click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Koala

The koala or, koala bear is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia. It is the only extant representative of the family Phascolarctidae and its closest living relatives are the wombats, which comprise the family Vombatidae; the koala is found in coastal areas of the mainland's eastern and southern regions, inhabiting Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia. It is recognisable by its stout, tailless body and large head with round, fluffy ears and large, spoon-shaped nose; the koala weighs 4 -- 15 kg. Fur colour ranges from silver grey to chocolate brown. Koalas from the northern populations are smaller and lighter in colour than their counterparts further south; these populations are separate subspecies, but this is disputed. Koalas inhabit open eucalypt woodlands, the leaves of these trees make up most of their diet; because this eucalypt diet has limited nutritional and caloric content, koalas are sedentary and sleep up to 20 hours a day. They are asocial animals, bonding exists only between mothers and dependent offspring.

Adult males attract mates. Males mark their presence with secretions from scent glands located on their chests. Being marsupials, koalas give birth to underdeveloped young that crawl into their mothers' pouches, where they stay for the first six to seven months of their lives; these young koalas, known as joeys, are weaned around a year old. Koalas have few natural predators and parasites, but are threatened by various pathogens, such as Chlamydiaceae bacteria and the koala retrovirus. Koalas were depicted in myths and cave art for millennia; the first recorded encounter between a European and a koala was in 1798, an image of the animal was published in 1810 by naturalist George Perry. Botanist Robert Brown wrote the first detailed scientific description of the koala in 1814, although his work remained unpublished for 180 years. Popular artist John Gould illustrated and described the koala, introducing the species to the general British public. Further details about the animal's biology were revealed in the 19th century by several English scientists.

Because of its distinctive appearance, the koala is recognised worldwide as a symbol of Australia. Koalas are listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature; the animal was hunted in the early 20th century for its fur, large-scale cullings in Queensland resulted in a public outcry that initiated a movement to protect the species. Sanctuaries were established, translocation efforts moved to new regions koalas whose habitat had become fragmented or reduced. Among the many threats to their existence are habitat destruction caused by agriculture, urbanisation and associated bushfires, some related to climate change. Increased habitat loss may increase risks from vehicle traffic, dog attacks, pesticides in waterways, increased food competition; the word koala comes from the Dharug gula. It was at one time thought, since the animals were not observed to come down from trees that they were able to survive without drinking; the leaves of the eucalyptus tree have a high water content, so the koala does not need to drink often.

But the notion that they do not need to drink water at all was shown to be a myth. Although the vowel'u' was written in the English orthography as "oo", it was changed to "oa" in error; because of the koala's supposed resemblance to a bear, it was miscalled the koala bear by early settlers. The generic name, Phascolarctos, is derived from the Greek words phaskolos "pouch" and arktos "bear"; the specific name, cinereus, is Latin for "ash coloured". The koala was given its generic name Phascolarctos in 1816 by French zoologist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville, who would not give it a specific name until further review. In 1819, German zoologist Georg August Goldfuss gave it the binomial Lipurus cinereus; because Phascolarctos was published first, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, it has priority as the official name of the genus. French naturalist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest proposed the name Phascolartos fuscus in 1820, suggesting that the brown-coloured versions were a different species than the grey ones.

Other names suggested by European authors included Marodactylus cinereus by Goldfuss in 1820, P. flindersii by René Primevère Lesson in 1827, P. koala by John Edward Gray in 1827. The koala is classified with wombats and several extinct families in the suborder Vombatiformes within the order Diprotodontia; the Vombatiformes are a sister group to a clade that includes possums. The ancestors of vombatiforms were arboreal, the koala's lineage was the first to branch off around 40 million years ago during the Eocene; the modern koala is the only extant member of Phascolarctidae, a family that once included several genera and species. During the Oligocene and Miocene, koalas had less specialised diets; some species, such as the Riversleigh rainforest koala and some species of Perikoala, were around the same size as the modern koala, while others, such as species of Litokoala, were one-half to two-thirds its size. Like the modern species, prehistoric koalas had well developed ear structures which suggests that long-distance vocalising and sedentism developed early.

