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Kipchaks

The Kipchaks known as Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe. First mentioned in the 8th century as part of the Turkic Khaganate, they most inhabited the Altai region from where they expanded over the following centuries, first as part of the Kimek Khanate and as part of a confederation with the Cumans. There were groups of Kipchaks in the Pontic -- Syr Darya and Siberia; the Cuman–Kipchak confederation was conquered by the Mongols in the early 13th century. The Kipchaks described their name as meaning'hollow tree'. Németh points to the Siberian qıpčaq "angry, quick-tempered" attested only in the Siberian Sağay dialect. Klyashtorny links Kipchak to qovı, qovuq "unfortunate, unlucky". Regardless, Golden notes that the ethnonym's original form and etymology "remain a matter of contention and speculation"Their name appears transliterated in other languages, such as Arabic: قفجاق‎, romanized: Qifjāq.

Other English transliteration include Qipchaks. In the Kipchak steppe, a complex ethnic assimilation and consolidation process took place between the 11th and 13th centuries; the western Kipchak tribes absorbed people of Oghuz, ancient Bashkir and other origin. They were all identified by the ethnonym Kipchak. According to Ukrainian anthropologists, Kipchaks had racial characteristics of Caucasians and Mongoloids, namely a broad flat face and protruding nose. Researcher E. P. Alekseeva drew attention to the fact that European Kipchak stone images have both Mongoloid and Caucasoid faces. However, in her opinion, most Kipchaks, who settled in Georgia in the first half of the 12th century, were predominantly Caucasoid with some admixture of Mongoloid traits, they were joined by Cumans. In the course of the Turkic expansion they migrated into Siberia and further into the Trans-Volga region; the Kipchaks appear in the 8th-century Moyun Chur inscription as Türk-Qïbchaq, mentioned as having been part of the Turkic Khaganate for fifty years.

It is unclear if the Kipchaks could be identified as the Chueh-Yueh Shih in Chinese sources or, according to Klyashtorny, the Syr in the Orkhon inscriptions. The relationship between the Kipchaks and Cumans is unclear. While part of the Turkic Khaganate, they most inhabited the Altai region; when the Khaganate collapsed, they became part of the Kimek confederation, with which they expanded to the Irtysh and Tobol rivers. They appeared in Islamic sources. In the 9th century Ibn Khordadbeh indicated, they entered the Kimek in the 8th- or beginning of 9th century, were one of seven original tribes. In the 10th-century Hudud al - ` Alam it is said; the Kimek confederation spearheaded by the Kipchaks, moved into Oghuz lands, Sighnaq in Syr Darya became the Kipchak urban centre. Kipchak remnants remained in Siberia; as a result, three Kipchak groups emerged: Kipchaks of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Kipchaks of the Syr Darya, associated with the Khwarazmian dynasty. Kipchaks of Siberia composing the Siberian Tatars.

The early 11th century saw a massive Turkic nomadic migration towards the Islamic world. The first waves were recorded in the Kara-Khanid Khanate in 1017–18, it is unknown whether the Cumans conquered the Kipchaks or were the leaders of the Kipchak–Turkic tribes. By the 12th century, the two separate confederations of Cumans and Kipchaks merged; the Mongols defeated the Alans after convincing the Kipchaks to desert them through pointing at their likeness in language and culture. Nonetheless, the Kipchaks were defeated next. Under khan Köten, Kipchaks fled to the Grand Principality of Kiev, where the Kipchaks had several marriage relations, one of, Köten's son-in-law Mstislav Mstislavich of Galicia; the Ruthenians and Kipchaks forged an alliance against the Mongols, met at the Dnieper to locate them. After an eight-day pursuit, they met at the Kalka River; the Kipchaks, who were horse archers like the Mongols, scouts. The Mongols, who appeared to retreat, tricked the Ruthenian–Kipchak force into a trap after emerging behind the hills and surrounding them.

The fleeing Kipchaks were pursued, the Ruthenian camp was massacred. The nomadic Kipchaks were the main targets of the Mongols when they crossed the Volga in 1236; the defeated Kipchaks entered the Mongol ranks, while others fled westward. Köten led 40,000 families into Hungary, where King Bela IV granted them refuge in return for their Christianization; the refugee Kipchaks fled Hungary. After their fall and Cumans were known to have become mercenaries in Europe and taken as slave warriors. In Egypt, the Mamluks were in part drawn from Cumans; the Kipchak–Cuman confederation spoke a Turkic language. Mongolian ethno-linguistic elements in the Kipchak–Kimek remain unproven. Kipchaks and Cumans spoke a Turkic language (Kipch

The German Element in the United States

The German Element in the United States, With Special Reference to Its Political, Moral and Educational Influence, by Albert Bernhardt Faust is a two-volume work published in 1909. It discusses the experience and accomplishments of people of German heritage residing in the United States from the times of the early European settlements through the 19th century. Although Faust, a professor of German at Cornell University, felt the time was hardly ripe for such a work, he felt there were dangers of being overcautious. So when Catherine Seipp of Chicago offered prizes for monographs on the subject, Faust responded and received the first prize. Attention is given to population statistics in the book. Faust proceeded with the intention of understating the total proportion of persons of German heritage in the United States at the time of the 1900 census, his estimate falls short of some previous reckonings, giving 18,000,000 as against 20,000,000 of English descent, 13,000,000 of Irish descent and 14,000,000 of other stocks.

