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Knut Hamsun

Knut Hamsun was a Norwegian writer, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920. Hamsun's work spans more than 70 years and shows variation with regard to the subject and environment, he published more than 20 novels, a collection of poetry, some short stories and plays, a travelogue, some essays. The young Hamsun objected to naturalism, he argued that the main object of modernist literature should be the intricacies of the human mind, that writers should describe the "whisper of blood, the pleading of bone marrow". Hamsun is considered the "leader of the Neo-Romantic revolt at the turn of the 20th century", with works such as Hunger, Mysteries and Victoria, his works—in particular his "Nordland novels"—were influenced by the Norwegian new realism, portraying everyday life in rural Norway and employing local dialect and humour. Hamsun is considered to be "one of the most influential and innovative literary stylists of the past hundred years", he pioneered psychological literature with techniques of stream of consciousness and interior monologue, influenced authors such as Thomas Mann, Franz Kafka, Maxim Gorky, Stefan Zweig, Henry Miller, Hermann Hesse, Ernest Hemingway.

Isaac Bashevis Singer called Hamsun "the father of the modern school of literature in his every aspect—his subjectiveness, his fragmentariness, his use of flashbacks, his lyricism. The whole modern school of fiction in the twentieth century stems from Hamsun". On August 4, 2009, the Knut Hamsun Centre was opened in Hamarøy. Since 1916, several of Hamsun's works have been adapted into motion pictures. Knut Hamsun was born as Knud Pedersen in Lom in the Gudbrandsdal valley of Norway, he was the fourth son of Peder Pedersen. When he was three, the family moved to Hamarøy in Nordland, they were poor and an uncle had invited them to farm his land for him. At nine Knut was separated from his family and lived with his uncle Hans Olsen, who needed help with the post office he ran. Olsen used to beat and starve his nephew, Hamsun stated that his chronic nervous difficulties were due to the way his uncle treated him. In 1874 he escaped back to Lom. At 17 he became a ropemaker's apprentice, he asked businessman Erasmus Zahl to give him significant monetary support, Zahl agreed.

Hamsun used Zahl as a model for the character Mack appearing in his novels Pan, Dreamers and Rosa. He spent several years in America and working at various jobs, published his impressions under the title Fra det moderne Amerikas Aandsliv. Working all those odd jobs paid off, he published his first book: Den Gaadefulde: En Kjærlighedshistorie fra Nordland, it struggles he endured from his jobs. In his second novel Bjørger, he attempted to imitate Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson's writing style of the Icelandic saga narrative; the melodramatic story follows a poet, Bjørger, his love for Laura. This book was published under the pseudonym Knud Pedersen Hamsund; this book served as the basis for Victoria: En Kærligheds Historie. Hamsun first received wide acclaim with his 1890 novel Hunger; the semiautobiographical work described a young writer's descent into near madness as a result of hunger and poverty in the Norwegian capital of Kristiania. To many, the novel presages the writings of Franz Kafka and other twentieth-century novelists with its internal monologue and bizarre logic.

A theme to which Hamsun returned is that of the perpetual wanderer, an itinerant stranger who shows up and insinuates himself into the life of small rural communities. This wanderer theme is central to the novels Mysteries, Under the Autumn Star, The Last Joy, Vagabonds and others. Hamsun's prose contains rapturous depictions of the natural world, with intimate reflections on the Norwegian woodlands and coastline. For this reason, he has been linked with the spiritual movement known as pantheism. Hamsun saw nature united in a strong, sometimes mystical bond; this connection between the characters and their natural environment is exemplified in the novels Pan, A Wanderer Plays on Muted Strings, the epic Growth of the Soil, "his monumental work" credited with securing him the Nobel Prize in literature in 1920. During World War II, Hamsun put his support behind the German war effort, he met with high-ranking Nazi officers, including Adolf Hitler. Nazi Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels wrote a long and enthusiastic diary entry concerning a private meeting with Hamsun.

