Kom Ombo or Ombos or Latin: Ambo and Ombi – is an agricultural town in Egypt famous for the Temple of Kom Ombo. It was an Egyptian city called Nubt, meaning City of Gold. Nubt is known as Nubet or Nubyt, it became a Greek settlement during the Greco-Roman Period. The town's location on the Nile, 50 kilometres north of Aswan, gave it some control over trade routes from Nubia to the Nile Valley, but its main rise to prominence came with the erection of the Temple of Kom Ombo in the 2nd century BC. In antiquity the city was in the Thebaid, the capital of the Nomos Ombites, on the east bank of the Nile. Ombos was a garrison town under every dynasty of Egypt as well as the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Roman Egypt, was celebrated for the magnificence of its temples and its hereditary feud with the people of Dendera. Ombos was the first city below Aswan; the Nile, indeed, at this portion of its course, was ill-suited to a dense population in antiquity. It runs between steep and narrow banks of sandstone, deposits but little of its fertilizing slime upon the dreary and barren shores.
There are two temples at Ombos, constructed of the stone obtained from the neighboring quarries of Hagar Silsilah. The more magnificent of two stands upon the top of a sandy hill, appears to have been a species of Pantheon, according to extant inscriptions, it was dedicated to Haroeris and the other deities of the Ombite nome by the soldiers quartered there; the smaller temple to the northwest was sacred to the goddess Isis. Both, are of an imposing architecture, still retain the brilliant colors with which their builders adorned them. However, they are from the Ptolemaic Kingdom, with the exception of a doorway of sandstone, built into a wall of brick; this was part of a temple built by Thutmose III in honor of the crocodile-headed god Sobek. The monarch is represented on tress, the doorjambs, holding the measuring reed and chisel, the emblems of construction, in the act of dedicating the temple; the Ptolemaic portions of the larger temple present an exception to an universal rule in Egyptian architecture.
It has no propylon or dromos in front of it, the portico has an uneven number of columns, in all fifteen, arranged in a triple row. Of these columns, thirteen are still erect; as there are two principal entrances, the temple would seem to be two united in one, strengthening the supposition that it was the Pantheon of the Ombite nome. On a cornice above the doorway of one of the adyta, there is a Greek inscription, recording the erection, or the restoration of the sekos by Ptolemy VI Philometor and his sister-wife Cleopatra II, 180-145 BCE; the hill on which the Ombite temples stand has been excavated at its base by the river, which here inclines to the Arabian bank. The crocodile was held in especial honor by the people of Ombos. Juvenal, in his 15th satire, has given a lively description of a fight, of which he was an eye-witness, between the Ombitae and the inhabitants of Dendera, who were hunters of the crocodile. On this occasion the men of Ombos had the worst of it; the satirist, has represented Ombos as nearer to Dendera than it is, these towns, in fact, being nearly 100 miles from each other.
The Roman coins of the Ombite nome exhibit the crocodile and the effigy of the crocodile-headed god Sobek. In Kom Ombo there is a rare engraved image of what is thought to be the first representation of medical instruments for performing surgery, including scalpels, forceps, dilator and medicine bottles dating from the days of Roman Egypt. At this site there is another Nilometer used to measure the level of the river waters. On the opposite side of the Nile was a suburb of Ombos, called Contra-Ombos; the city was a bishopric before the Muslim conquest, under the name Ombi is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees. Karol Wojtyła was titular bishop of Ombi from 1958 until 1963, when he was appointed Archbishop of Kraków; the Köppen climate classification classifies its climate as hot desert. Today, cereal account for most of the agricultural industry. Most of the 60,000 villagers are native Egyptians, although there is a large population of Nubians, including many Magyarabs) who were displaced from their land upon the creation of Lake Nasser.
