Kirkcaldy is a town and former royal burgh in Fife, on the east coast of Scotland. It is about 11.6 miles north of Edinburgh and 27.6 miles south-southwest of Dundee. The town had a recorded population of 49,460 in 2011, making it Fife's second-largest settlement and the 12th most populous settlement in Scotland. Kirkcaldy has long been nicknamed the Lang Toun in reference to the early town's 0.9-mile main street, as indicated on maps from the 16th and 17th centuries. The street would reach a length of nearly 4 miles, connecting the burgh to the neighbouring settlements of Linktown, Pathhead and Gallatown, which became part of the town in 1876; the separate burgh of Dysart was later absorbed into Kirkcaldy in 1930 under an act of Parliament. The area around Kirkcaldy has been inhabited since the Bronze Age; the first document to refer to the town is from 1075, when Malcolm III granted the settlement to the church of Dunfermline. David I gave the burgh to Dunfermline Abbey, which had succeeded the church: a status, recognised by Robert I in 1327.
The town only gained its independence from Abbey rule when it was created a royal burgh by Charles I in 1644. From the early 16th century, the establishment of a harbour at the East Burn confirmed the town's early role as an important trading port; the town began to develop around the salt, coal mining and nail making industries. The production of linen which followed in 1672 was instrumental in the introduction of floorcloth in 1847 by linen manufacturer, Michael Nairn. In 1877 this in turn contributed to linoleum, which became the town's most successful industry: Kirkcaldy was a world producer until well into the mid-1960s; the town expanded in the 1950s and 1960s, though the decline of the linoleum industry and other manufacturing restricted its growth thereafter. Today, the town is a major service centre for the central Fife area. Public facilities include a main leisure centre, theatre and art gallery, three public parks and an ice rink. Kirkcaldy is known as the birthplace of social philosopher and economist Adam Smith who wrote his magnum opus The Wealth of Nations in the town.
In the early 21st century, employment is dominated by the service sector: the biggest employer in the town is PayWizard known as MGT plc. Other main employers include NHS Fife, Fife College and Smith Anderson; the name Kirkcaldy means "place of the hard fort" or "place of Caled's fort". It is derived from the Pictish caer meaning "fort", Pictish "hard" or a personal name, -in, a suffix meaning "place of". Caled may be an epithet for a local "hard" ruler. An interpretation of the last element as din rather than -n is incorrect; the Old Statistical Account gives a derivation from culdee, repeated in publications, but this is incorrect. The discovery of 11 Bronze Age cist burials which date from 2500 BC and 500 BC suggests that this is the most ancient funerary site in the area. What made this location ideal was its natural terraces stretching away from the sand bay, the close proximity of the East Burn to the north and the West Burn to the south. Four Bronze Age burials dating from around 4000 BC have been found around the site of the unmarked Bogely or Dysart Standing Stone to the east of the present A92 road.
Although there are few Roman sites in Fife, a Roman camp was known to exist at Carberry Farm on the town's outskirts. The Battle of Raith in AD 596 was once believed to have taken place to the west of the town's site but the theory no longer holds support; the battle was said to have been fought between the Angles and an alliance, led by King Áedán mac Gabráin of Dál Riata, of Scots and Britons. The first document to recognise the town was issued in 1075, when the King of Scots, Malcolm III granted the shire of Kirkcaladunt, among other gifts, to the church at Dunfermline; the residents were expected to pay taxes for the church's general upkeep. Two charters confirmed by Malcolm's son David I in 1128 and 1130, refer to Kircalethin and Kirkcaladunit but do not indicate their locations. In 1304, a weekly market and annual fair for Kirkcaldy was proposed by the Abbot of Dunfermline to King Edward I, during a period of English rule in Scotland from 1296 to 1306. During these discussions, the town may have been referred to as "one of the most ancient of burghs".
This status as a burgh dependent on Dunfermline Abbey was confirmed in 1327 by Robert I, King of Scots. A charter granted in 1363 by David II, King of Scots, awarded the burgh the right to trade across the regality of Dunfermline; this charter allowed the burgesses of Kirkcaldy to purchase and sell goods to the burgesses of the three other regality burghs — Queensferry and Musselburgh — that belonged to the Abbey. By 1451, Kirkcaldy was awarded feu-ferme status. Under the status, responsibility would now lie with the bailies and council to deal with the routine administration of the town and its fiscal policies. At the beginning of the 16th century, the town became an important trading port; the town took advantage of its east coast location, which facilitated trading contacts with the Low Countries, the Baltic region and Northern France. The feu-ferme charter of 1451 between the Abbot of Dunfermline and the burgesses of Kirkcaldy mentioned a small but functioning harbour.
Terrence M. O'Malley is a retired ice hockey player, he is an Olympian who represented Canada at three Winter Olympics, winning a bronze medal in 1968. A long-time coach for a variety of Notre Dame Hounds' Bantam and Midget hockey teams at the Athol Murray College of Notre Dame in Wilcox, Saskatchewan, he was inducted into the International Ice Hockey Federation Hall of Fame in 1998. Since 2006, O'Malley has coached the University of Regina women's ice hockey team. O'Malley played high school and Junior hockey at Toronto's St. Michael's College, winning a Memorial Cup Championship in 1961 under the coaching of Father David Bauer. After the teams Memorial Cup run, Father David Bauer became the head coach of the University of British Columbia men's ice hockey team, the UBC Thunderbirds. For the 1962–1963 season, O'Malley, along with Ken Broderick, Dave Chambers, Barry MacKenzie enrolled at the University of British Columbia where they played for the UBC Thunderbirds. In 1962, he joined the National and Olympic hockey university programs initiated by Father David Bauer in Vancouver, as well as when it moved to Winnipeg in the fall of 1964.
