Know Nothing

The Know Nothing, formally known as the Native American Party and the American Party from 1855 onwards, was a far-right nativist political party and movement in the United States which operated nationwide in the mid-1850s. It was an anti-Catholic, anti-immigration, xenophobic movement starting as a secret society; the Know Nothing movement briefly emerged as a major political party in the form of the American Party. Adherents to the movement were to reply "I know nothing" when asked about its specifics by outsiders, providing the group with its common name. Supporters of the Know Nothing movement believed that an alleged "Romanist" conspiracy was being planned to subvert civil and religious liberty in the United States, sought to politically organize native-born Protestants in what they described as a defense of their traditional religious and political values; the Know Nothing movement is remembered for this theme because of fears by Protestants that Catholic priests and bishops would control a large bloc of voters.

In most places, the ideology and influence of the Know Nothing movement lasted only a year or two before disintegrating due to weak and inexperienced local leaders, a lack of publicly declared national leaders, a deep split over the issue of slavery. In the South, the party did not emphasize anti-Catholicism as as it did in the North, but it became the main alternative to the dominant Democratic Party; the collapse of the Whig Party after the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act left an opening for the emergence of a new major political party in opposition to the Democratic Party. The Know Nothing movement managed to elect congressman Nathaniel P. Banks of Massachusetts and several other individuals in the 1854 elections into the U. S. Congress, subsequently coalesced into a new political party known as the American Party. In the South, the American Party served as a vehicle for politicians opposed to the Democrats. Many hoped that it would stake out a middle ground between the pro-slavery positions of Democratic politicians and the radical anti-slavery positions of the emerging Republican Party.

The American Party nominated former President Millard Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, although he kept quiet about his membership, refrained from supporting the Know Nothing movement's activities and ideology. Fillmore received 21.5% of the popular vote in the 1856 presidential election, finishing behind the Democratic and Republican nominees. The party entered a period of rapid decline after Millard Fillmore's loss in the 1856 election, the controversial Dred Scott v. Sandford decision made by the Supreme Court in 1857 further galvanized opposition to slavery in the North, causing many former Know Nothings to join the Republicans. Most of the remaining members of the party supported the Constitutional Union Party in the 1860 presidential election, which subsequently lost to Abraham Lincoln of the Republican Party, said defeat led to the final dissolution of the Know Nothing movement that same year. Anti-Catholicism had been a factor in colonial America but played a minor role in American politics until the arrival of large numbers of Irish and German Catholics in the 1840s.

It reemerged in nativist attacks on Catholic immigration. It appeared in New York politics as early as 1843 under the banner of the American Republican Party; the movement spread to nearby states using that name or Native American Party or variants of it. They succeeded in a number of local and Congressional elections, notably in 1844 in Philadelphia, where the anti-Catholic orator Lewis Charles Levin, who went on to be the first Jewish congressman, was elected Representative from Pennsylvania's 1st district. In the early 1850s, numerous secret orders grew up, of which the Order of United Americans and the Order of the Star Spangled Banner came to be the most important, they merged in New York in the early 1850s as a secret order that spread across the North, reaching non-Catholics those who were lower middle class or skilled workmen. The name "Know Nothing" originated in the semi-secret organization of the party; when a member was asked about his activities, he was supposed to reply, "I know nothing."

Outsiders derisively called them "Know Nothings", the name stuck. In 1855, the Know Nothings first entered politics under the American Party label; the immigration of large numbers of Irish and German Catholics to the United States in the period between 1830 and 1860 made religious differences between Catholics and Protestants a political issue. Violence erupted at the polls. Protestants alleged that Pope Pius IX had put down the failed liberal Revolutions of 1848 and that he was an opponent of liberty and republicanism. One Boston minister described Catholicism as "the ally of tyranny, the opponent of material prosperity, the foe of thrift, the enemy of the railroad, the caucus, the school"; these fears encouraged conspiracy theories regarding papal intentions of subjugating the United States through a continuing influx of Catholics controlled by Irish bishops obedient to and selected by the Pope. In 1849, an oath-bound secret society, the Order of the Star Spangled Banner, was created by Charles B. Allen in New York City.

At its inception, the Order of the Star Spangled Banner only had about 36 members. Fear of Catholic immigration led to a dissatisfaction with the Democratic Party, whose leadership in many cities included Catholics of Irish descent. Activists formed secret groups, coordinating their votes and throwing their weight behind candidates sympathetic to their cause: Immigration during the first five years of the 1850s reached a level five

Li Caixia

Li Caixia is a Chinese track and field athlete who competes in the pole vault. Li was born 23 August 1987 in Xi'an, she began pole vaulting in 2005 and began to make progress in the senior ranks in 2009. She cleared a personal best mark of 4.40 metres at the Shanghai Golden Grand Prix and did the same feat again to win the silver medal at the 11th Chinese National Games behind Wu Sha. She followed this up with an appearance at the 2009 Asian Athletics Championships the following month and she defeated Wu to win the gold medal, she made her global debut at the 2010 IAAF World Indoor Championships and set an indoor best of 4.20 m, not enough to make the final cut. She held off a challenge from Li Ling to take the pole vault title at the Chinese championships with a personal best of 4.45 m. As a result, she was selected to represent the Asia-Pacific team at the 2010 IAAF Continental Cup and achieved a new personal best clearance of 4.50 m to finish in fourth place. She completed a Chinese 1 -- 2 with Li.

Li Caixia at World Athletics Profile at Tilastopaja

Richard Gustav Borgelin

Captain Richard Gustav Borgelin was a Danish officer and company commander of the Danish-Baltic Auxiliary Corps in 1919 during the Estonian and Latvian War of Independence. Borgelin attended and ended his education at the Royal Danish Military Academy in 1909. In 1919, when Borgelin was officer of the reserve and in charge of the Second Regiment Corporal School at the Værløse Camp in northern Zealand, he was given the offer of becoming company commander of a combat unit consisting of 200 men. In the spring of 1919, Borgelin and his Compagnie Borgelin arrived in Estonia with 12 Danish officers, 12 Danish junior officers and 189 Danish privates; the company participated in the Estonian and Latvian War of Independence under Estonian army command until 1 September 1919, when the contract expired and the company was disbanded. Borgelin and seven other Danes were awarded the Latvian military Order of Lāčplēsis of third class. In gratitude for his services to the Estonian state, Borgelin was granted Maidla manor in Estonia