Ness of Brodgar
The Ness of Brodgar is an archaeological site covering 2.5 hectares between the Ring of Brodgar and the Stones of Stenness in the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site in Orkney, Scotland. Excavations at the site began in 2003, the site has provided evidence of decorated stone slabs, a stone wall 6 metres thick with foundations, and a large building described as a Neolithic temple. The earliest structures were built between 3,300 and 3,200 BCE, and the site had closed down. Today the Brodgar peninsula is a finger of land a few hundred metres wide, to the southeast are the Standing Stones of Stenness and to the north-west is the Ring of Brodgar. A short bridge connects two sites. Also visible from the site are, to the east, the cairn at Maeshowe and. A couple of kilometres northwest of the Ring of Brodgar is the Ring of Bookan, the Neolithic village at Skara Brae lies a few kilometres away, as does the chambered cairn at Unstan. More archaeology is probably submerged beneath the lochs, in Neolithic times, the Loch of Stenness was probably a wetland area rather than a lake.
People from Skara Brae would have been able to walk to the Ness of Brodgar, watch or take part in ritual activity, the structures at the Ness of Brodgar are made of flagstone, a sedimentary rock found abundantly throughout Orkney. Flagstone is easily split into flat stones and was therefore a material for fine building work using Neolithic tools. Some of the stone found on site is too thin for floor tiles or wall building, the structures at Brodgar are numbered in the order of discovery. As more of the site was uncovered and the improved, some numbers went out of use. Structures 1,8,12 and 14 appear to have been constructed around 3,000 BCE and these stand on top of earlier remains that, as of 2016, have not yet been uncovered, but are thought to date to 3, 300-3,200 BCE. Structure 1 has a history and appears to have been built on top of the remains of an earlier structure. The official guide to the dig suggests that this appears to have been central to the site. Originally it was more than 15 metres long, but was rebuilt within about a century of its first construction.
It was decorated with pieces of stone artwork, some of which were internal to the walls. Some of the stones of structure 1 were painted in yellows and oranges using ochre pigment made of haematite mixed with animal fat
Prehistoric Orkney refers to a period in the human occupation of the Orkney archipelago of Scotland that was the latter part of these islands prehistory. The period of prior to occupation by the genus Homo is part of the geology of Scotland. Although some written records refer to Orkney during the Roman invasions of Scotland, there are numerous important prehistoric remains in Orkney, especially from the Neolithic period, four of which form a World Heritage Site. There are diverse reasons for the abundance of the archaeological record, the sandstone bedrock provides easily workable stone materials and the wind-blown sands have helped preserve several sites. The relative lack of industrialisation and low incidence of ploughing have helped to preserve these ancient monuments, local tradition hints at both a fear and veneration of these ancient structures that may have helped to retain their structural integrity. The Paleolithic lasted until the retreat of the ice, the Mesolithic until the adoption of farming, a number of the sites span long periods of time and in particular the distinctions between the Neolithic and the periods are not clear cut.
The subsequent Iron Age supported a return to building, especially of brochs. The sites discussed are found on the Orkney Mainland unless otherwise stated, no traces have yet been found in Scotland of either a Neanderthal presence or of Homo sapiens during the Pleistocene interglacials. The first indications of humans occur only after the ice retreated in the 11th millennium BC, since that time the landscape of Orkney has been altered by both human and natural forces. Initially, sea levels were lower than at present due to the volume of ice that remained. This meant that the Orkney islands may have attached to the mainland. Much of the North Sea basin was dry land until after 4000 BC. This would have travel to northern Scotland relatively easy for early human settlers. The subsequent isostatic rise of land makes estimating post-glacial coastlines a complex task, the very limited archaeological record provides scant evidence of Mesolithic life in Orkney in particular and Scotland north of Inverness in general.
