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Klazomenai

Klazomenai or Clazomenae was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia and a member of the Ionian League. It was one of the first cities to issue silver coinage, its ruins are now located in the modern town Urla near Izmir in Turkey. Klazomenai is located in modern Urla on the western coast of Anatolia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of İzmir, at about 20 miles west of İzmir; the city was located on the mainland at Limantepe, but during the early fifth-century BC Ionian Revolt from the Persians, it was moved to the Karantina Island just off the coast. Soon after that, the city of Chyton was founded on the mainland the late fifth-century BC. Both cities had conflictual relations but Alexander the Great connected Karantina island to the mainland with a causeway, the remains of which are still visible. A silver coin minted in Klazomenai shows the head of the principal god of the city. According to myth, swans drew the chariot in which Apollo every year flew south from his winter home in the land of the Hyperboreans.

But Klazomenai was home to large numbers of swans, it is thought that the verb klazo was used to describe the call of the wild birds. The swan on the obverse is both a pun on the name Klazomenai. Though not in existence before the arrival of the Ionians in Asia, its original founders were settlers from Phlius and Cleonae, it stood near Limantepe. Clazomenae was attacked by the Lydian king Alyattes in the 6th century. During the 5th century it was for some time subject to the Athenians, but about the middle of the Peloponnesian War it revolted. After a brief resistance, however, it again acknowledged the Athenian supremacy, repelled a Lacedaemonian attack. In 387 BC Klazomenai and other cities in Asia were taken over by Persia, but the city continued to issue its own coins; the philosopher Anaxagoras styled "Anaxagoras of Clazomenae", was born in Clazomenae, as was the earlier philosopher Hermotimus of Clazomenae. Under the Romans, Clazomenae was included in the province of Asia, enjoyed an immunity from taxation.

Clazomenae early became a Christian bishopric. Its bishop, Eusebius took part in the Council of Ephesus in 431 and the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Another, participated in the Council of Constantinople, seen within the Catholic Church as the eighth ecumenical council. Although still documented at the end of the 14th century, it is no longer a residential bishopric. Accordingly, Clazomenae is today listed by the Catholic Church; the site of Liman Tepe, which lies near an old harbour contains important Bronze Age excavations, the most prominent and remarkable of, the amount of varying archaic burial sites, as well as evidence of the practises associated with them close by. One possible explanation for this is that these sites were used by different social groups within society; the city was famous for production and exports of olive oil and its painted terracotta sarcophagi, which are the finest monuments of Ionian painting in the 6th century BC. A large painted terracotta sarcophagus and lid, together weighing about 2 tonnes, were discovered in the vicinity of Klazomenai in the late nineteenth century.

An ancient Greek work dating to about 500 BC, the funerary objects depict war scenes, chariot racing, hunting as well as geometric patterns throughout and are now in the British Museum's collection. It was prized for its variety of garum. Olive oil extraction installation dating back to the third quarter of the 6th century BC uncovered in Klazomenai is the only surviving example of a level and weights press from an ancient Greek city and precedes by at least two centuries the next securely datable earliest presses found in Greece, it was restored and reconstructed in 2004–2005 through collaboration between Ege University, a Turkish olive-oil exporter and a German natural building components company, as well as by local artisans, on the basis of the visible millstone with a cylindrical roller and three separation pits. The olive oil obtained turned out to be quite a success in business terms as well; the reconstructed olive oil press is located on the original mainland site of Klazomenai, at 38°21′40.4″N 26°46′13.3″E.