In 2010, plans to construct a new $700m 100 MW solar power plant near the city were unveiled by the Egyptian government. List of cities and towns in Egypt This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Kom Ombo". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Kom Ombo Temple
The Capanda Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Kwanza River in Malanje Province, Angola. Built in 1987–2007 by the Russian company Tekhnopromexport, general designer - the institute Hydroproject The facility generates power by utilizing four turbines and 130 megawatts each, totalling the installed capacity to 520 megawatts. Total cost of US$4 billion. An additional cost of more than US$400 million was spent in repairing the damage caused during UNITA's occupation of the area at the time of the Angolan Civil War in 1992 and 1999; the principal structures include: concrete gravity dam, which includes: full section of the spillway dam, spillway bottom hydroelectric power plant, comprising: GES, four tunnel conduit, power house open switchgear administrative building As of 2013 Capanda HPP generates more than half of all electricity in Angola and is the largest hydroelectric complex in the country On September 2, 1982 Angola signed an intergovernmental Soviet-Angolan agreement for the framework contract, for the construction of a hydropower dam.
The Ministry of Energy and Petroleum of Angola, formed a cabinet management group to manage construction for the Central Kwanza contractor consortium of Capanda, which included the Soviet foreign trade association "Tekhnopromexport", the Brazilian construction firm Odebrecht. The first draft and the first topographic surveys on the alignment of the dam, were made in 1965 by the Portuguese COBA company; this project involved the construction of an arch dam, based on two gravity abutments. This project was scrapped by Soviet specialists and construction costs were significantly reduced. Project Capanda HPP 520 MW was completed in 1989; the project passed inspection by the state experts from the organizations of USSR, Angola and Brazil. Construction began in January 1987; the Contract provided for the completion of the dam by the end of 1992. From April to October 1988, the construction of the tunnel excavation was completed. At the end of June 1989, the River Kwanzaa was blocked, the water flowed into the tunnel.
The filling of the reservoir was completed on September 1, 1992. Construction of the dam was conducted under the conditions of the ongoing Civil War in Angola. On November 4, 1992, the site was captured by a UNITA military squad. During this attack about 20 Angolans - police guarding the construction site and three Russian specialists were killed. After the capture of the unfinished hydro-electric site, it stood without any preservation or conservation until 2000. In 1997, an attempt was made to resume construction. During the reconnaissance survey on the upstream side of the dam, traces of powerful explosions were found; the crane towers were found thrown into the river. After UNITA left the area, the construction site was bare except for the remaining concrete dam wall. All residential barracks were burned, all the new contract builders/engineers had to live in army tents for a while. On February 12, 2000 work was resumed. In July 2002, work began to fill the reservoir. In January 2004 and June 2004, the first two turbines were brought online.
Construction continued to the second stage, in 2007, the third and fourth turbines were brought online. After UNITA left Capanda, all roads leading to the construction site were mined. Despite the fact that de-mining had been carried out immediately after the resumption of construction, at least two large dump truck were destroyed by mines. Landmines were found on the construction site, in places where the heavy rains had washed away soil. Mines are still being found today. List of power stations in Angola "Photos from Capanda HPP". Megard. Archived from the original on 2014-04-29. Retrieved 2014-01-06
Orangeburg Municipal Airport is a city-owned, public-use airport located two nautical miles south of the central business district of Orangeburg, a city in Orangeburg County, South Carolina, United States. It is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a general aviation facility; the airport does not have scheduled commercial airline service. During World War II, the 58th Flying Training Detachment, operated by the Hawthorne School of Aeronautics, trained both U. S. and French airmen at what was Hawthorne Field. The detachment was supervised by the 29th Flying Training Wing. Orangeburg Municipal Airport covers an area of 300 acres at an elevation of 195 feet above mean sea level, it has two asphalt paved runways: 17/35 is 5,399 by 100 feet and 5/23 is 4,508 by 100 feet. For the 12-month period ending August 12, 2011, the airport had 22,420 aircraft operations, an average of 61 per day: 99% general aviation, 1% air taxi, <1% military. At that time there were 22 aircraft based at this airport: 27 % multi-engine.
