Kista Galleria is a shopping mall located in the Kista Science City in Stockholm, Sweden. It has 185 stores, including bowling alley, karting track and restaurants. Known for its generous opening hours, it has been the most visited mall in Stockholm with 18 million customers annually, the third largest in terms of sales; the mall, which opened in 1977, has been redesigned several times. The shopping mall has 2,500 parking spaces and is situated between two major motorways, E18 and E4. Public transport is close, with entrances in the west leading directly to the Kista metro station. A light rail line is planned to be built in 2016. From 2014, it has been hosting the Kista bibliotek, the City of Stockholm Public Library - Kista Branch, named as "Public library of the year 2015" by International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; the mall is managed by Kista Galleria KB, co-owned by Finnish real estate company Citycon and Canadian CPP Investment Board. Compared to other malls in the City of Stockholm Kista Galleria is the biggest shopping mall in the City of Stockholm with 185 stores and restaurants while for instance Gallerian at Norrmalm has 83.
List of shopping centres in Sweden Official website
Information and communications technology
Information and communications technology is an extensional term for information technology that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware and audiovisual systems, that enable users to access, store and manipulate information. The term ICT is used to refer to the convergence of audiovisual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution, management. ICT is a broad subject and the concepts are evolving, it covers any product that will store, manipulate, transmit, or receive information electronically in a digital form. For clarity, Zuppo provided an ICT hierarchy where all levels of the hierarchy "contain some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications".
Theoretical differences between interpersonal-communication technologies and mass-communication technologies have been identified by the philosopher Piyush Mathur. Skills Framework for the Information Age is one of many models for describing and managing competencies for ICT professionals for the 21st century; the phrase "information and communication technologies" has been used by academic researchers since the 1980s. The abbreviation "ICT" became popular after it was used in a report to the UK government by Dennis Stevenson in 1997, in the revised National Curriculum for England and Northern Ireland in 2000. However, in 2012, the Royal Society recommended that the use of the term "ICT" should be discontinued in British schools "as it has attracted too many negative connotations". From 2014 the National Curriculum has used the word computing, which reflects the addition of computer programming into the curriculum. Variations of the phrase have spread worldwide; the United Nations has created a "United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force" and an internal "Office of Information and Communications Technology".
The money spent on IT worldwide has been estimated as US$3.8 trillion in 2017 and has been growing at less than 5% per year since 2009. The estimate 2018 growth of the entire ICT in is 5%; the biggest growth of 16% is expected in the area of new technologies. The 2014 IT budget of US federal government was nearly $82 billion. IT costs, as a percentage of corporate revenue, have grown 50% since 2002, putting a strain on IT budgets; when looking at current companies' IT budgets, 75% are recurrent costs, used to "keep the lights on" in the IT department, 25% are cost of new initiatives for technology development. The average IT budget has the following breakdown: 31% personnel costs 29% software costs 26% hardware costs 14% costs of external service providers; the estimate of money to be spent in 2022 is just over US$6 trillion. The world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2.6 exabytes in 1986 to 15.8 in 1993, over 54.5 in 2000, to 295 exabytes in 2007, some 5 zettabytes in 2014.
This is the informational equivalent to 1.25 stacks of CD-ROM from the earth to the moon in 2007, the equivalent of 4,500 stacks of printed books from the earth to the sun in 2014. The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was 432 exabytes of information in 1986, 715 exabytes in 1993, 1.2 zettabytes in 2000, 1.9 zettabytes in 2007. The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was 281 petabytes of information in 1986, 471 petabytes in 1993, 2.2 exabytes in 2000, 65 exabytes in 2007, some 100 exabytes in 2014. The world's technological capacity to compute information with humanly guided general-purpose computers grew from 3.0 × 10^8 MIPS in 1986, to 6.4 x 10^12 MIPS in 2007. The following is a list of OECD countries by share of ICT sector in total value added in 2013; the ICT Development Index ranks and compares the level of ICT use and access across the various countries around the world. In 2014 ITU released the latest rankings of the IDI, with Denmark attaining the top spot, followed by South Korea.
