Klaipėda (Lithuanian pronunciation:, listen. It is the capital of Klaipėda County; the city has a complex recorded history due to the combined regional importance of the ice-free Port of Klaipėda at the mouth of the Akmena-Danė River. It was controlled by successive German states until the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; as a result of the 1923 Klaipėda Revolt it was annexed by Lithuania and has remained with Lithuania to this day, except between 1939 and 1945 when it returned to Germany following the 1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania and Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. The population has shrunk from the city to the hinterland; the number of inhabitants of Klaipėda city shrank from 207,100 in 1992 to 157,350 in 2014, but the urban zone of Klaipėda expanded well into the suburbs, which sprang around the city and surrounded it from three sides. These are well integrated with the city and the majority of inhabitants of these suburbs work in Klaipėda. According to statistics of Klaipėda territorial health insurance fund, there are 233,311 permanent inhabitants in Klaipėda city and Klaipėda district municipalities combined.
Popular seaside resorts found close to Klaipėda are Nida to the south on the Curonian Spit and Palanga to the north. The Teutonic Knights named it Memelburg. From 1252 to 1923 and from 1939 to 1945, the town and city were named Memel. Between 1923 and 1939, both names were in official use; the names Memelburg and Memel are found in most written sources from the 13th century onwards, while Klaipėda is found in Lithuania-related sources since the 15th century. The first time the city was mentioned as Caloypede in the letter of Vytautas in 1413, for the second time in the negotiation documents of 1420 as Klawppeda, for the third time in the Treaty of Melno of 1422 as Cleupeda. According to Samogitian folk etymology, the name Klaipėda refers to the boggy terrain of the town. Most the name is of Curonian origin and means "even ground": "klais/klait" and "ped"; the lower reaches of the Neman River were named either *Mēmele or *Mēmela by Scalovians and local Curonian inhabitants. In the Latvian Curonian language it means silent.
This name was adopted by speakers of German and chosen for the new city founded further away at the lagoon. The coat of arms of Klaipėda is used as coat of arms of Klaipėda city municipality; the modern version was created by the designer Kęstutis Mickevičius. The modern coat of arms was created by restoring old seals of the Memel city, it was affirmed on 1 July 1992. A settlement of Baltic tribes in the territory of the present-day city is said to have existed in the region as early as the 7th century. In the 1240s the Pope offered King Håkon IV of Norway the opportunity to conquer the peninsula of Sambia. However, following the personal acceptance of Christianity by Grand Duke Mindaugas of Lithuania, the Teutonic Knights and a group of crusaders from Lübeck moved into Sambia, founding unopposed a fort in 1252 recorded as Memele castrum; the fort's construction was completed in 1253 and Memel was garrisoned with troops of the Teutonic Order, administered by Deutschmeister Eberhard von Seyne. Documents for its foundation were signed by Eberhard and Bishop Heinrich von Lützelburg of Courland on 29 July 1252 and 1 August 1252.
Master Conrad von Thierberg used the fortress as a base for further campaigns along the Neman River and against Samogitia. Memel was unsuccessfully besieged by Sambians in 1255, the scattered Sambians submitted by 1259. Memel was colonized by settlers from Holstein, Lübeck and Dortmund, hence Memel being known at the time as Neu-Dortmund, or "New Dortmund", it became the main town of the Diocese of Curonia, with a cathedral and at least two parochial churches, but the development of the castle became the dominant priority. According to different sources, Memel received Lübeck city rights in 1254 or 1258. In the spring and summer of 1323, a Lithuanian army led by Gediminas came up the Neman and laid siege to the castle of Memel after conquering the town, devastated Sambia, forcing the Order to sue for a truce in October. During the planning of a campaign against Samogitia, Memel's garrison of the Teutonic Order's Livonian branch was replaced with knights from the Prussian branch in 1328. Threats and attacks by Lithuanians thwarted the town's development.
The Treaty of Melno in 1422 stabilized the border between the Teutonic Order and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania for the next 501 years. The rebuilt town received Kulm law city rights in 1475. Memel remained part of what became Germany, it was one of the longest-lasting borders in Europe, is referred to in the now-unsung first verse of the German national anthem, which describes borders of German-speaking lands: Von der Maas bis an die Memel, referring to the Meuse river in the West and Neman river in the East. Against the wishes of its governor and commander, Eric of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Memel adopted Lutheranism after the conversion of Hohenzollern Margrave of Brandenburg Albert of Prussia and the creation of
The Hakone Tozan 3100 series is a two-car electric multiple unit train type operated by the Japanese private railway operator Hakone Tozan Railway on its steeply graded Hakone Tozan Line since May 2017. The fleet consists of one two-car unit branded "Allegra"; the general design of the trains was overseen by Noriaki Okabe Architecture Network, with the train finished in the standard Hakone Tozan Railway livery of "Vermillion Hakone" and silver highlights. The train can operate in multiple with 3000 series EMU cars to form three-car sets; the two car set is formed. Passenger accommodation consists of four-person seating bays, with a wheelchair spaces in both cars. Seating is provided for 40 passengers including six pairs of tip-up seats; the trains use LED lighting throughout. Hakone Tozan Railway announced details of the new 3100 series train in December 2016, scheduled to enter service in May 2017; the first unit was delivered from Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Kobe in April 2017. The two-car train entered revenue service on 15 May 2017.
Paulo Afonso Bonamigo, known as Paulo Bonamigo, is a Brazilian retired footballer who played as a Midfielder Paulo Bonamigo started his career playing for Grêmio. He went on to play for other teams such as Internacional-RS, Botafogo-RJ, Bahia-BA. Begins to train in 1998 in the team of Madureira and the Joinville, where it remains for three years. In 2000 trains Sampaio Corrêa, Remo and Mogi Mirim while in the two following years is at Paraná. In 2002 and 2003 trains Coritiba the mind in 2004, after being coach of Atlético Mineiro, where is Botafogo relieved to mid-season to be hired by Palmeiras, where it remains up to the rest of the championship in 2005. In the summer of 2005 he moved in Maritimo where fails to achieve success and decides to return to train in Brazil, before again Coritiba Fortaleza, Goiás, Paraná, Ponte Preta and subsequently in Bahia. In 2009 Bonamigo moves in the Al Shabab where it remains until the end of the season 2011-2012 winning a cup of the UAE League Cup and qualifying the team for two seasons following AFC Champions League move from Dubai in Al Jazira where it remains for mid-season before being exempted due to the lack of results.
GrêmioCampeonato Gaúcho: 1980, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A: 1981 Copa Libertadores: 1983 Intercontinental Cup: 1983InternacionalCampeonato Gaúcho: 1991 CoritibaCampeonato Paranaense: 2003FortalezaCampeonato Cearense: 2007Al ShababUAE League Cup: 2010–11 GCC Champions League: 2011