During the Miocene, the Australian continent began drying out, leading to the decl

Royal Manor Theatre

Royal Manor Theatre is a theatre located in Fortuneswell, Isle of Portland, England. A Methodist chapel, the building was converted into the Royal Manor Theatre, which opened in 1978; the Royal Manor Theatre Company were established in 1947 as the Portland Dramatic Society, a group of local residents who wished to return live theatre to Portland after World War II. The society used a variety of local venues across Portland and Weymouth, occupied the Masonic Hall at Victoria Square between 1957-64, they went on to occupy the Jubilee Hall at Easton until 1970, but after the society failed to find a new home, they faced disbanding by the end of 1971. In 1972, the society were approached by Captain and Mrs. Chibnall, who were considering purchasing the disused Primitive Methodist church of 1869 in Fortuneswell. Offering the society use of the upper floor, a lease of £25 per year was agreed between the two parties, conversion work began in late Summer 1972. After 11,000 hours of voluntary labour and £3,500 in costs, the Royal Manor Theatre was opened in October 1978.

To coincide with the theatre's opening, the society changed their name to the Royal Manor Theatre Company. In 1980, Captain Chibnall decided to sell the building, prompting the theatre company to consider obtaining a bank loan to purchase it. After seeking advice from Weymouth and Portland Borough Council, an agreement was made for the council to purchase the building and lease it to the company. Chibnall agreed to sell for £8,500, his original purchase price, plus the cost of improvements he had made; the transfer of ownership was completed in May 1980, while the Royal Manor Theatre Company purchased the building from the council for the same price in 1982. Regarded as Portland's'Little Theatre', the company's first aim is to provide live theatrical entertainment of a high standard for the local community within easy reach of their homes. Another aim is to improve education in all aspects of drama; the company's intentions have been recognised by the Charity Commissioners who granted them charitable status.

Official Royal Manor Theatre website

Takashi Takeuchi

Takashi Takeuchi is a Japanese artist from Yachiyo, Chiba prefecture. He is notable as the co-founder of Japanese visual novel and anime development and production enterprise Type-Moon, for his illustrations on Type-Moon's visual novels and Fate/stay night, which were both adapted into anime and manga series, he has collaborated with his longtime friend and fellow Type-Moon co-founder, author Kinoko Nasu. In 2008, along with Nasu, contributed the special scenario to the Sega/Chunsoft Wii visual novel 428: Shibuya Scramble, which subsequently received a sequel anime titled Canaan, his real name is Tomotaka Takeuchi. Career as a mangaka Takeuchi intended to become a mangaka and in 1996 his manga ‘F’ was awarded an honourable mention at the 3rd Enix 21st Century Manga Grand Prize. In the winter of 1997 his short comic Yuusha-bu tadaima katsudouchuu!! was published in an edition of § Monthly Gangan Wing but he was unable to establish a regular serial. Video game production Takechi began working at the video game developer Compile as a CG artist but left the company in 1998 following restructuring.

At the recommendation of a former colleague Takeuchi was reemployed at Eighting where he worked as a motion designer for fighting and shooting games. Doujin circle management In 1998 Takeuchi formed the doujin circle ‘Takebouki’ with his friend since middle school Kinoko Nasu. With the addition of Takeuchi’s former colleague and programmer from Compile Kiyobee and the songwriter Keita Haga, the circle developed into TYPE-MOON. Shortly after work began on TYPE-MOON’s first game Tsukihime, OKSG, who Takeuchi had met on the Takebouki homepage, joined the circle as manager of the website; as Takeuchi was still employed while working on Tsukihime he would work on the game until 4 AM after arriving home. Despite this schedule Takeuchi was able to produce around four hundred images for the game in seven months. While working on Tsukihime Takeuchi lived in Ōta, Tokyo. Establishing a company In 2004 Takeuchi established the video game production company Notes and TYPE-MOON as the main brand under which its games are published, assuming the role of representative.