Lithic scatter sites at Seatter, South Ettit, Wideford Hill and Loch of Stenness have produced small polished stone tools, a charred hazelnut shell, recovered during the excavations at Longhowe in Tankerness in 2007, has been dated to 6820-6660 BC. However, there is no evidence to suggest whether or not these sites were in year-round occupation, a recently excavated site on Stronsay has produced a thousand pieces of flint and what may be evidence of a temporary camp. With a tentative dating of 7000 BC or older it may prove to be the oldest settlement site found so far on Orkney, about 6000 BC the Storegga Slides of the coast of Norway created a tsunami that reached 25 metres above normal high tides in places. Evidence of widespread coastal inundations from a wave 8 metres high has been found as far south as Fife, the assemblage of monumental Neolithic structures in Orkney is without parallel in the United Kingdom and on the Orkney Mainland provides an entire landscape of features from this period
The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland. Both of Orkneys burghs and Stromness, lie on the island, seventy-five per cent of Orkneys population live on the island, which is more densely populated than the other islands of the archipelago. The lengthy history of the occupation has provided numerous important archaeological sites. There is an abundance of wildlife, especially seabirds, the name Mainland is a corruption of the Old Norse Meginland. Formerly the island was known as Hrossey meaning Horse Island. The island is densely populated and has much fertile farmland. The bulk of the Mainland is west of Kirkwall and is low-lying, with coastal cliffs to the north and west, the eastern part of the Mainland is shaped like the letter W, the easternmost peninsula being known as Deerness. To the south, causeways called Churchill Barriers connect the island to Burray and South Ronaldsay via Lamb Holm, Mainland effectively provides the core of the Orkney Islands, linking the northern members of the archipelago with the southern ones.
At the east, and west ends, islands proceed to the north and south, the western part of the island is part of the Hoy and West Mainland National Scenic Area, one of 40 in Scotland. The population in 2011 was recorded as 17,162, an increase of just over 12% on the 2001 population of 15,315, there are 13 parishes on the island. Sandwick and Stromness lie on the west coast, Holm, Deerness and St Andrews are located to the east of central St Ola, which contains Kirkwall town. Firth, Orphir and Harray lie west of Kirkwall, Harray has the unique distinction of being the only landlocked parish in Orkney, although it too has a significant coast along the Loch of Harray, albeit a freshwater one. The three main settlements on Mainland, in order of magnitude are Kirkwall and Stromness, both of which are burghs, and Finstown, Kirkwall has the seat of the Bishop of Orkney, and St. Magnus Cathedral is to be found there. It is one of the ferry ports. Stromness A long-established seaport that grew with the expansion of whaling, the old town is clustered along the main street, flanked with houses and shops built from local stone, with narrow lanes and alleys branching off it.
There is a link to Scrabster in Caithness on the Scottish mainland as well as the Isle of Hoy. Finstown Finstown is the third largest settlement, and used to be known as the Toon o Firth, the origin of its name is thought to be from an Irishman named David Phin who came to the area in 1811. It is on the direct Stromness to Kirkwall road, in common with most of the Orkney isles, Mainland rests almost entirely on a bedrock of Old Red Sandstone, which is about 400 million years old and was laid down in the Devonian period
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, cattle are raised as livestock for meat, as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals. Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel, in some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. From as few as 80 progenitors domesticated in southeast Turkey about 10,500 years ago, according to an estimate from 2011, in 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a fully mapped genome. Some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, and cattle raiding consequently one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were originally identified as three species, Bos taurus, the European or taurine cattle, Bos indicus, the zebu, and the extinct Bos primigenius. The aurochs is ancestral to both zebu and taurine cattle and these have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies, Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus indicus, and Bos taurus taurus.
Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other related species. Hybrid individuals and even breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu, but one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks, banteng. Hybrids such as the breed can even occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos. However, cattle cannot successfully be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo, the aurochs originally ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, and much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle breed. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals and it was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale principal sum of money, itself derived in turn from Latin caput head.
