Smoking is the process of flavoring, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to smoke from burning or smoldering material, most wood. Meat and lapsang souchong tea are smoked. In Europe, alder is the traditional smoking wood, but oak is more used now, beech to a lesser extent. In North America, mesquite, pecan, alder and fruit-tree woods, such as apple and plum, are used for smoking. Other biomass besides wood can be employed, sometimes with the addition of flavoring ingredients. Chinese tea-smoking uses a mixture of uncooked rice and tea, heated at the base of a wok; some North American ham and bacon makers smoke their products over burning corncobs. Peat is burned to smoke the barley malt used to make whisky and some beers. In New Zealand, sawdust from the native manuka is used for hot smoking fish. In Iceland, dried sheep dung is used to cold-smoke fish, lamb and whale. Farms in the Western world included a small building termed the "smokehouse," where meats could be smoked and stored; this was well-separated from other buildings both because of the fire danger and because of the smoke emanations.
Smoking can be done in four ways: cold smoking, warm smoking, hot smoking, through the employment of "liquid smoke". However, these methods of imparting smoke only affect the food surface, are unable to preserve food, smoking is paired with other microbial hurdles, such as chilling and packaging, to extend food shelf-life; the smoking of food dates back to the paleolithic era. As caves or simple huts lacked chimneys, these dwellings would have become smoky, it is supposed that early men would hang meat up to dry and out of the way of pests, thus accidentally becoming aware that meat, stored in smoky areas acquired a different flavor, was better preserved than meat that dried out. This process was combined with pre-curing the food in salt or salty brine, resulting in a remarkably effective preservation process, adapted and developed by numerous cultures around the world; until the modern era, smoking was of a more "heavy duty" nature as the main goal was to preserve the food. Large quantities of salt were used in the curing process and smoking times were quite long, sometimes involving days of exposure.
The advent of modern transportation made it easier to transport food products over long distances and the need for the time and material intensive heavy salting and smoking declined. Smoking became more of a way to flavor. In 1939 a device called; the kiln allowed for uniform mass-smoking and is considered the prototype for all modern large-scale commercial smokers. Although refinements in technique and advancements in technology have made smoking much easier, the basic steps involved remain the same today as they were hundreds if not thousands of years ago. Cold smoking differs from hot smoking in that the food remains raw, rather than cooked, throughout the smoking process. Smokehouse temperatures for cold smoking are done between 20 to 30 °C. In this temperature range, foods take on a smoked flavor, but remain moist. Cold smoking does not cook foods, as such, meats should be cured before cold smoking. Cold smoking can be used as a flavor enhancer for items such as cheese or nuts, along with meats such as chicken breasts, pork chops, salmon and steak.
The item is hung in a dry environment first to develop a pellicle it can be cold smoked up to several days to ensure it absorbs the smokey flavour. Some cold smoked foods are baked, steamed, roasted, or sautéed before eating. Cold smoking meats is not something that should be attempted at home, according to the US National Center for Home Food Preservation:"Most food scientists cannot recommend cold-smoking methods because of the inherent risks." Cold smoking meats should only be attempted by personnel certified in HACCP, or Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, to ensure that it is safely prepared. Warm smoking exposes foods to temperatures of 25–40 °C. Hot smoking exposes the foods to smoke and heat in a controlled environment such as a smoker oven or smokehouse. Hot smoking requires the use of a smoker which generates heat either from a charcoal base, heated element within the smoker or from a stove-top or oven, food is hot smoked by cooking and flavoured with wood smoke simultaneously.