Maid fetish and "Saber face" Takeuchi is notable for his fondness of maids, the appearance of maid characters in both Tsukihime and Fate/stay night can be attributed to his tastes. In the TYPE-MOON doujinshi Tsukihime Dokuhon the maid character Hisui is described as being composed entirely from Takeuchi’s preferences. Saber from Fate/stay night is favoured by Takeuchi and he has since designed a number of characters based on her design; this recurrent character design is popularly referred to as "Saber face". Self Portrait and Nickname Takeuchi illustrates himself as a caricature wearing a samue and smoking when representing himself in TYPE-MOON works. There is a low chance of this portrayal appearing in Melty Blood when Mecha-Hisui is selected, as a nod to his fondness of the character. Within TYPE-MOON, at doujinshi market events he is referred to with the cute nickname "Take-chan" Japanese honorifics § Chan, he is called "shachō" by fans. Inspirations Takeuchi’s favourite artists are Yasuhiro Nightow, Takami Akai, Shou Tajima, Yoshihiro Togashi.

He has been influenced by the manga Yu Yu Hakusho. During middle school he and his friend Nasu read and were inspired by Ken Ishikawa’s manga adaptation of Makai Tenshō, he is a fan of Shotaro Ishinomori. Takeuchi has been influenced by the work of Takeshi Obata, for example, he used the character Akari Fujisaki from the manga Hikaru no Go as the model for Tsukihime’s Satsuki Yumizuka. Takeuchi has taken inspiration from anime: Fate/hollow ataraxia’s Caren Hortensia and Bazett Fraga McRemitz were based on Neon Genesis Evangelion’s Rei Ayanami and Wicked City’s Makie respectively. Yoshiaki Kawajiri, Yoshiyuki Sadamoto are among his inspirations. Tsukihime – character design, planning, development supervision Tsukihime Plus-Disc – character design, art Kagetsu Tohya – character design, planning, development supervision Melty Blood - character design, art Fate/Stay Night – character design, planning, layout Fate/Hollow Ataraxia – character design, planning 428: Shibuya Scramble – bonus scenario character design Fate/Extra – character design supervision Mahoutsukai no Yoru – planning, producer Fate/Extra CCC – original character design Fate/Grand Order – art direction, character design Fate/Extella – original character design Kara no Kyoukai Vampire Wars reprint Fate/Zero Tsukihime, Lunar Legend – original character design Fate/stay night – original character design, character design supervision, producer, OP 1 storyboard Kara no Kyoukai series – original character design, producer Canaan – Original character design Fate/stay night the Movie: Unlimited Blade Works – original character design, producer Fate/Zero – original character design, producer World Conquest Zvezda Plot – chief producer D-Frag!

– episode 1 end card Fate/stay night: Unlimited Blade Works – original character design, producer Fate/Grand Order: First Order – original character design, planning Fate/stay night: Heaven's Feel – original character design, producer Fate/Grand Order: Moonlight/Lostroom – original character design, planning Emiya-san Chi no Kyou no Gohan – planning, producer Fate/Grand Order - Absolute Demonic Front: Babylonia - lead character designer, producer Fate/Grand Order - Divine Realm of the Round Table: Camelot - lead character d

Trumpetfish

The trumpetfishes are three species of specialized, tubular-elongated marine fishes in the genus Aulostomus, of the monogeneric family Aulostomidae. The trumpetfishes are members of the order Syngnathiformes, together with the seahorses and the built related cornetfishes; the generic name, Aulostomus, is a composite of two Greek words: aulos, meaning flute, stoma, meaning mouth, because the species appear to have tubular snouts. "Flutemouth" is another less-common name for the members of the family. Trumpetfishes are found in tropical waters worldwide, with two species in the Atlantic and one in the Indo-Pacific, they are demersal reef-dwellers, where one species seems to prefer rocky substrate. They are large for reef fish, where they reach 1 m in length. Bodies of trumpetfish are elongated and pike-shaped, their dorsal and anal fins are adjacent to the tail, where individual dorsal spines reach midway towards the head region. Similar to most members of the order Syngnathiformes, the bodies of trumpetfish are inflexible, supported by interwoven struts of bone.