Cattle originally meant movable personal property, especially livestock of any kind, the word is a variant of chattel and closely related to capital in the economic sense. The term replaced earlier Old English feoh cattle, which today as fee. The word cow came via Anglo-Saxon cū, from Common Indo-European gʷōus = a bovine animal, compare Persian gâv, Sanskrit go-, Welsh buwch. The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, and a plural ending was often added, giving kine, kien. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, the Scots language singular is coo or cou, and the plural is kye
The sheep is a quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, a male as a ram or occasionally a tup, a castrated male as a wether. Sheep are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe, one of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleece and milk. A sheeps wool is the most widely used animal fiber, and is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones, Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, and are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science. Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, in the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, and the British Isles are most closely associated with sheep production.
Sheepraising has a lexicon of unique terms which vary considerably by region. Use of the sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a flock, herd or mob, many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist, generally related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a deeply entrenched place in human culture, as livestock, sheep are most often associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions, in both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals. Domestic sheep are relatively small ruminants, usually with a crimped hair called wool, domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only.
Most horned breeds have a pair, but a few breeds may have several. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their variation in color. Wild sheep are largely variations of brown hues, and variation within species is extremely limited, colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, and even spotted or piebald
Ring of Brodgar
The Ring of Brodgar is a Neolithic henge and stone circle about 6 miles north-east of Stromness on the Mainland, the largest island in Orkney, Scotland. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the Heart of Neolithic Orkney, the Ring of Brodgar is a Neolithic henge and stone circle in Orkney, Scotland. Most henges do not contain stone circles, Brodgar is a striking exception, the ring of stones stands on a small isthmus between the Lochs of Stenness and Harray. These are the northernmost examples of circle henges in Britain, the site has resisted attempts at scientific dating and the monuments age remains uncertain. It is generally thought to have been erected between 2500 BC and 2000 BC, and was, the last of the great Neolithic monuments built on the Ness, the results of the excavation are still preliminary. The stone circle is 104 metres in diameter, and the third largest in the British Isles, the ring originally comprised up to 60 stones, of which only 27 remained standing at the end of the 20th century.
The tallest stones stand at the south and west of the ring, including the so-called Comet Stone to the south-east. The stones are set within a ditch up to 3 metres deep,9 metres wide and 380 metres in circumference that was carved out of the solid sandstone bedrock by the ancient residents. Technically, this ditch does not constitute a true henge as there is no sign of a bank of earth. The ditch appears to have created in sections, possibly by workforces from different parts of Orkney. The stones may have been an addition, maybe erected over a long period of time. Examination of the immediate environs reveals a concentration of ancient sites, within 2 square miles there are the two circle-henges, four chambered tombs, groups of standing stones, single stones, barrows and mounds. The immediate area has yielded a number of flint arrowheads. Although its exact purpose is not known, the proximity of the Standing Stones of Stenness, the site is a scheduled ancient monument and has been recognized as part of the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site in 1999.
The Heart of Neolithic Orkney was inscribed as a World Heritage site in December 1999, in addition to the Ring of Brodgar, the site includes Maeshowe, Skara Brae, the Standing Stones of Stenness and other nearby sites. W. L. Ongoing excavations by Orkney College at the nearby Ness of Brodgar site located roughly midway between the Ring and the Stones of Stenness have uncovered several buildings, both ritual and domestic, geophysics suggest there are likely to be more in the vicinity. Pottery, stone tools and a polished stone mace head have been discovered, perhaps the most important find is the remains of a large stone wall which may have been 100 metres long and up to 6 metres wide. It appears to traverse the entire peninsula the site is on, invaders from Scandinavia reached Orkney by the 9th century, bringing a complex theology that they imposed on the preexisting Orcadian monuments, at least according to local legend
The stone is a glacial erratic located in desolate peatland. The attribution as a tomb was originally based on its resemblance to recognized tombs in southern Europe, the Dwarfie Stane is the only chambered tomb in Orkney that is cut from stone rather than built from stones and may be the only example of a Neolithic rock-cut tomb in Britain. However, despite its construction, its plan is consistent with the so-called Orkney-Cromarty class of chambered tomb found throughout Orkney. Some authors have referred to type of tomb as Bookan-class, after a chambered cairn in Mainland. A stone slab originally blocked the entrance to the tomb on its west side and it is unique in northern Europe, bearing similarity to Neolithic or Bronze Age tombs around the Mediterranean. There is no evidence, however, of any link to the builders of the Mediterranean rock-cut tombs. The stone is 8.6 metres long, by 4 metres wide, the entrance is a 1 metre square cut out of the west side of the rock. Inside the tomb is a passage 2.2 metres long, both the passage and the side cells are 1 metre high.