In 1940 Hamsun wrote that "the Germans are fighting for us". After Hitler's death, he published a short obituary in which he described him as "a warrior for mankind" and "a preacher of the gospel of justice for all nations." After the war, he was detained by police on June 14, 1945, for treason committed to a hospital in Grimstad "due to his advanced age", according to Einar Kringlen. In 1947 he was tried in Grimstad, fined. Norway's supreme court reduced the fine from 575,000 to 325,000 Norwegian kroner. After the war, Hamsun's views on the Germans during the war were a serious grief for the Norwegians

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is a charity operating in England and Wales that promotes animal welfare. In 2017, the RSPCA secured 1,492 convictions; the charity rescued and collected 114,584 animals, carried out 222,664 microchippings and rehomed 44,611 animals. Founded in 1824, it is the oldest and largest animal welfare organisation in the world and is one of the largest charities in the UK; the organisation does international outreach work across Europe and Asia. The charity's work has inspired the creation of similar groups in other jurisdictions, starting with the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, including the Scottish Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the Dublin Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, various groups which came together as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Australia, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals — known as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

The RSPCA is funded by voluntary donations. In 2017, RSPCA total income was £140,900,000 and total expenditure was £129,400,000, its patron is Queen Elizabeth II. The emergence of the RSPCA has its roots in the intellectual climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century in Britain where opposing views were exchanged in print concerning the use of animals; the harsh use and maltreatment of animals in hauling carriages, scientific experiments, cultural amusements of fox-hunting, bull-baiting and cock fighting were among some of the matters that were debated by social reformers and parliamentarians. At the beginning of the nineteenth century there was an unsuccessful attempt by William Johnstone Pulteney on 18 April 1800 to pass legislation through England's Parliament to ban the practice of bull-baiting. In 1809 Lord Erskine introduced an anti-cruelty bill, passed in the House of Lords but was defeated in a vote in the House of Commons. Erskine in his parliamentary speech combined the vocabulary of animal rights and trusteeship with a theological appeal to biblical passages opposing cruelty.

A attempt to pass anti-cruelty legislation was spearheaded by the Irish parliamentarian Richard Martin and in 1822 an anti-cruelty to cattle bill became law. Martin's Act was supported by various social reformers who were not parliamentarians and an informal network had gathered around the efforts of Reverend Arthur Broome to create a voluntary organisation that would promote kindness toward animals. Broome canvassed opinions in letters that were published or summarised in various periodicals in 1821. Broome organised a meeting and extended invitations to various reformers that included parliamentarians and lawyers; the meeting was held on Wednesday 16 June 1824 in Old Slaughter's Coffee House, London. The meeting was chaired by Thomas Fowell Buxton MP and the resolution to establish the society was voted on. Among the others who were present as founding members were Sir James Mackintosh MP, Richard Martin, William Wilberforce, Basil Montagu, John Ashley Warre, Rev. George Bonner, Rev. George Avery Hatch, Sir James Graham, John Gilbert Meymott, William Mudford, Lewis Gompertz.

The organisation was founded as the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Broome was appointed as the society's first honorary secretary; the foundation is marked by a plaque on the modern day building at 77–78 St Martin's Lane. The society was the first animal welfare charity. In 1824 it brought sixty three offenders before the courts, it was granted its royal status by Queen Victoria in 1840 to become the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as it is today. The origins of the role of the RSPCA inspector stem from Broome's efforts in 1822 to bring to court some individuals against whom charges of cruelty were heard. Broome employed and paid the salary for an inspector to monitor the abuse of animals at the Smithfield Market; the inspector hired by Broome, Charles Wheeler, served in the capacity of an inspector from 1824–1826 but his services were terminated when the society's revenue was exceeded by its debts. The accrued debts led to a suspension of operations when Broome as the society's guarantor for debts was imprisoned.

When operations resumed there was some divided opinions in the Committees that steered the society about employing inspectors, which resulted in a resolution in 1832 to discontinue employing an inspector. The permanent appointment of a salaried inspector was settled in 1838, the inspector is the image best known of the organisation today. Broome's experience of bankruptcy and prison created difficulties for him afterwards and he stood aside as the society's first secretary in 1828 and was succeeded by the co-founding member Lewis Gompertz. Unlike the other founder members who were Christians, Gompertz was a Jew and despite his abilities in campaigning against cruelty, fund-raising and administrative skills, tensions emerged between him and other committee members, due to Gompertz's approach, considered radical at the time, in opposition to hunting and other forms of using animals he regarded as abusive; the tensions led to the convening of a meeting in early 1832. His resignation coincided with a resolution adopted in 1832 that "the proceedings of the Society were based on the Christian faith and Christia