Like cold smoking, the item may be hung first to develop a pellicle, it is smoked from 1 hour to as long as 24 hours. Although foods that have been hot smoked are reheated or further cooked, they are safe to eat without further cooking. Hams and ham hocks are cooked once they are properly smoked, they can be eaten as is without any further preparation. Hot smoking occurs within the range of 52 to 80 °C; when food is smoked within this temperature range, foods are cooked and flavorful. If the smoker is allowed to get hotter than 85 °C, the foods will shrink excessively, buckle, or split. Smoking at high temperatures reduces yield, as both moisture and fat are cooked away. Liquid smoke, a product derived from smoke compounds in water, is applied to foods through spraying or dipping. Smoke-roasting refers to any process that has the attributes of both smoking; this smoking method is sometimes referred to as pit-roasting. It may be done in a sm
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses dry heat in an oven, but can be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is transferred "from the surface of cakes and breads to their center; as heat travels through, it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods and more with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods or one after the other. Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit; because of historical social and familial roles, baking has traditionally been performed at home by women for day-to-day meals and by men in bakeries and restaurants for local consumption. When production was industrialized, baking was automated by machines in large factories; the art of baking remains a fundamental skill and is important for nutrition, as baked goods breads, are a common and important food, both from an economic and cultural point of view.
A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker. All types of food can be baked. Various techniques have been developed to provide this protection. In addition to bread, baking is used to prepare cakes, pies, quiches, scones, crackers and more; these popular items are known collectively as "baked goods," and are sold at a bakery, a store that carries only baked goods, or at markets, grocery stores, farmers markets or through other venues. Meat, including cured meats, such as ham can be baked, but baking is reserved for meatloaf, smaller cuts of whole meats, or whole meats that contain stuffing or coating such as bread crumbs or buttermilk batter; some foods are surrounded with moisture during baking by placing a small amount of liquid in the bottom of a closed pan, letting it steam up around the food, a method known as braising or slow baking. Larger cuts prepared without stuffing or coating are more roasted, a similar process, using higher temperatures and shorter cooking times.
Roasting, however, is only suitable for finer cuts of meat, so other methods have been developed to make tougher meat cuts palatable after baking. One of these is the method known as en croûte, which protects the food from direct heat and seals the natural juices inside. Meat, game, fish or vegetables can be prepared by baking en croûte. Well-known examples include Beef Wellington; the en croûte method allows meat to be baked by burying it in the embers of a fire – a favorite method of cooking venison. Salt can be used to make a protective crust, not eaten. Another method of protecting food from the heat while it is baking is to cook it en papillote. In this method, the food is covered by baking paper to protect it; the cooked parcel of food is sometimes served unopened, allowing diners to discover the contents for themselves which adds an element of surprise. Eggs can be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes. In combination with dairy products cheese, they are prepared as a dessert.
For example, although a baked custard can be made using starch, the flavor of the dish is much more delicate if eggs are used as the thickening agent. Baked custards, such as crème caramel, are among the items that need protection from an oven's direct heat, the bain-marie method serves this purpose; the cooking container is half submerged in water in another, larger one, so that the heat in the oven is more applied during the baking process. Baking a successful soufflé requires that the baking process be controlled; the oven temperature must be even and the oven space not shared with another dish. These factors, along with the theatrical effect of an air-filled dessert, have given this baked food a reputation for being a culinary achievement. A good baking technique are needed to create a baked Alaska because of the difficulty of baking hot meringue and cold ice cream at the same time. Baking can be used to prepare other foods such as pizzas, baked potatoes, baked apples, baked beans, some casseroles and pasta dishes such as lasagne.
The first evidence of baking occurred when humans took wild grass grains, soaked them in water, mixed everything together, mashing it into a kind of broth-like paste. The paste was cooked by resulting in a bread-like substance; when humans mastered fire, the paste was roasted on hot embers, which made bread-making easier, as it could now be made any time fire was created. The world's oldest oven was discovered in Croatia in 2014 dating back 6500 years ago; the Ancient Egyptians baked bread using yeast, which they had been using to brew beer. Bread baking began in Ancient Greece around 600 BC. "Ovens and worktables have been discovered in archaeological digs from Turkey to Palestine and date back to 5600 BC."Baking flourished during the Roman Empire. Beginning around 300 B. C. the pastry cook became an occupation for Romans and became a respected profession because pastries were considered decadent, Romans loved festivity and celebration. Thus, pastr
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world and is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant importance since the dawn of agriculture. Bread may be leavened by processes such as reliance on occurring sourdough microbes, industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration. Commercial bread contains additives to improve flavor, color, shelf life and ease of manufacturing. Bread plays essential roles in secular culture; the Old English word for bread was hlaf. Old High German hleib and modern German Laib derive from this Proto-Germanic word, borrowed into Slavic and Finnic languages as well; the Middle and Modern English word bread appears in Germanic languages, such as West Frisian brea, Dutch brood, German Brot, Swedish bröd, Norwegian and Danish brød. Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants.