A distinct trait of the family is their tubular snouts ending with somewhat nondescript jaws. Members of the family have the capability to expand their jaws into a circular, gaping hole to the body's diameter when feeding. Aulostomids are carnivorous fish, they stalk their prey by hovering motionlessly a few inches above the substrate, inching their way towards unsuspecting prey. Once close enough, they dart in and expand their jaws rapidly. Opening their tube-like mouths in quick succession creates a strong suction force, which draws prey straight into the mouth. Aulostomids are known to feed exclusively on small, schooling reef fishes. While they have no commercial fisheries value, members of the family have been known to be found in the aquarium trade. Although not popular aquarium fish, they are common enough to have websites featuring instructions on keeping them in captivity. Three species in this genus are recognized: Aulostomus chinensis Aulostomus maculatus Valenciennes, 1841 Aulostomus strigosus Wheeler, 1955 A YouTube video of a trumpetfish exhibiting its hovering swimming style

Chillicothe, Missouri

Chillicothe is a city in the state of Missouri and the county seat of Livingston County, United States. The population was 9,515 at the 2010 census; the name "Chillicothe" is Shawnee for "big town", was named after their Chillicothe, located since 1774 about a mile from the present-day city. This territory was settled by indigenous peoples of the Americas; the Osage and Missouri were in the territory at the time of earliest European contact, by French explorers and traders. By 1800 the Shawnee and Iowa had migrated here; the Shawnee came from the Ohio Country, where they had been under pressure before the American Revolution from aggressive Iroquois and encroaching European Americans. Displacing the Osage, the Shawnee had a major village known as Chillicothe about a mile from the present-day city. Chillicothe was the name of a major band of the tribe. Other Native American tribes in the area were the Sac and Fox, Pottawatomi, all of whom hunted in the area. In the early 19th century, European-American migration to Missouri increased.

The original survey of Chillicothe by United States citizens was filed for record August 31, 1837, a resurvey of the same was filed August 5, 1859. Chillicothe was incorporated as a city by an act of the General Assembly, approved March 1, 1855, it was selected as the County seat by commissioners and the first term of the county court began on May 7, 1838. In August of that year an order was made to erect the first Court House, the cost not to exceed $5,000, in the Public Square. Livingston was settled by emigrants from the older counties and others from the Upper South states of Kentucky and Tennessee, as well as Ohio and other "Old Northwest" states, as the westward migration continued. Prior to completion of the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad in 1859, the city was minimally developed with cheap frame houses, with little pretense of architectural beauty or design; the building materials being hewed and sawed from the oak and walnut timber surrounding the town, as timber covered the site. The railroad gave an impetus for town improvements.

Soon two and three-story brick business buildings were constructed in place of the former frame structures. From 1865 to 1870, the city improved then a lull lasted until 1875, when the erection of the beautiful three-story, $36,000 school building was started, now known as "Middle School." From that time on Chillicothe made a slow, steady growth up to 1886, when the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad was built through here; that year saw the introduction of the "Water Works" and electric lights. The city continued to modernize in the early 20th century; the Missouri Training School for Girls was the correctional facility of the Missouri Division of Youth Services. It opened in 1889. In 1956, the school received all of the black girls after the Missouri Training School for Negro Girls in Tipton closed; the school closed in 1981. Chillicothe is located in central Livingston County; the Grand River flows past one mile south of the city and the confluence of the Thompson River with the Grand is about three miles to the southwest.

The city is served by U. S. Route 36, U. S. Route 65 and Missouri Route 190. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.03 square miles, of which 7.02 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 9,515 people, 3,612 households, 2,146 families living in the city; the population density was 1,355.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,108 housing units at an average density of 585.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.5% White, 3.7% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 3,612 households of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.6% were non-families. 35.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 39.6 years. 21.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 58.7 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,968 people, 3,608 households, 2,197 families living in the city; the population density was 1,370.9 people per square mile. There were 4,060 housing units at an average density of 620.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 93.86% White, 3.69% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.35% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.96% of the population. There were 3,608 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. School districts.