List of diaspora football clubs in Sweden

The following is a List of diaspora football teams in Sweden. The Swedish football league system has ten levels, with the first five being governed by the Swedish Football Association; the sixth to tenth levels are controlled by regional associations. Only three diaspora football clubs have participated in Allsvenskan and Superettan, the highest and second highest football league in Sweden. Assyriska FF participated in Allsvenskan 2005, Syrianska FC in 2011, 2012 and 2013, Dalkurd FF in 2018. Assyriska FF was the first diaspora football club to reach the second highest division, the highest division and the only one yet to reach a Svenska Cupen final, in 2003. Notable defunct teams SK Hakoah from Malmö existed between 1932–2013 and was the first diaspora football club in Sweden, founded by Jewish immigrants. Juventus IF was reached as high as the fifth tier, they merged with IFK Stocksund in 2016. Topkapi IK existed between 1978–2006, established by Turkish immigrants, reached as high as the third tier.

Valsta Syrianska IK, from Märsta, was established by Assyrian-Syriacs, existed between 1993–2015 and reached as high as the third tier. Växjö United FC, from Växjö, was established by Somalis, existed between 2011–2019 and reached as high as the sixth tier, until they were expelled as a member of the Swedish Football Association, due to financial reasons, false player identities and allegations of match fixing

Coherence theory of truth

In epistemology, the coherence theory of truth regards truth as coherence within some specified set of sentences, propositions or beliefs. The model is contrasted with the correspondence theory of truth. A positive tenet is the idea that truth is a property of whole systems of propositions and can be ascribed to individual propositions only derivatively according to their coherence with the whole. While modern coherence theorists hold that there are many possible systems to which the determination of truth may be based upon coherence, others those with strong religious beliefs hold that the truth only applies to a single absolute system. In general, truth requires a proper fit of elements within the whole system. Though, coherence is taken to imply something more than simple formal coherence. For example, the coherence of the underlying set of concepts is considered to be a critical factor in judging validity. In other words, the set of base concepts in a universe of discourse must form an intelligible paradigm before many theorists consider that the coherence theory of truth is applicable.

In modern philosophy, the coherence theory of truth was defended by Baruch Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Harold Henry Joachim. However and Kant have been interpreted as defenders of the correspondence theory of truth. In contemporary philosophy, several epistemologists have contributed to and defended the theory Brand Blanshard and Nicholas Rescher. According to one view, the coherence theory of truth regards truth as coherence within some specified set of sentences, propositions or beliefs, it is the "theory of knowledge which maintains that truth is a property applicable to any extensive body of consistent propositions, derivatively applicable to any one proposition in such a system by virtue of its part in the system". Ideas like this are a part of the philosophical perspective known as confirmation holism. Coherence theories of truth claim that coherence and consistency are important features of a theoretical system, that these properties are sufficient to its truth.

To state it in the reverse, that "truth" exists only within a system, doesn't exist outside of a system. According to another version by H. H. Joachim, truth is a systematic coherence that involves more than logical consistency. In this view, a proposition is true to the extent that it is a necessary constituent of a systematically coherent whole. Others of this school of thought, for example, Brand Blanshard, hold that this whole must be so interdependent that every element in it necessitates and entails every other element. Exponents of this view infer that the most complete truth is a property of a unique coherent system, called the absolute, that humanly knowable propositions and systems have a degree of truth, proportionate to how they approximate this ideal; the best-known objection to a coherence theory of truth is Bertrand Russell's. He maintained that since both a belief and its negation will, cohere with at least one set of beliefs, this means that contradictory beliefs can be shown to be true according to coherence theory, therefore that the theory cannot work.

