffington Post Frida screenwriting credit In Love and War screenwriting credit The Trap: What Happened to Our Dream of Freedom? BBC Documentary. Acting credit: "as himself." Nelson Algren: The End is