It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primitive form of flatbread. The world's oldest evidence of bread-making has been found in a 14,500 year old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. Around 10,000 BC, with the dawn of the Neolithic age and the spread of agriculture, grains became the mainstay of making bread. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including on the surface of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest leavens naturally. There were multiple sources of leavening available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking. Pliny the Elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer called barm to produce "a lighter kind of bread than other peoples" such as barm cake. Parts of the ancient world that drank wine instead of beer used a paste composed of grape juice and flour, allowed to begin fermenting, or wheat bran steeped in wine, as a source for yeast.
The most common source of leavening was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough starter, as Pliny reported. The Chorleywood bread process was developed in 1961; the process, whose high-energy mixing allows for the use of lower protein grain, is now used around the world in large factories. As a result, bread can be produced quickly and at low costs to the manufacturer and the consumer. However, there has been some criticism of the effect on nutritional value. Bread is the staple food of the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, in European-derived cultures such as those in the Americas and Southern Africa, in contrast to parts of South and East Asia where rice or noodle is the staple. Bread is made from a wheat-flour dough, cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, baked in an oven; the addition of yeast to the bread explains the air pockets found in bread. Owing to its high levels of gluten, common or bread wheat is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread, which makes the largest single contribution to the world's food supply of any food.
Bread is made from the flour of other wheat species. Non-wheat cereals including rye, maize, sorghum and rice have been used to make bread, with the exception of rye in combination with wheat flour as they have less gluten. Gluten-free breads have been created for people affected by gluten-related disorders such as coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, who may benefit from a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free bread is made with ground flours from a variety of materials such as almonds, sorghum, corn, or legumes such as beans, tubers such as cassava, but since these flours lack gluten they may not hold their shape as they rise and their crumb may be dense with little aeration. Additives such as xanthan gum, guar gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, or eggs are used to compensate for the lack of gluten. In wheat, phenolic compounds are found in hulls in the form of insoluble bound ferulic acid, where it is relevant to wheat resistance to fungal diseases. Rye bread contains ferulic acid dehydrodimers.
Three natural phenolic glucosides, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside and ferulic acid glucoside, can be found in commercial breads containing flaxseed. Glutenin and gliadin are functional proteins found in wheat bread that contribute to the structure of bread. Glutenin forms interconnected gluten networks within bread through interchain disulfide bonds. Gliadin binds weakly to the gluten network established by glutenin via intrachain disulfide bonds. Structurally, bread can be defined as an elastic-plastic foam; the glutenin protein contributes to its elastic nature, as it is able to regain its initial shape after deformation. The gliadin protein contributes to its plastic nature, because it demonstrates non-reversible structural change after a certain amount of applied force; because air pockets within this gluten network result from carbon dioxide production during leavening, bread can be defined as a foam, or a
Gluten is a group of proteins, termed prolamins and glutelins, stored with starch in the endosperm of various cereal grains. It is found in wheat. Glutens Triticeae glutens, have unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties, which give dough its elasticity, helping it rise and keep its shape and leaving the final product with a chewy texture; these properties and its relative low cost are the reasons why gluten is so demanded by the food industry and for non-food uses. Prolamins in wheat are called gliadins; these protein classes are collectively referred to as gluten. Wheat glutelins are called glutenin. True gluten is limited to these four grains. Gluten can trigger adverse inflammatory and autoimmune reactions and is responsible for a broad spectrum of gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten ataxia and other neurological disorders; these disorders are treated with a gluten-free diet. The occurrence of oat avenin toxicity depends on the oat cultivar consumed, because the immunoreactivities of toxic prolamins are different among oat varieties.