In an event noted by Aristotle, Klazomenians appear as financial pioneers in economic history, for having used one commodity, in an organized manner and on a city-scale, to purchase another, with interests refundable on the value of the first. Around 350 B. C. suffering from a shortage of grain and scarcity of funds, the rulers of the city passed a resolution calling on citizens who had stores of olive oil to lend to the city at interest. The loan arranged, they hired vessels and sent them to ports of exportation of grain and bought a consignment on the pledged security of the value of the oil. Limantepe. M. 2010. The Land of Ionia: Society and Economy in the Archaic Period. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Cook, R. M. 1981. Clazomenian sarcophagi. Mainz: Zabern. E. Koparal-E.İplikçi, “Archaic Olive Oil Extraction Plant in Klazomenai”, in A. Moustaka, E. Skarlatidou, M. C. Tzannes, Y. Ersoy, Klazomenai and Abdera: Metropoleis and Colony, Proceedings of the International Symposium held at the Archaeological Museum of Abdera, Thessaloniki 2004, 221-234.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Clazomenae". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge Univers

1968 Rugby League World Cup Final

The 1968 Rugby League World Cup Final was the conclusive game of the 1968 Rugby League World Cup tournament and was played between Australia and France on 10 June 1968 at the Sydney Cricket Ground in Australia. The final had been billed a'debacle' following Great Britain's inexplicable loss to France in Auckland, leaving them to contest the final despite being beaten by Australia seven tries to none two days prior. Nonetheless, it attracted a record crowd of 54,290 for a World Cup Final, though it wasn't the record World Cup attendance as the second match of the tournament between Australia and Great Britain had drawn 62,256 to the SCG, a record that would not fall until 73,631 attended the 1992 World Cup Final at Wembley Stadium; the 1968 Rugby League World Cup was the fourth staging of the Rugby League World Cup since its inauguration in 1954, the first since the 1960 tournament. The tournament was held in the Australia and New Zealand from 25 May, culminating in the final between Australia and France on 10 June.

Scores and results list Australia's points tally first. Australia were undefeated going into the final. Scores and results list France's points tally first. France had a 2-1 record going into the Final Although it had been anticipated before the tournament that it would be an Australia vs Great Britain WCF, the French surprised by making the Final after defeating both New Zealand and Great Britain in the preliminary games; the match attracted a World Cup Final record crowd of 54,290. The undefeated Australians went into the tournament decider as favourites; however France offered stern resistance and held the Australians to 0–7 at half-time and with quarter of an hour were only 0–12 down before losing 2–20. It was Australia's second World Cup title. Rugby League World Cup Australia national rugby league team France national rugby league team List of rugby league test matches at the Sydney Cricket Ground

Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation

The Japan Oil and Metals National Corporation, is a Japanese government Independent Administrative Institution, created in 2004 when the former Japan National Oil Corporation merged with the former Metal Mining Agency of Japan. JOGMEC integrates corollary functions in one administrative entity; the former Japan National Oil Corporation had been tasked with securing a stable supply of oil and natural gas for Japan's use. The former Metal Mining Agency of Japan had been tasked with ensuring a stable supply of nonferrous metal and mineral resources for Japan's use. Greater efficiencies were realized by combining two bureaucracies with similar missions. JOGMEC was established in 2004 pursuant to the 2002 Law Concerning the Japan Oil and Metals National Corporation. In March 2013, JOGMEC becomes the first to extract methane hydrate from seabed deposits. JOGMEC's Geological Remote Satellite Sensing Centre in Lobatse, Botswana was created in partnership with the southern African nation's Department of Geological Survey in July 2008.

The Japan-Botswana partnership will work together in developing the exploration of minerals through methods such as remote sensing. JOGMEC carried out the world's first "large-scale" deep sea mining of hydrothermal vent mineral deposits in August - September, 2017; this mining was carried out at the'Izena hole/cauldron' vent field within the hydrothermally active back-arc basin known as the Okinawa Trough which contains 15 confirmed vent fields according to the InterRidge Vents Database. JOGMEC manages rare metal stockpiles in conjunction with private companies. Critical mineral raw materials Energy in Japan Energy law List of Independent Administrative Institutions National Research Council.. Minerals, Critical Minerals, the U. S. Economy. Washington, D. C.: National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-11282-6.