His career development centered on education and International hockey including seven years with the Japan Hockey League. He was head coach of the hockey team at the University of British Columbia. Following his hockey career, he was recruited by Martin Kenney Sr. along with fellow-Olympian Barry MacKenzie to join the Athol Murray College of Notre Dame, in Wilcox, Saskatchewan. He was named the College's President in 2003, a position he held until 2006. A defensive defenseman, he represented Canada on both Olympic and Canadian National teams from 1964 to 1970, again in 1980. In 1966 he was captain of Team Canada and in 1968 he won a bronze medal at the Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France. O'Malley was inducted into the International Ice Hockey Hall of Fame in 1998. O'Malley earned a Bachelor of Arts and master's degree in Canadian History from the University of Manitoba, he earned a Ph. D. in Sacred Letters from Saint Mark's College in British Columbia. IIHF Hockey Hall of Fame Bio from University of Regina Terry O'Malley's bio on Legends of Hockey Government of Canada - Citizenship Judge Profile
Carnival of Souls is a 1962 American independent horror film written and directed by Herk Harvey, starring Candace Hilligoss. Its plot follows a young woman whose life is disturbed after a car accident, she relocates to a new city, where she finds herself unable to assimilate with the locals, becomes drawn to the pavilion of an abandoned carnival. Director Harvey appears in the film as a ghoulish stranger who stalks her throughout. Filmed in Lawrence and Salt Lake City, Carnival of Souls was shot on a budget of $33,000, Harvey employed various guerrilla filmmaking techniques to finish the production, it was Harvey's only feature film, did not gain widespread attention when released as a double feature with The Devil's Messenger in 1962. Set to an organ score by Gene Moore, the film has been contemporarily noted by critics and film scholars for its cinematography and foreboding atmosphere; the film has a large cult following and is screened at film and Halloween festivals, has been cited as a wide-ranging influence on numerous filmmakers, including David Lynch, George A. Romero, Lucrecia Martel.
In Kansas, Mary Henry is riding in a car with two other young women when some men challenge them to a drag race. As they speed across a bridge, their car plunges into the river; the police spend hours dredging the fast-running water without success. Mary miraculously surfaces. Mary moves to Salt Lake City, where she has been hired as a church organist. While driving through the desert, Mary's radio picks up strange organ music and she has visions of a ghoulish, pasty-faced figure, she glimpses a large, abandoned pavilion on the shores of the Great Salt Lake, which seems to beckon to her in the twilight. A gas station attendant tells her the pavilion was first a bathhouse a dance hall, a carnival before it closed. In town, Mary rents a room, she meets the proprietor. Mary goes to the church where she will be playing the organ. At the Church she plays the organ for the first time. At the minister's offer, Mary takes a ride out to the pavilion at the lake, she is stopped from entering by the minister.
When she returns to her lodgings Mary meets a man, the only other lodger, who wants to become better acquainted. The blonde newcomer though is not interested; that night, she becomes upset when she sees The Man retreats to her room. Soon, Mary begins experiencing terrifying interludes when she becomes invisible and inaudible to the rest of the world, as if she is not there; when The Man appears in front of her in a park, she flees, right into the arms of a Dr. Samuels, he tries acknowledging he is not a psychiatrist. Mary's new employer, the minister, is put off when she declines a reception to meet the congregation; when she practices for the first time, she finds herself shifting from a hymn to eerie music. In a trance, she sees The Man and other ghouls dancing at the pavilion; the minister, hearing the strange music, insists upon her resignation. Terrified of being alone, Mary agrees to go out with John; when they return home, he smooth-talks his way into her room. When she sees The Man in the mirror, she tells John.
He leaves. After going back to Samuels' office, Mary believes. However, Mary is confronted by his fellow ghouls, she tries frantically to escape, boarding a bus to leave town, only to find that all the passengers are ghouls. It is just a nightmare. In the end, she is drawn back to the pavilion, where she finds her tormentors dancing, a pale version of herself paired with The Man; when she runs away, the ghouls chase her onto the beach. She collapses; the following day, the minister, police go to the pavilion to look for Mary. They find her footprints in the sand and they end abruptly. Back in Kansas, her car is pulled from the river. Mary's body is in the front seat alongside the other two women. Harvey was a director and producer of industrial and educational films based in Lawrence, where he worked for the Centron Corporation. While returning to Kansas after shooting a Centron film in California, Harvey developed the idea for Carnival of Souls after driving past the abandoned Saltair Pavilion in Salt Lake City, Utah.
"When I got back to Lawrence, I asked my friend and co-worker at Centron Films, John Clifford, a writer there, how he'd like to write a feature," Harvey recalled. "The last scene, had to be a whole bunch of ghouls dancing in that ballroom. He wrote it in three weeks."In New York City, Harvey discovered then-twenty-year-old actress Candace Hilligoss, who had trained with Lee Strasberg, cast her in the lead role of Mary Henry. Hilligoss had been offered a role in the Richard Hilliard-directed horror film Psychomania, but opted for the role in Carnival of Souls, she stated that at the time, she took the role as a "take-the-money-and-run type of situation". Harvey shot Carnival of Souls in three weeks on location in Salt Lake City. Harvey took three weeks off from his job at Centron in order to direct the film, starting with an initial production budget of $17,000; the $17,000 cash budget was raised by Harvey asking local businessmen if they were willing to invest $500 in Harvey's production. The other $13,000 of the total $30,000 budget was deferred.