Many oat products are cross-contaminated with other gluten-containing cereals. Gluten is a protein complex. In home or restaurant cooking, gluten is prepared from flour by kneading the flour under water, agglomerating the gluten into an elastic network known as a dough, washing out the starch. Starch granules disperse in low-temperature water, the dispersed starch is sedimented and dried. If a saline solution is used instead of water, a purer protein is obtained, with certain harmless impurities departing the solution with the starch. Where starch is the prime product, cold water is the favored solvent because the impurities depart from the gluten. In industrial production, a slurry of wheat flour is kneaded vigorously by machinery until the gluten agglomerates into a mass; this mass is collected by centrifugation transported through several stages integrated in a continuous process. About 65% of the water in the wet gluten is removed by means of a screw press; the process yields a flour-like powder with a 7% moisture content, air cooled and pneumatically transported to a receiving vessel.
In the final step, the processed gluten is milled to produce a uniform product. Gluten forms when glutenin molecules cross-link via disulfide bonds to form a submicroscopic network attached to gliadin, which contributes viscosity and extensibility to the mix. If this dough is leavened with yeast, fermentation produces carbon dioxide bubbles, trapped by the gluten network, cause the dough to rise. Baking coagulates the gluten, along with starch, stabilizes the shape of the final product. Gluten content has been implicated as a factor in the staling of bread because it binds water through hydration; the formation of gluten affects the texture of the baked goods. Gluten's attainable elasticity is proportional to its content of glutenins with low molecular weights, as this portion contains the preponderance of the sulfur atoms responsible for the cross-linking in the gluten network. Further refining of the gluten leads to chewier doughs such as those found in pizza and bagels, while less refining yields tender baked goods such as pastry products.
Bread flours are high in gluten. Kneading promotes the formation of gluten strands and cross-links, creating baked products that are chewier; the "chewiness" increases. An increased moisture content in the dough enhances gluten development, wet doughs left to rise for a long time require no kneading. Shortening inhibits formation of cross-links and is used, along with diminished water and less kneading, when a tender and flaky product, such as a pie crust, is desired; the strength and elasticity of gluten in flour is measured in the baking industry using a farinograph. This gives the baker a measurement of quality for different varieties of flours when developing recipes for various baked goods. Gluten, when dried and added to ordinary flour dough, may help improve the dough's ability to increase in volume; the resulting mixture increases the bread's structural stability and chewiness. Gluten-added dough must be worked vigorously to induce it to rise to its full capacity. Higher gluten levels are associated with higher overall protein content.
Gluten wheat gluten, is the basis for imitation meats resembling beef, duck and pork. When cooked in broth, gluten becomes firm to the bite; this use of gluten is a popular means of adding supplemental protein to many vegetarian diets. Gluten is present in beer and soy sauce, can be used as a stabilizing agent in more unexpected food products, such as ice cream and ketchup. Foods of this kind may therefore present problems for a small number o
Food drying is a method of food preservation in which food is dried. Drying inhibits the growth of bacteria and mold through the removal of water. Dehydration has been used for this purpose since ancient times. C. by inhabitants of the modern Middle East and Asia regions. Water is traditionally removed through evaporation, although today electric food dehydrators or freeze-drying can be used to speed the drying process and ensure more consistent results. Many different foods can be prepared by dehydration. Meat has held a significant role. For centuries, much of the European diet depended on dried cod—known as salt cod, bacalhau, or stockfish, it formed the main protein source for the slaves on the West Indian plantations, was a major economic force within the triangular trade. Dried fish most cod or haddock, known as Harðfiskur, is a delicacy in Iceland, while dried reindeer meat is a traditional Sami food. Dried meats include prosciutto, bresaola and beef jerky. Dried fruits have been consumed due to their high sugar content and sweet taste, a longer shelf-life from drying.