The top 30 countries in the rankings include most high-income countries where quality of life is higher than average, which includes countries from Europe and other regions such as "Australia, Canada, Macao, New Zealand and the United States. In developing countries, ICT development is constrained by limited capabilities and the objectives of ICT projects are not met. On 21 December 2001, the United Nations General Assembly approved Resolution 56/183, endorsing the holding of the World Summit on the Information Society to discuss the opportunities and challenges facing today's information society. According to this resolution, the General Assembly related the Summit to the United Nations Millennium Declaration's goal of implementing ICT to achieve Millennium Development Goals, it emphasized a multi-stakeholder approach to achieve these goals, using all stakeholders i
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country being home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is geologically active; the interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields and glaciers, many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle, its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate. According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them thralls of Gaelic origin.
The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the world's oldest functioning legislative assemblies. Following a period of civil strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century; the establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden. Iceland thus followed Norway's integration into that union, coming under Danish rule after Sweden's secession from the union in 1523. Although the Danish kingdom introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550, Iceland remained a distant semi-colonial territory in which Danish institutions and infrastructures were conspicuous by their absence. In the wake of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland's struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918 and the founding of a republic in 1944; until the 20th century, Iceland relied on subsistence fishing and agriculture. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity and Iceland became one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world.
In 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance and manufacturing. Iceland has a market economy with low taxes, compared to other OECD countries, it maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. Iceland ranks high in economic, social stability, equality ranking first in the world by median wealth per adult. In 2018, it was ranked as the sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index, it ranks first on the Global Peace Index. Iceland runs completely on renewable energy. Hit hard by the worldwide financial crisis, the nation's entire banking system systemically failed in October 2008, leading to a severe depression, substantial political unrest, the Icesave dispute, the institution of capital controls; some bankers were jailed. Since the economy has made a significant recovery, in large part due to a surge in tourism.
A law that took effect in 2018 makes it illegal in Iceland for women to be paid less than men. Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation's Scandinavian heritage. Most Icelanders are descendants of Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old West Norse and is related to Faroese and West Norwegian dialects; the country's cultural heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine, Icelandic literature, medieval sagas. Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a armed coast guard; the Sagas of Icelanders say that a Norwegian named Naddodd was the first Norseman to reach Iceland, in the 9th century he named it Snæland or "snow land" because it was snowing. Following Naddodd, the Swede Garðar Svavarsson arrived, so the island was called Garðarshólmur which means "Garðar's Isle". Came a Viking named Flóki Vilgerðarson; the sagas say that the rather despondent Flóki climbed a mountain and saw a fjord full of icebergs, which led him to give the island its new and present name.
The notion that Iceland's Viking settlers chose that name to discourage oversettlement of their verdant isle is a myth. According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before Scandinavian settlers arrived members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula. Carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned sometime between 770 and 880. In 2016, archeologists uncovered a longhouse in Stöðvarfjörður, dated to as early as 800. Swedish Viking explorer Garðar Svavarsson was the first to circumnavigate Iceland in 870 and establish that it was an island, he built a house in Húsavík. Garðar departed the following summer but one of his men, Náttfari, decided to stay behind with two slaves. Náttfari settled in what is now known as Náttfaravík and he and his slaves became the first permanent residents of Iceland; the Norwegian-Norse chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson built his homestead in present-day Reykjavík in 874.