Right, southern cell has a pillow of uncut rock at its inner end, the tomb has been plundered by making an opening through the roof of the chamber. The time of event is not known, but the hole in the roof had been noted by the 16th century. The hole was repaired with concrete in the 1950s or 1960s, the name is derived from local legend that a dwarf named Trollid lived there, ironically, the tomb has been claimed as the work of giants. Its existence was popularised in Walter Scotts novel The Pirate published in 1821, there is a variety of 18th- and 19th-century graffiti on the rock-cut tomb. One is an inscription in Persian calligraphy that states I have sat two nights and so learnt patience left by Captain William Mounsey, who camped here in 1850, above the Persian is Mounseys name written backwards in Latin. Prehistoric Orkney Ring of Brodgar Standing Stones of Stenness Maeshowe World Heritage Sites in Scotland Timeline of prehistoric Scotland Castleden, the Stonehenge People, An Exploration of Life in Neolithic Britain 4700-2000 BC.
London, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, childe, V. Gordon, W. Douglas Simpson. Illustrated History of Ancient Monuments, Vol. VI Scotland, the Shell Guide to British Archaeology. Hedges, John W. Tomb of the Eagles, the Chambered Cairns, in, Colin The Prehistory of Orkney BC 4000-1000 AD. Orkney and Shetland, An Archaeological Guide, newton Abbott and Charles Ltd
Maeshowe is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland, Scotland. It was probably built around 2800 BC and it gives its name to the Maeshowe type of chambered cairn, which is limited to Orkney. The monuments around Maeshowe, including Skara Brae, were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999, Maeshowe is one of the largest tombs in Orkney, the mound encasing the tomb is 115 feet in diameter and rises to a height of 24 feet. Surrounding the mound, at a distance of 50 feet to 70 feet is a ditch up to 45 feet wide, the grass mound hides a complex of passages and chambers built of carefully crafted slabs of flagstone weighing up to 30 tons. It is aligned so that the wall of its central chamber held up by a bracketed wall, is illuminated on the winter solstice. A similar display occurs in Newgrange and this entrance passage is 36 feet long and leads to the central almost square chamber measuring about 15 feet on each side. The current height of the chamber is 12.5 feet, the original roof may have risen to a height of 15 feet or more.
The entrance passage is only about 3 feet high, requiring visitors to stoop or crawl into the central chamber and that chamber is constructed largely of flat slabs of stone, many of which traverse nearly the entire length of the walls. In each corner lie huge angled buttresses that rise to the vaulting, at a height of about 3 feet, the walls construction changes from the use of flat to overlapping slabs creating a beehive-shaped vault. Estimates of the amount of required to build Maeshowe vary. Dating of the construction of Maeshowe is difficult but dates derived from burials in similar tombs cluster around 3000 BC. Since Maeshowe is the largest and most sophisticated example of the Maeshowe type of tomb, archaeologists have suggested that it is the last of its class, built around 2800 BC. The people who built Maeshowe were users of grooved ware, a type of pottery that spread throughout the British Isles from about 3000 BC. Maeshowe appears as a mound rising from a flat plain near the southeast end of the Loch of Harray.