List of airports in South Carolina South Carolina World War II Army Airfields Aerial image as of January 1994 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for OGB, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for OGB AirNav airport information for KOGB ASN accident history for OGB FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Joachim Bouvet was a French Jesuit who worked in China, the leading member of the Figurist movement. Bouvet came to China in 1687, as one of six Jesuits, the first group of French missionaries to China, sent by Louis XIV of France, under Superior Jean de Fontaney. Before setting out for their destination, he and his associates were admitted to the French Académie des Sciences and were commissioned by that learned body to carry on astronomical observations, to determine the geographical positions of the various places they were to visit, to collect various scientific data; the group, after being provided with all necessary scientific instruments, by order of the king, sailed from Brest, 3 March 1685, with Father Fontaney as Superior. After spending some time in Siam, they arrived in Peking, 7 February 1688; the Jesuits were well received by the Kangxi Emperor. Bouvet and Jean-François Gerbillon stayed at Peking. While engaged in this work, the two Jesuits wrote several mathematical treatises in the Manchu language which the emperor caused to be translated into Chinese, adding the prefaces himself.
So far did they win his esteem and confidence that he gave a site within the Imperial City enclosure for a church and residence which were completed in 1702. Bouvet served as the Chinese emperor's envoy to France, returned to his home country in 1697 with instructions from the emperor to obtain new missionaries. Kangxi made him the bearer of a gift of forty-nine volumes in Chinese for the French king; these were deposited in the Royal Library, Louis XIV, in turn, commissioned Father Bouvet to present to the emperor a magnificently bound collection of engravings. In 1698, Bouvet chartered the ship Amphitrite. In 1699 Bouvet arrived in China for the second time, accompanied by ten missionaries, among them Joseph Henri Marie de Prémare, Jean-Baptiste Régis, Dominique Parrenin. Kangxi honored Bouvet further with the title of interpreter to the heir-apparent. In 1700, with four of his fellow missionaries, Bouvet presented a memorial to the emperor, asking for a decision as to the meaning attached to the various ceremonies of the Chinese in honor of Confucius and their ancestors.
The emperor, who had taken a keen interest in the controversy regarding the ceremonies, replied that they were civil usages, having no religious significance whatsoever. The memorial, together with the emperors reply, was published in the Peking Gazette but failed to allay the excitement raging in Europe over the question. In 1706, Kangxi decided to send Bouvet to the Vatican to settle the Chinese Rites controversy but changed his mind. From 1708 to 1715, Bouvet and Jean-Baptiste Régis were engaged in a survey of the country and the preparation of maps of its various provinces; as a sinologist, Bouvet focused his research on I Ching. Trying to find a connection between the Chinese classics and the Bible, Bouvet came to the conclusion that the Chinese had known the whole truth of the Christian tradition in ancient times and that this truth could be found in the Chinese classics. Though he had some of his texts published, none of Bouvet's more extreme Figurist texts were published until the mid-19th century.
Bouvet died in Peking on June 28, 1730. His gravestone stele is on display at the Stone Carving Museum of Beijing together with the gravestone steles of Father Gerbillon, Father Regis. Etat présent de la Chine, en figures gravées par P. Giffart sur les dessins apportés au roi par le P. J. Bouvet Portrait historique de l'empereur de la Chine Li, Shenwen, 2001, Stratégies missionnaires des Jésuites Français en Nouvelle-France et en Chine au XVIIieme siècle, Les Presses de l'Université Laval, L'Harmattan, ISBN 2-7475-1123-5 Entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia Short biography in the Hong Kong Catholic diocesan Archive France-China relations Religion in China List of Roman Catholic missionaries in China Jesuit China missions Christianity in China List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Louis Antoine François de Marchangy was a French lawyer and politician. He was a passionate supporter first of Napoleon and of the Bourbons, an impressive force in the courtroom, he was a Deputy from 1822 to 1824. Louis Antoine François de Marchangy was born in Saint-Saulge, Nièvre, on 25 August 1782, son of a bailiff, he excelled in classical studies, won a scholarship from the department of Nièvre to study at the school of law of Paris. After qualifying as a lawyer, he joined the magistracy. At the same time, he continued literary studies. In 1808 he was appointed assistant judge at the Court of the First Instance of Paris. In 1813 he published his first work, la Gaule poétique, a two-volume study of the history of France in terms of its poetry and beaux-arts; this book made his reputation. Six editions were published between 1813 and 1826. Marchangy was an enthusiastic supporter of Napoleon, was made Imperial Crown prosecutor at the court of the Seine in 1810; the first trial that won him public attention was that of Vigier, founder of the baths on the Seine, subjected to a capital charge.