Ingólfr was followed by many other emigrant settlers Scandinavians and their thralls, many of whom were Irish or Scottish. By 930, most arable land on the island had been claimed. Lack of arable land al
European Institute of Innovation and Technology
The European Institute of Innovation and Technology is an independent EU Body, headquartered in Budapest, Hungary. It was established on 11 March 2008; the idea of a European Institute of Innovation and Technology was developed within the framework of the Lisbon Strategy. The initial concept for a European Institute of Technology was based on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, renowned for its combination of world-class education and research. In its proposal for an EIT, the European Commission put forward a two-level structure that combines a bottom-up and top-down approach as a governance structure; the proposal of the Commission was based on the results of a wide public consultation taking more than 700 contributions by experts and the general public, various stakeholder position papers into account. The Commission identified five specific areas of concern: Translating R&D results into commercial opportunities Reaching a critical mass in certain fields Fragmentation of the EU's research and higher education system Lack of innovation and entrepreneurial culture in research and higher education Lack of a critical mass in small- and medium-sized enterprises The answer to these issues would focus on integrating the three sides of the so‑called "Knowledge Triangle": higher education and business sectors.
The concept of the EIT has been controversial since the proposal of EC president José Manuel Barroso and considered challenging. A unique feature of the EIT is the Knowledge and Innovation Communities set up to integrate education and innovation in one common organisation; the EIT finances the Innovation Communities with a maximum of 25% of the total budget. While the EIT's Headquarters are situated in Budapest, the EIT is not concentrated in one campus as a traditional institute, instead operating through the Innovation Communities; each of the Innovation Communities operates across a number of hubs called ‘Innovation Hubs’ and there are around 40 Innovation Hubs spread across Europe. Before, the European Commission had sponsored some pilot projects embracing the Knowledge triangle; the task of aligning different partners and the complexity of building common ground and common rules however proved difficult. Evaluation indicated a high level of trust among the partners, well-designed organizational structures and lean management structures with intelligent performance indicator systems were necessary to make the Innovation Communities successful.
As of 21 January 2008, it appeared that the EIT project would operate by building networks of business, pre-existing universities and research organisations, without building any new education or research Institution and without granting EU diplomas. The EIT was established on 11 March 2008 following the adoption of the EIT Regulation by the European Parliament and Council; the EIT Governing Board designated the first three Innovation Communities in December 2009. Since the EIT Community has grown to 6 Innovation Communities; these Innovation Communities have the objective of integrating education and innovation in one common organisation. The EIT finances the Innovation Communities with a maximum of 25% of the total budget. While the EIT's Headquarters are situated in Budapest, the EIT is not concentrated in one campus as a traditional institute, instead operating through the Innovation Communities; each of the Innovation Communities operates across a number of hubs called ‘Innovaiton Hubs’ and there are around 40 Innovation Hubs spread across Europe.
An initial budget of €308.7 million has helped launch and will continue to support the EIT network during the 2008–2013 period. The annual grant to the Knowledge and Innovation Communities is allocated on a competitive basis and may not exceed 25% of the global expenditure of the Innovation Communities; the remainder of the Innovation Communities' budget must be raised from other sources of financing. In addition to public funding via the EU budget, the EIT set up the EIT Foundation to attract private sector funds including philanthropic contributions such as donations or bequests; the EIT Foundation no longer operates. The EIT Governing Board has 15 members - 12 appointed members and 3 representative members as well as one independent observer from the European Commission; the management team is based at the EIT Headquarters in Budapest. It is in charge of monitoring the activities of the Innovation Communities and strengthening relationships with key stakeholders both in Europe and beyond, disseminating Innovation Community results, sharing knowledge, maintaining close links with other EU bodies with a view to ensuring and developing the EIT's strategy.