The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 21.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median

West Auckland railway station

West Auckland railway station served the villages of St Helen Auckland and West Auckland in County Durham, between 1833 and 1962. It was on the railway line between Barnard Castle. There was a locomotive depot, the only one to be both closed and reopened by the London and North Eastern Railway; the Stockton and Darlington Railway, authorised in 1821, was formally opened on 27 September 1825. The original main line connected Witton Park Colliery with Stockton, ran close to the village of West Auckland. On 1 October 1830, a branch line was opened from West Auckland to Hagger Leases Lane, commencing at a point described both as St Helens Auckland and as West Auckland, those being villages on either side of the railway; the early policy of the S&DR was to permit anybody who possessed a suitable coach or wagon to run it upon the railway themselves, upon payment of a toll or fee to the S&DR. The S&DR decided to buy out the coach operators, operate the passenger trains themselves: these began on 1 October 1833 between Stockton and Darlington.

The original route between Shildon and St Helens Auckland ran over the Brusselton Incline, where a winding engine was installed to haul wagons up the steep gradients on each side. In January 1842, the first section of the Bishop Auckland and Weardale Railway, from a junction with the S&DR near Shildon and including the 1,225-yard Shildon Tunnel, opened as far as South Church. A connecting spur from the north end of Shildon Tunnel allowing trains from St Helens Auckland to reach Shildon without using the Brusselton incline was authorised on 4 July 1854 and opened on 13 September 1856; the South Durham and Lancashire Union Railway - which began at a junction with the Haggerleases branch at Spring Gardens Junction - was authorised in 1857. A direct line between St Helens Auckland and Bishop Auckland was authorised in 1858. Passenger services were extended to Haggerleases in 1859. St Helens station was renamed West Auckland on 1 March 1878; the Stockton and Darlington Railway amalgamated with the North Eastern Railway in 1863.

The station was closed by British Railways on 18 June 1962. There was a locomotive depot, situated on the north side of the line to the east of the station, between the St Helen's Colliery and the Dilks Street underbridge, it was with a square shed building and a single turntable. 22 locomotives were allocated to West Auckland at the end of 1920, 15 of which were 0-6-0s of NER Class P1. At this time, the depot was a sub-shed of Shildon, as were the depots at Wear Valley Junction and Wearhead. At the time of the 1923 Grouping, there were 29 locomotives allocated to West Auckland, now responsible for the sub-depots at Wearhead, Wear Valley Junction and Stanhope. Stanhope depot was closed by the LNER in May 1930, West Auckland was itself closed in April 1931. However, when the depots at Wear Valley Junction and Shildon closed in July 1935, West Auckland depot was reopened. At the start of 1948, the LNER was nationalised, West Auckland fell within the new North Eastern Region of British Railways. At this time, 37 locomotives were allocated to West Auckland of LNER Class A8 and Class J25.

In 1949, shed codes were allotted by British Railways, West Auckland, together with Wearhead, was given the code 51F, the 51 denoting the Darlington district of the North Eastern Region. In 1950, 40 locomotives were allocated, of which the main classes were Class A8, J21, J25. Wearhead closed in May 1954; the Class J25 locomotives were used for banking westbound trains on the South Durham and Lancashire Union line up to Stainmore Summit. In 1959, there were 35 locomotives at West Auckland, including Class J39, Class J72, Class Q6, BR Standard Class 4 2-6-0; the depot closed in February 1964, at which time 12 locomotives remained - these were transferred elsewhere, such as to Thornaby. Allen, Cecil J.. The North Eastern Railway. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0495-1. Boddy, M. G.. V.. B.. Fry, E. V.. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 10A: Departmental Stock, Locomotive Sheds and Tender Numbering. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-65-7. Bolger, Paul. BR Steam Motive Power Depots: NER. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1362-4.

CE/0284. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations. Yeovil: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 1-85260-508-1. R508. Conolly, W. Philip. British Railways Gazetteer. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0320-3. EX/0176. Fry, E. V. ed.. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 5: Tender Engines - Classes J1 to J37. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-12-6. Hoole, Ken. Locomotive Stock of the North Eastern Railway as at 31st December 1920. Manchester: North Eastern Railway Associatio