Fruits may be used differently. The plum becomes the grape a raisin. Figs and dates may be transformed into different products that can either be eaten as they are, used in recipes, or rehydrated. Freeze-dried vegetables are found in food for backpackers and the military. Garlic and onion are dried. Edible mushrooms, as well as other fungi, are sometimes dried for preservation purposes or to be used as seasonings. Home drying of vegetables and meat can be carried out with electrical dehydrators or by sun-drying or by wind. Preservatives such as potassium metabisulfite, BHA, or BHT are not required. However, dried products without these preservatives may require refrigeration or freezing to ensure safe storage for a long time. Industrial food dehydration is accomplished by freeze-drying. In this case food is flash frozen and put into a reduced-pressure system which causes the water to sublimate directly from the solid to the gaseous phase. Although freeze-drying is more expensive than traditional dehydration techniques, it mitigates the change in flavor and nutritional value.
In addition, another used industrial method of drying of food is convective hot air drying. Industrial hot air dryers are simple and easy to design and maintain. More so, it is affordable and has been reported to retain most of the nutritional properties of food if dried using appropriate drying conditions. There are many different methods for drying, each with their own advantages for particular applications; these include: National Center for Home Food Preservation, drying section
Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar. In East Asia, vinaigrette is used as a pickling medium; the pickling procedure affects the food's texture and flavor. The resulting food is called a pickle, or, prefaced with pickled. Foods that are pickled include vegetables, meats and eggs. A distinguishing characteristic is a pH of 4.6 or lower, sufficient to kill most bacteria. Pickling can preserve perishable foods for months. Antimicrobial herbs and spices, such as mustard seed, cinnamon or cloves, are added. If the food contains sufficient moisture, a pickling brine may be produced by adding dry salt. For example and Korean kimchi are produced by salting the vegetables to draw out excess water. Natural fermentation at room temperature, by lactic acid bacteria, produces the required acidity. Other pickles are made by placing vegetables in vinegar. Like the canning process, pickling does not require that the food be sterile before it is sealed.
The acidity or salinity of the solution, the temperature of fermentation, the exclusion of oxygen determine which microorganisms dominate, determine the flavor of the end product. When both salt concentration and temperature are low, Leuconostoc mesenteroides dominates, producing a mix of acids and aroma compounds. At higher temperatures Lactobacillus plantarum dominates, which produces lactic acid. Many pickles start with Leuconostoc, change to Lactobacillus with higher acidity; the exact origins of pickling are unknown, but it may have begun in the area of Mohenjo Daro, in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, about 2400 B. C. Pickling was used as a way to preserve food for out-of-season use and for long journeys by sea. Salt pork and salt beef were common staples for sailors before the days of steam engines. Although the process was invented to preserve foods, pickles are made and eaten because people enjoy the resulting flavors. Pickling may improve the nutritional value of food by introducing B vitamins produced by bacteria.
The term pickle is derived from the Dutch word pekel. In the U. S. and Canada, sometimes Australia and New Zealand, the word pickle alone always refers to a pickled cucumber, except when it is used figuratively. It may refer to other types of pickles such as "pickled onion", "pickled cauliflower", etc. In the UK, pickle, as in a "cheese and pickle sandwich", may refer to Ploughman's pickle, a kind of chutney. South Asia has a large variety of pickles, which are made from varieties of mango, lime, goongura and Indian gooseberry, chilli. Vegetables such as eggplant, cauliflower, bitter gourd, green tamarind, garlic and citron are occasionally used; these fruits and vegetables are mixed with ingredients like salt and vegetable oils and are set to mature in a moistureless medium. In Pakistan, pickles are come in a variety of flavors. A popular item is the traditional mixed Hyderabadi pickle, a common delicacy prepared from an assortment of fruits and vegetables blended with selected spices. Although the origin of the word is ambiguous, the word āchār is considered to be of Persian origin.