The EIT Headquarters are located in Hungary, in the 11th district's Neumann Janos utca. On 18 June 2008, Hungary, was chosen by the EU nations to host the headquarters of the institute; the Hungarian government said it was a great success for the country. Five bidders entered the race for the EIT seat, including Budapest. According to president Barroso, these applications were evidence of "the strategic and economic interest attached...to this ambitious project". When the EU research ministers came together at the end of May, the decision had to be postponed because Poland vetoed the otherwise unanimously backed city of Budapest as the EIT seat. Yet, the ministers had agreed on the selection criteria, namely that the seat should be in one of the new Member States and it should be in a Member State that does not current
European route E4
European route E 4 passes from north to south through Sweden from the border with Finland, with a total length of 1,590 kilometres. The Finnish part lies within Tornio in northern Finland, is only 1 kilometre long; the Swedish part traverses most of Sweden except the extreme north and the west coast region, is considered the highway backbone of Sweden, since it passes in the vicinity of many of its largest cities and through the capital Stockholm. In particular, it is the mainline road used by most vehicle traffic, both personal cars and freight trailers, between the north and southern Sweden or beyond. From Haparanda on the Finnish border, it stretches south along the Gulf of Bothnia to Gävle on a more inland route southwards, it ends at the port for the ferry to Helsingør in Denmark. The route intersects with European route E6 just outside Helsingborg, which continues to Trelleborg on the southern coast of Sweden. Under the new system of European routes it was planned to have been a part of E 55, but it remains in the pre-1992 designation within Sweden, because the expenses connected with re-signing this long road portion would be too large.
Besides the signs along the road, there are thousands of signs in cities, showing how to reach the E 4 road. The road is now authorized as E 4 by the relevant authority, not as E 55. North of Gävle the road is of mixed standard. Depending on the fashion at the time of construction it is either a single standard carriageway road 8–13 metres wide, or a 2+1 road, a 13–14 metres wide road with two lanes in one direction and one in the other with a steel wire barrier in between, or sometimes a motorway with two lanes in each direction. North of Sundsvall, the road passes through several of the larger cities as city streets. South of Gävle, the road becomes an continuous motorway, with the only non-motorway part being a 32 km long section past Ljungby a 2+1 limited-access road. Upgrade to motorway standard will start in 2018. With the exception of the Ljungby bypass, the final stretch of the motorway to be opened was the road between Uppsala and Mehedeby, inaugurated on October 17, 2007. South of Gävle, the speed limit is 120 km/h on 30 % of the road.
North of Gävle there are varying speed limits, with 90 km/h, 100 km/h and 110 km/h as the most common. The speed limits on the main roads in Sweden were changed on many stretches in October 2008, which saw the introduction of the 120 km/h limit; the E 4 is the fastest road to go from Germany/Denmark to areas north of the Arctic Circle, including places in Norway such as Tromsø or the North Cape. The route passes through or nearby the cities Tornio, Luleå, Piteå, Skellefteå, Umeå, Örnsköldsvik, Härnösand, Hudiksvall, Söderhamn, Gävle, Stockholm, Södertälje, Nyköping, Norrköping, Linköping, Jönköping, Värnamo and Helsingborg
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
KTH Royal Institute of Technology is a university in Stockholm, specializing in engineering and technology. International ranking organizations rank KTH as the highest in northern mainland Europe in its academic fields.. It is the institution of higher learning in Sweden from which most of the CEOs found on the Stockholm Stock Exchange have graduated, which makes KTH "Sweden's best plant school for chief executive officers" at its Stockholm Stock Exchange; the King of Sweden Carl XVI Gustaf is the High Protector of the KTH Royal Institute of Technology. The core of the KTH Royal Institute of Technology was founded in 1697 in Stockholm, Sweden as Christopher Polhem's Laboratorium Mechanicum, the school's main tools for research and teaching until 1925, when new technology took over. Many mechanical models was added by students and staff in the 1800's, extending its founder Christopher Polhem's original research and educational tools, it is the same Polhem, familiar to the citizens of Sweden for appearing on the old 500 kr bill, is known as'the father of Swedish mechanics', as the Swedish Riksbank states it.
Polhem founded the Laboratorium Mechanicum after his extensive trips and research outside of Sweden as a school and research facility in the engineering field of mechanics. The Laboratorium Mechanicum, was founded in Stockholm but was in its first years located at the Christopher Polhem's mansion Stjärnsund in the county of Dalarna, prior to his and KTH's return to the capital and the'King's House, where it became famous all over Europe due to the scientific quality of the mechanics; this Laboratorium Mechanicum, the core of KTH, was renamed as the'Mechanical School' prior to its 1827 name change to'The Technological Institute', the present Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH which it was renamed to in 1877 by royal decree of King Oscar II, but regardless of name always using its 1697 founder Polhem's across Europe famous models and tools for education and research in mechanics until 1925 when new technology took over. The academic and scientific core of KTH, the founder Christopher Polhem's own Laboratorium Mechanicum, was that year handed over to the Swedish Museum of Technology, in Stockholm by the KTH.