The fact that these statistics were prepared under the supervision of Walter F. Willcox of Cornell gives them some credibility; the work is not limited to such statistics. Faust's chief object, as the book's subtitle emphasizes, was to estimate the influence of people of German heritage upon the whole body politic of the United States; this goal prompted a twofold solution: first, a chronological history of people of German heritage in the United States. The first volume contains the chronological history, the second volume studies contributions of people of German heritage by field of endeavor. Both volumes are supplemented by population statistics; the history as outlined includes communities. Examples of individuals include Conrad Weiser, Christian Frederick Post, Nicholas Herkimer, Christoph Ludwig, John Adam Treutlen, Leonard Helm, Joseph Bowman, Friedrich Münch, Charles Follen, Adolph Sutro, John Sutter, John Röbling, Peter Mühlenberg, Baron von Steuben, Baron de Kalb, Franz Lieber and Carl Schurz.

In addition, Faust collected a good deal of material on early German settlements in Pennsylvania and elsewhere. In the first volume, the chronological history, Faust builds up a negative argument in favor of the early German settlers in the United States, "their value being manifest when measured by the standard of assimilation". In the second volume, the categorical history, he sets out to show what he feels is a positive influence of people of German heritage upon life in the United States and upon the American stereotype. In the large, Faust's method in the second volume was to sum up instances in order to establish principles. For example, in the chapter on industrial development, illustrations are furnished purporting to prove that in all branches requiring technical training German influence was predominant. Under the head of politics, the independent voting behavior of people of German heritage receives illustration. In the area of agriculture, the principle is maintained that the German farmer not only applied his skill and industry, but whenever necessary adapted himself to new conditions and inventing agricultural machinery, or becoming a rice grower in the South and big farmer in the West.

Faust admits to inconsistencies in places. For example, in treating the early history of New York, New Netherland, he distinguished Peter Minuit, the German purchaser and first Governor of Manhattan, a tenant of that office, Jacob Leisler, from the Dutch settlers, says little about the Dutch governors, yet when he came to reckoning the number of persons of German descent in the United States in the early 20th century, he included the Dutch in a lump as Low Germans. Citing what he saw as their racial seclusion, he did not take German Jews into account as a body, but still he singled out for mention not a few Jews of German heritage in the United States who seemed to him to represent what he saw as the German spirit, he thought omitting a mention of such people in his book would be like omitting a mention of Heinrich Heine in a recording of German literature. And it seems more are included since large numbers of United States residents appear in the book because they bear names of German origin.

It was not until the 18th century that the westward tide of German emigration began. Its rapid increase during the first decades of those years was due to the fact that the conditions of life in the United States were becoming more favorable, but still more to the military and religious oppressions inflicted upon the subjects of the German states. Most of the immigrants during the 18th century came from southern Germany; such a large proportion of them came from the Palatinate that "Palatine" became the general title of German immigrants in England and the United States. In the Palatinate, conditions were intolerable. For many years the country was ravaged by persecutions, but Germany as a whole was in a bad way. It was "broken up into hundreds of independent principalities, whose rulers imitated the example of Louis XIV.” In short, the conditions which brought about the French Revolution were as prevalent in Germany as in France. There was every incentive to escape from Germany, it was not long.

Flattering accounts of the conditions of life in the colonies were published throughout Germany. Immigration ag

Aimé Millet

Aimé Millet was a noted French sculptor, born and died in Paris. Millet was the son of miniaturist Frederick Millet and uncle to Chicago architectural decorator Julian Louis Millet, he studied and made first in 1836 at the École des Beaux Arts with David d'Angers and Viollet-le-Duc, to design the base of Millet's statue of Vercingetorix in Alesia. In 1840 Millet began to produce his early works, in 1859 received the Légion d'honneur, in February 1870 was appointed professor at the École des Arts décoratifs, he was a friend of sculptor Pierre Louis Rouillard and his students included Louis Majorelle, Berthe Morisot, John Walz, François Pompon. Millet died in Paris on January 14, 1891, is buried in Montmartre Cemetery; the monumental statue of Vercingetorix, ordered by Napoleon III, built on site in Alesia. Apollo and Music, on Paris Opéra roof, between 1860–69 François-René de Chateaubriand, bronze statue, Saint Malo, 1875 Cassandre se met sous la protection de Pallas, Jardin des Tuileries, 1877 South America, one of six cast iron allegories of the continents, built for the Exposition Universelle on the square of the Musée d'Orsay Phidias at the Jardin du Luxembourg, Paris, 1887 Mackay, The Dictionary of Sculptors in Bronze, Antique Collectors Club, Suffolk 1977.

Insecula entry Aimé Millet in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website