Āchār in Persian is defined as ‘powdered or salted meats, pickles, or fruits, preserved in salt, honey, or syrup.'In Sri Lanka, achcharu is traditionally prepared from carrots and ground dates that are mixed with mustard powder, ground pepper, crushed ginger and vinegar, left to sit in a clay pot. Singapore and Malaysian pickles, called acar, are made out of cucumber, bird's eye chilies, shallots, these items being seasoned with vinegar and salt. Fruits, such as papaya and pineapple, are sometimes pickled. In the Philippines, pickling was traditionally done in earthen jars and is known as buro or binuro. Pickling was a common method of preserving food throughout the archipelago before the advent of refrigeration, but its popularity is now confined to vegetables and fruits. Achara remains popular as the Philippine localization of the Malay acar, is made out of green papaya and shallots, seasoned with cloves of garlic and vinegar. Pickled unripe mangoes or burong mangga, unripe tomatoes, jicama, bitter gourd and other fruit and vegetables still retain their appeal.
Siling labuyo, sometimes with garlic and red onions, is pickled in bottled vinegar and is a staple condiment in Filipino cuisine. In Vietnamese cuisine, vegetable pickles are called dưa chua. Dưa chua or dưa góp is made from a variety of fruits and vegetables, including cà pháo, Napa cabbage, carrots, papaya and sung. Dưa chua made from carrots and radishes are added to bánh mì sandwiches. Dưa cải muối is made by sun-drying vegetables such as cải bẹ xanh and bok choy. Nhút mít is a specialty of Nghệ Hã Tĩnh provinces made from jackfruit. In Burma, tea leaves are pickled to produce lahpet, which has strong cultural importance. China is home to a huge variety of pickled vegetables, including radish, baicai (Chinese cabbage
Sautéing or sauteing is a method of cooking that uses a small amount of oil or fat in a shallow pan over high heat. Various sauté methods exist, sauté pans are a specific type of pan designed for sautéing. Ingredients for sautéing are cut into pieces or thinly sliced to facilitate fast cooking; the primary mode of heat transfer during sautéing is conduction between the pan and the food being cooked. Food, sautéed is browned while preserving its texture and flavor. If meat, chicken, or fish is sautéed, the sauté is finished by deglazing the pan's residue to make a sauce. Sautéing may be compared with pan frying, in which larger pieces of food are cooked in oil or fat, flipped onto both sides; some cooks make a distinction between the two based on the depth of the oil used, while others use the terms interchangeably. Sautéing differs from searing in that searing only browns the surface of the food. Certain oils should not be used to sauté due to their low smoke point. Clarified butter, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil are used for sautéing.
For example, though regular butter would produce more flavor, it would burn at a lower temperature and more than other fats due to the presence of milk solids. Clarified butter is more fit for this use. In a sauté, all the ingredients are heated at once, cooked quickly. To facilitate this, the ingredients are moved around in the pan, either by the use of a utensil, or by jerking the pan itself. A sauté pan must be large enough to hold all of the food in one layer, so steam can escape, which keeps the ingredients from stewing and promotes the development of fond. Most pans sold as sauté pans have a wide flat base and low sides, to maximize the surface area available for heating; the low sides allow quick escape of steam. While skillets have flared or rounded sides, sauté pans have straight, vertical sides; this stirred. Only enough fat to coat the bottom of the pan is needed for sautéing; the food is spread across the hot fat in the pan, left to brown, turning or tossing for cooking. The sauté technique involves gripping the handle of the sauté pan and using a sharp elbow motion to jerk the pan back toward the cook, repeating as necessary to ensure the ingredients have been jumped.
Tossing or stirring the items in the pan by shaking the pan too however, can cause the pan to cool faster and make the sauté take longer. Sautéing Media related to Sautéing at Wikimedia Commons Sautéing at Wikibook Cookbooks