KTH Royal Institute of Technology is ranked as one of the highest among institutes of technology in Europe and the world. The main campus buildings at Valhallavägen in Östermalm, by architect Erik Lallerstedt, were completed in 1917; the bells of the clock-tower was completed ten years in 1927 at the 100 year anniversary of the transformation of the Mechanical School to The Technological Institute, in 1827. The buildings and surroundings were decorated by prominent early 20th-century Swedish artists such as Carl Milles, Axel Törneman, Georg Pauli, Tore Strindberg and Ivar Johnsson; the older buildings on the campus were renovated in 1994. While the original campus was large for its time, KTH soon outgrew it, the campus was expanded with new buildings. Today, KTH institutions and faculties are distributed across several campuses in Stockholm County, located in Flemingsberg, Kista and Södertälje, beyond the ones in Östermalm. KTH, School of ICT is located in Stockholm; this school offers education and research in all the areas which today's information society is based upon – from nano scale physics and corn to the benefit of the end user.
Kista campus is an educational environment with modern facilities, which are always open to the students. All courses are within ICT, creating a strong cohesion and an exchange over the educational programmes. Stockholm University’s computer science programmes are located in Kista. Together, over 3000 students create a vibrant student life. KTH Kista is an exciting international environment with teachers and students from all around the world; the Master's and postgraduate programmes offered by the school attracts students from the world's top universities. With companies such as Ericsson, Volvo, IBM, Tele2, TietoEnator, Microsoft and Oracle as neighbors, the cooperation between industry and KTH is known. Thanks to the presence of KTH in Kista and other academic and research institutions, Kista became the largest corporate area in Sweden and imperative to the national Swedish economy School of Technology and Health has a part of its activities in Flemingsberg. At KTH Flemingsberg the school offers courses in Medical Engineering and conducts research within the subject.
KTH's activities in Flemingsberg started in 2002. Since 2003, the school offers a Bachelor of Education in Medical Engineering, in collaboration with the Karolinska Institute. In autumn 2008, a master of science in Medical Engineering started. Located here are undergraduate studies, most research departments, the research center: Center for Technology in Medicine and Health, which collaborates with the Karolinska Institute and Stockholm County Council to contribute to the development and growth of research in engineering and health. Flemingsberg is an area of high academic "density" and one of northern Europe's most important areas within biotechnology – both terms of research and industrial activities. Here are Södertörn University and the Karolinska Institute with over 10 000 students and Novum Research Center, where 1000 people are involved in research. Flemingsberg is an area of strong growth. To meet the need for student housing more apartments are planned. In Haninge, students from two schools at KTH receive education – the School of Architecture and the Built Environment, ABE, the School of Tech
Kista Science Tower
Kista Science Tower is a 32-storey, 124 m skyscraper in Kista, Sweden. With its roof-top antenna, its height is 156 m, making it one of the tallest buildings in the country, just right in between Turning Torso and Scandic Victoria Tower; the black cube on top of the roof is, contrary to some rumors, not meant to be the start of more floors. The tower was meant to have a few additional floors but they were canceled due to the financial crisis of the early 2000s, however the built elevator shaft was not shortened and the distinctive concrete block at the top remains; the tower has 33 floors in total, three of which are below the main entrance level consisting of parking spaces. Kista Science Tower was completed in 2003, it was the tallest skyscraper in Sweden at the time but was soon surpassed by Turning Torso, built in Malmö in 2005. It is still the tallest office building in Scandinavia; the building is home to the fastest elevators in Sweden. They reach speeds of 5 to 6 metres per second; the building houses several technology and IT companies.
It is located next to Kista Galleria, a large shopping complex, the Kista metro station. List of tallest buildings in Sweden