However, what most coherence theorists are concerned with is not all possible beliefs, but the set of beliefs that people hold. The main problem for a coherence theory of truth is how to specify just this particular set, given that the truth of which beliefs are held can only be determined by means of coherence. Kirkham, Richard L. Theories of Truth, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Runes, Dagobert D. Dictionary of Philosophy, Littlefield and Company, Totowa, NJ

Vadastuximab talirine

Vadastuximab talirine or SGN-CD33A is an antibody-drug conjugate or ADC directed to CD33 or Siglec-3 is a transmembrane receptor expressed on cells of myeloid lineage. The trial drug, being developed by Seattle Genetics and in clinical trials, is designed for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia; the drug target, CD33, is expressed on most AML cells. The CD33 antibody is attached to a potent DNA binding agent, a pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer, via a proprietary site-specific conjugation chemistry via a cleavable maleimidocaproyl type linker, to a monoclonal antibody with engineered cysteines. Vadastuximab talirine contains two site-specific drug attachment engineered cysteines; this use of engineered cysteine residues at the sites of drug linker attachment results in a drug loading of 2 PBD dimers per antibody. PBD dimers are more potent than systemic chemotherapeutic drugs and the site-specific conjugation technology allows uniform drug-loading of the cell-killing PBD agent to the anti-CD33 antibody.

The drug has concluded phase I clinical trials for Acute myeloid leukemia. Interim results were presented in Dec 2014. and published April 2015. Based on interim data from ongoing phase I clinical trials presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology, researchers at Seattle Genetics have planned a phase III clinical trial to begin in 2016; this phase III study is expected to evaluate vadastuximab talirine in combination with hypomethylating agents in untreated older AML patients. The drug is being evaluated broadly across multiple lines of therapy in patients with myeloid malignancies, including in ongoing and planned phase I and II clinical trials for newly diagnosed or relapsed AML and for newly diagnosed myelodysplastic syndrome or MDS. Vadastuximab talirine was granted orphan drug designation by both the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission for the treatment of AML

Pounds per square inch

The pound per square inch or, more pound-force per square inch is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch. In SI units, 1 psi is equal to 6895 N/m2. Pounds per square inch absolute is used to make it clear that the pressure is relative to a vacuum rather than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Since atmospheric pressure at sea level is around 14.7 psi, this will be added to any pressure reading made in air at sea level. The converse is pounds per square inch gauge, indicating that the pressure is relative to atmospheric pressure. For example, a bicycle tire pumped up to 65 psig in a local atmospheric pressure at sea level will have a pressure of 79.7 psia. When gauge pressure is referenced to something other than ambient atmospheric pressure the units would be pounds per square inch differential; the kilopound per square inch is a scaled unit derived from psi, equivalent to a thousand psi. ksi are not used for gas pressures.

They are used in materials science, where the tensile strength of a material is measured as a large number of psi. The conversion in SI units is 1 MPa = 0.145 ksi. The megapound per square inch is another multiple equal to a million psi, it is used in mechanics for the elastic modulus of materials for metals. The conversion in SI units is 1 GPa = 0.145 Mpsi. Inch of water: 0.036 psid Blood pressure – clinically normal human blood pressure: 2.32 psig/1.55 psig Natural gas residential piped in for consumer appliance. Boost pressure provided by an automotive turbocharger: 6–15 psig NFL football: 12.5–13.5 psig Atmospheric pressure at sea level: 14.7 psia Automobile tire overpressure: 32 psig Bicycle tire overpressure: 65 psig Workshop or garage air tools: 90 psig Air brake or air brake reservoir overpressure: 90–120 psig Road racing bicycle tire overpressure: 120 psig Steam locomotive fire tube boiler: 150–280 psig Union Pacific Big Boy steam locomotive boiler: 300 psig US Navy steam boiler pressure 800 psi Natural gas pipelines: 800–1000 psig Full SCBA for IDLH atmospheres: 2216 psig Nuclear reactor primary loop 2300 psi Full SCUBA tank overpressure: 3000 psig Full SCBA for interior firefighting operations: 4500 psig Airbus A380 hydraulic system: 5000 psig Ultimate strength of ASTM A36 steel: 58,000 psi Water jet cutter: 40,000–100,000 psig The exact conversions to and from SI are, by definition: 1 lbf/in2 = Pa 1 Pa = lbf/in2As the pascal is small unit, relative to industrial pressures, the kilopascal is used.

1000 kPa = 145 lbf/in2. Approximate conversions are shown in the following table. Conversion of units: Pressure or mechanical stress Pressure: Units Pressure measurement primer Online pressure conversions ksi to psi conversions