After Napoleon's fall Marchangy became an enthusiastic royalist, was appointed Crown prosecutor for the Bourbon monarchy. He acquired a great reputation, although he did not improvise and wrote down his speeches, he combined passion with close reasoning, his services were valued by the government. Marchangy was most distinguished in political trials, his conclusions in the trials of two writers, Joseph Fiévée in 1818 and Nicolas Bergasse in 1821, were not supported by everyone. His biographer very favorable to Marchangy, noted that through his method of interpretation and clever phraseology he could make out that a writer said what he had never written or thought; the liberal party accused Marchangy of using the same techniques at the trial of Féret, editor on l'Homme gris and of Père Michel, in the trial of the four Sergeants of La Rochelle and others. His merciless indictment against the sergeants of La Rochelle earned him the office of Advocate General at the Court of Cassation. In this indictment he referred to Joseph Mérilhou, lawyer for one of the accused, when he said, "Here the real culprits are not those in the dock, but those on the benches of advocates."
On 20 November 1822 Marchangy ran for election as Deputy for Nièvre, supported by the ultra-royalists. The same day he was elected deputy for the Nord department, his admission was challenged on the grounds that he did not qualify on the basis of property ownership. The Ministry of Justice did not dare to interfere in the hot debate, his double election was annulled. On 17 April 1823 Marchangy was replaced in Nièvre, he voted with the extreme right. He was reelected on 25 February 1824 for the Altkirch constituency of Haut-Rhin, but his election was again annulled. Marchangy's Tristan le voyageur, ou la France au quatorzième siècle appeared in six volumes in 1825-26, he died of a chill on 2 February 1826 after a memorial ceremony on January 21. He was aged forty four. Marchangy's literary works were soon forgotten, they included: La Gaule poétique ou l'Histoire de France considérée dans ses rapports avec la poésie, l'éloquence et les beaux-arts Bonheur de la campagne, poème en quatre chants Siège de Dantzig en 1813 Mémoires historiques pour l'ordre souverain de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem Tristan le voyageur, ou la France au quatorzième siècle Citations Sources
Introduction is the third studio album by guitarist Marty Friedman, released on November 8, 1994 through Shrapnel Records and Roadrunner Records, one week after his band Megadeth released Youthanasia. It is the second album to feature Megadeth bandmate Nick Menza on drums, it was a family affair, with Nick's father Don Menza playing shakuhachi. Robert Taylor at AllMusic gave Introduction 4.5 stars out of 5, calling it "An unexpected masterpiece in a genre that could use more releases such as this." The album was described as having built on the formula set out in Friedman's previous album, but "with more maturity and musical diversity. Themes are not just introduced and abandoned in favor of gratuitous technical noodling, rather the compositions are thoughtfully explored and brought to a natural conclusion." All tracks are written by Marty Friedman. Marty Friedman – guitar, arrangement, production Brian BecVar – keyboard, additional sound replacement Nick Menza – drums Alex Wilkinson – additional orchestration Sachi McHenry – cello Charlie Bisharat – violin Don Menza – shakuhachi Steve Fontano – engineering Alex Wilkinson – engineering, production Jared Johnson – engineering Seth Cooperrider – engineering Kenneth K. Lee, Jr. – mastering Mike Varney – executive production Story Behind The Song - Introduction at martyfriedman.com In Review: Marty Friedman "Introduction" at Guitar Nine Records