Maeshowe is aligned with some other Neolithic sites in the vicinity, in addition, the so-called Barnhouse Stone in a field around 700 metres away is perfectly aligned with the entrance to Maeshowe. This entrance corridor is so placed that it lets the light of the setting sun into the chamber for a few days each side of the winter solstice. A Neolithic low road connects Maeshowe with the magnificently preserved village of Skara Brae, passing near the Standing Stones of Stenness, low roads connect Neolithic ceremonial sites throughout Britain. Some archeologists believe that Maeshowe was originally surrounded by a stone circle
This service is operated by Orkney Ferries, and can take up to 95 passengers, and 10 cars. The ferry links the islands of Rousay and Wyre with each other, in the 2001 census, Rousay had a population of 212 people. Most employment opportunities are in farming, fishing or fish-farming, there are craft businesses. There is one circular road round the island, about 14 miles long, with an area of 4,860 hectares, it is the fifth largest of the Orkney Islands. There are several lochs on the island, the biggest of which is Muckle Water. Rousay is a Site of Special Scientific Interest with notable cliff formations and wildflower colonies, the hilliest Orkney island after Hoy, it offers good views of neighbouring islands from Blotchnifiold 249 metres, and Keirfea or Knitchen. Over 100 archaeological sites have been identified, but only a fraction of them have been excavated and researched. The best known and most spectacular of the archaeological sites is the complex of Midhowe Broch. Blackhammer Chambered Cairn, Taversoe Tuick, and Yarso are important tombs on the island, Rousay placenames reflect its Norse heritage.
Hrólfs-øy or Hrolfsey was based on the male name Hrolf, hugh Marwicks work has shown the name developing from Rollesay in the 14th century, through Rolsay in the 15th, and Rowsay in the early 16th, with the spelling Rousay first recorded in 1549. Most Rousay people have earned their living from farming and/or fishing. Traills nephew General Sir Frederick Traill-Burroughs inherited much of the island, Traill-Burroughs built a large house at Trumland, designed by David Bryce of Edinburgh. From 1870-1883, there were a number of improvements, the building of Trumland pier, island schools, a public market, the first steamship service, a post office. He was known locally as the general as he was a man of short stature. Rousays population in the century was over 900, but emigration following land clearances reduced that to 627 by 1900. Depopulation accelerated, and in the twenty years the number fell to 181. From the 1970s onward new families started to settle on Rousay, most came from the south, the population is now over 200.
The Yetnasteen stone is said to have once been a giant who revives every New Year at midnight, there is a primary school, which provides education for boys and girls aged 3 to 12, and has a school roll of 24
Shellfish is a culinary and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs and echinoderms. Although most kinds of shellfish are harvested from saltwater environments, some kinds are found in freshwater, in addition, a few species of land crabs are eaten, for example Cardisoma guanhumi in the Caribbean. Despite the name, shellfish are not a kind of fish, many varieties of shellfish are actually closely related to insects and arachnids, making up one of the main classes of the phylum Arthropoda. Cephalopods and bivalves are molluscs, as are snails and slugs, familiar marine molluscs used as a food source by humans include many species of clams, oysters and scallops. Some crustaceans commonly eaten are shrimp, crayfish, echinoderms are not as frequently harvested for food as molluscs and crustaceans, sea urchin roe is quite popular in many parts of the world. Most shellfish eat a diet composed primarily of phytoplankton and zooplankton, Shellfish are among the most common food allergens.
The term shellfish is used broadly and specifically. In common parlance, as in having shellfish for dinner, it can refer to anything from clams and oysters to lobster, for regulatory purposes it is often narrowly defined as filter-feeding molluscs such as clams and oyster to the exclusion of crustaceans and all else. Although the term is applied to marine species, edible freshwater invertebrates such as crayfish. Although their shells may differ, all shellfish are invertebrates, the word shellfish is both singular and plural, the rarely used shellfishes is sometimes employed to distinguish among various types of shellfish. Archaeological finds have shown that humans have been making use of shellfish as an item for hundreds of thousands of years. In the Japanese cuisine, chefs often use shellfish and their roe in different dishes, sushi features both raw and cooked shellfish. Sashimi primarily consists of fresh raw seafood, sliced into thin pieces. Both sushi and sashimi are served with soy sauce and wasabi paste, thinly sliced pickled ginger root, and a simple garnish such as shiso or finely shredded daikon radish, or both.
Lobster in particular is a delicacy in the United States. Lobsters are eaten on much of the East Coast, the American lobster ranges from Newfoundland down to about the Carolinas, a typical meal involves boiling the lobster with some slight seasoning and serving it with drawn butter, baked potato, and corn on the cob. Clamming is done both commercially and recreationally along the Northeast coastline of the US, various type of clams are incorporated into the cuisine of New England. The soft-shelled clam is eaten fried or steamed
Standing Stones of Stenness
The Standing Stones of Stenness is a Neolithic monument five miles northeast of Stromness on the mainland of Orkney, Scotland. This may be the oldest henge site in the British Isles, various traditions associated with the stones survived into the modern era and they form part of the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site. They are looked after by Historic Scotland, the surviving stones are sited on a promontory at the south bank of the stream that joins the southern ends of the sea loch Loch of Stenness and the freshwater Loch of Harray. The name, which is pronounced stane-is in Orcadian dialect, comes from Old Norse meaning stone headland, although the site today lacks the encircling ditch and bank, excavation has shown that this used to be a henge monument, possibly the oldest in the British Isles. The stones are thin slabs, approximately 300 mm thick with sharply angled tops. Four, up to about 5 m high, were elements of a stone circle of up to 12 stones. The ditch is cut into rock by as much as 2 m and is 7 m wide, surrounded by an earth bank, the entrance faces towards the Neolithic Barnhouse Settlement which has been found adjacent to the Loch of Harray.
The Watch Stone stands outside the circle to the north-west and is 5.6 m high, once there were at least two stones there, as in the 1930s the stump of a second stone was found. Other smaller stones include a stone setting in the centre of the circle platform where cremated bone, charcoal. This is referred to as a hearth, similar to the one found at Barnhouse, animal bones were found in the ditch. The pottery links the monument to Skara Brae and Maeshowe, based on radiocarbon dating, it is thought that work on the site had begun by 3100 BC. Even in the 18th century the site was associated with traditions and rituals. It was visited by Walter Scott in 1814, other antiquarians documented the stones and recorded local traditions and beliefs about them. It was associated with ceremonies and believed to have magical power. There was a tradition of making all kinds of oaths or promises with ones hand in the Odin Stone. He started in December 1814 by smashing the Odin Stone and this caused outrage and he was stopped after destroying one other stone and toppling another.
The toppled stone was re-erected in 1906 along with some inaccurate reconstruction inside the circle, in the 1970s, a dolmen structure was toppled, since there were doubts as to its authenticity. The two upright stones remain in place, a picture of the Stones of Stenness features on the cover of Van Morrisons album The Philosophers Stone, and the Odin stone is depicted on Julian Copes album Discover Odin
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild, techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. Fishing may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, crustaceans, the term is not normally applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. According to United Nations FAO statistics, the number of commercial fishermen. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries, in 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms. In addition to providing food, modern fishing is a recreational pastime, Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the remains of Tianyuan man, a 40.
Archaeology features such as middens, discarded fish bones, and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival. During this period, most people lived a lifestyle and were, of necessity. However, where there are examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir. The British dogger was a type of sailing trawler from the 17th century. The Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a build and had a tall gaff rig. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water, the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries. The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century, an Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper. It was only in the 1846, with the expansion in the fishing industry. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849, the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port.
The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world, influencing fishing fleets everywhere, by the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with almost 1,000 at Grimsby. These trawlers were sold to fishermen around Europe, including from the Netherlands, twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet