Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Count Alexei Grigorievich Razumovsky, was a Ukrainian-born Russian Registered Cossack who rose to become the lover and, it was suggested, the morganatic spouse of the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. Alexei Grigorievich Razumovsky was born as Alexei Rozum on 17 March 1709 on Lemeshi, a farm near Chernihiv to the family of a registered Ukrainian-born Cossack, Gregory Rozum. In his youth he was a shepherd and he was taught to read and write by a rural sexton. Having a fine voice he sang in the choir at the village church. In 1731, Colonel Vyshnevsky, one of empress Anna Ivanovna's courtiers, while passing through the village on his way back to the Russian capital from a mission to Hungary, was impressed with his vocal ability, took him to Saint Petersburg where he joined the choir of the Russian palace chapel as Alexei Grigoriev. Razumovsky was handsome, along with his vocal talents, captivated Elizabeth Petrovna, who brought him to the imperial court in 1732. With the deportation of Elizabeth's favourite, Alexis Shubin, Razumovsky became her favourite.
After losing his voice, he was accepted in the post of the court bandura player, the manager of one of Elizabeth's mansions. He received the rank of the hof-quartermeister. During the period of Anna Leopoldovna's reign he was made a Kamer-Junker. Razumovsky played an important role in the palace revolution of 25–26 November 1741, which brought about Elizabeth Petrovna's accession to the throne. On 30 November he was appointed as a chamberlain with the rank of a general-lieutenant. On the coronation day he was made a Hofmarschall. Other honours bestowed on him included the Order of Saint Andrew and the Order of Alexander Nevsky, as well as being awarded numerous estates in Moscow and elsewhere. Two years in 1744, he received the committal title Reichsgraf from the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII and he was made a count in Russia in the same year. In 1745 he became the captain-lieutenant of the life-guards, in 1748 he became the lieutenant-colonel of life-guards. On 5 September 1756 he received the rank of Field Marshal.
During Elizabeth Petrovna's reign he kept an exclusive position at court. Razumovsky's apartments in the Summer Palace directly adjoined to Elizabeth's apartments, he had constant access to her. Razumovsky was not interested in politics, although he quite supported chancellor Bestuzhev. On his advice the office of Ukrainian hetman was restored and his younger brother Kirill Razumovsky was made a hetman and president of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Before her death the empress made her successor Peter III promise not to offend her favourites. In 1762 Razumovsky submitted his resignation and moved from the Winter Palace to Anichkov Palace, presented to him by Elizabeth. After Catherine II's accession to the throne, Razumovsky refused the title of highness, offered to him. At the Empress's request he destroyed all documents about his marriage with Elizabeth, he died on 6 July 1771 in St. Petersburg and was buried in the Annunciation Cathedral of the Alexandro-Nevskaya Lavra; the question of Razumovsky and Elizabeth Petrovna's children remains unresolved and subject to many legends.
The best known pretenders were two princesses Tarakanova, one of whom became a nun under the name Dosifeya. She was buried in the Romanov family crypt, she was imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where she died from tuberculosis. The legend of her being drowned during the floods of 1777 served as the plot for a painting by artist Konstantin Flavitsky
Imperial Academy of Arts
The Russian Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, informally known as the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts, was founded in 1757 by the founder of the Imperial Moscow University Ivan Shuvalov under the name Academy of the Three Noblest Arts. Catherine the Great renamed it the Imperial Academy of Arts and commissioned a new building, completed 25 years in 1789 by the Neva River; the academy promoted the neoclassical style and technique, sent its promising students to European capitals for further study. Training at the academy was required for artists to make successful careers. Formally abolished in 1918 after the Russian Revolution, the academy was renamed several times, it established free tuition. In 1947 the national institution was moved to Moscow, much of its art collection was moved to the Hermitage; the building in Leningrad was devoted to the Ilya Repin Leningrad Institute for Painting and Architecture, named in honor of one of Russia's foremost realist artists. Since 1991 it has been called the St. Petersburg Institute for Painting and Architecture.
The academy was located in the Shuvalov Palace on Sadovaya Street. In 1764, Catherine the Great renamed it the Imperial Academy of Arts and commissioned its first rector, Alexander Kokorinov, to design a new building, it took 25 years to complete the Neoclassical edifice, which opened in 1789. Konstantin Thon was responsible for the sumptuous decoration of the interiors, he designed a quayside in front of the building, with stairs down to the Neva River, adorned it with two 3000-year-old sphinxes, which were transported from Egypt. Ivan Betskoy reorganized the academy into a de facto government department; the academy vigorously promoted the principles of Neoclassicism by sending the most notable Russian painters abroad, in order to learn the ancient and Renaissance styles of Italy and France. It had its own sizable collection of choice artworks intended for study and copying. In the mid-19th-century, the Academism of training staff, much influenced by the doctrines of Dominique Ingres, was challenged by a younger generation of Russian artists who asserted their freedom to paint in a Realistic style.
The adherents of this movement became known as peredvizhniki. Led by Ivan Kramskoi, they publicly broke with the Academy and organized their own exhibitions, which traveled from town to town across Russia. Ilya Repin, Mikhail Vrubel and some other painters still regarded the academy's training as indispensable for the development of basic professional and technical skills. In 1893, Imperial Academy of Arts was divided into the Academy of Arts itself, responsible for all the artistic work in the Russian Empire, the Higher Art School of the Academy of Arts, which dealt only with academic affairs; the initiator of the reform was the vice-president of Count Ivan Ivanovich Tolstoy. The Charter, approved at the end of 1893, divided the former Academy into two institutions: Аcademy itself, a state institution «for the maintenance and dissemination of art in Russia». Educational institution — Higher Art School at the Academy, managed by the «Council of Professors» with the Rector at the head. Both institutions were located in St. Petersburg in the historic building of the Academy of Arts.
Instead of the old professors, peredvizhniki artists were invited to teaching positions at the Higher Art School. The program of study at the Higher School has changed significantly: the institute of professors and managers was established and free topics for competitive tests were established. New professors came among whom Ilya Repin stood out. Famous artists were invited by the heads of personal workshops: Vladimir Makovsky, Ivan Shishkin, Arkhip Kuindzhi, Aleksey Kivshenko. Came: Alexander Kiselyov, Dmitry Kardovsky, Nikolay Dubovskoy, Nikolay Samokish, Vasily Mate; the Big Gold Medal, which granted the right to a foreign pensioner, was awarded in a competition to which the most talented graduates of the Academy were allowed to complete their studies, awarded to the beginning of the competition with the small gold medal of the Academy «For Success in Drawing». Graduates who received a large gold medal remained at the Academy of Arts for another year; those admitted to the competition were obliged to execute the «program», to draw a picture according to the program, one for all, approved by the Council of the Academy of Arts.
The task, most on a historical theme, was made in such a way that the participant showed all the professional skills and knowledge that he mastered during his studies. Category:Awarded with a large gold medal of the Academy of Arts Category:Imperial Academy of Arts alumni Members of the Imperial Academy of Arts Full Members of the Imperial Academy of Arts After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Imperial Academy passed through a series of transformations, it was formally abolished in 1918 and the Petrograd Free Art Educational Studios created in its place. After the Academ
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Fyodor Andreyevich Bronnikov was a Russian-born history and genre painter who spent most of his life in Italy. He displayed an early affinity for drawing and received his first art lessons from his father, a decorative painter. At the age of sixteen, when his father died, he packed his bags and went to Saint Petersburg, hoping to enter the Imperial Academy of Arts. After failing to gain admission, he became an apprentice in the workshop of Evstafy Bernardsky, a well known woodcutter, his talent drew the attention of the sculptor Pyotr Clodt, who arranged for him to audit classes at the Academy. In 1850, he was able to become a regular student, worked with Alexey Markov, he graduated in 1853 and was awarded a stipend to study in Italy for his graduation painting, The Mother of God. The following year, he settled in Rome and established his own studio on Via Vittoria, near the Villa Borghese, he painted a wide variety of canvases, including landscapes, village scenes, genre scenes, historical works and, of course, portraits of the city's notable citizens.
His health was poor, so he remained there after his stipend expired, to take advantage of the warm climate. He paid a long visit home from 1863 to 1865. While there, the Academy awarded him a professorship in history painting for his depiction of Horace reading his satires to Gaius Maecenas, he came into contact with a group of dissident artists who would be known as the Peredvizhniki. He became a member of the group and sent paintings from Italy to show in their exhibitions, he was awarded the Order of St. Anna as well as being named an Academician and an honorary member of the Academy. During this period he created one of his best known works: The Cursed Field, an indictment of slavery, he died near Rome and was buried at the "Protestant Cemetery". Despite having lived in Italy for most of his life, he left over 300 paintings and drawings and the equivalent of 400 Rubles to establish an art school in Shadrinsk; the school was not established until the Soviet period and the works were used as the basis for a museum.
N. G. Vasileva, Фёдор Бронников, Biely Gorod, 2012 ISBN 5-7793-4082-X Fyodor Bronnikov @ WikiArt
Peter and Paul Fortress
The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress. In the early 1920s, it was still used as a execution ground by the Bolshevik government. Today it has been adapted as the central and most important part of the State Museum of Saint Petersburg History; the museum has become the sole owner of the fortress building, except the structure occupied by the Saint Petersburg Mint. The fortress was established by Peter the Great on May 16 1703 on small Hare Island by the north bank of the Neva River, the last upstream island of the Neva delta. Built at the height of the Northern War in order to protect the projected capital from a feared Swedish counterattack, the fort never fulfilled its martial purpose; the citadel was completed with six bastions in earth and timber within a year, it was rebuilt in stone from 1706 to 1740. From around 1720, the fort served as a base for the city garrison and as a prison for high-ranking or political prisoners.
The Trubetskoy Bastion, rebuilt in the 1870s, became the main prison block. The first person to escape from the fortress prison was the anarchist Prince Peter Kropotkin in 1876. Other people incarcerated in the "Russian Bastille" include Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich, Artemy Volynsky, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Alexander Radishchev, the Decembrists, Grigory Danilevsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Maxim Gorky, Mikhail Bakunin, Nikolai Chernyshevsky, Leon Trotsky and Josip Broz Tito. During the February Revolution of 1917, it was attacked by mutinous soldiers of the Pavlovsky Regiment on February 27 and the prisoners were freed. Under the Provisional Government, hundreds of Tsarist officials were held in the Fortress; the Tsar was threatened with being incarcerated at the Fortress on his return from Mogilev to Tsarskoe Selo on March 8. On July 4 during the July Days demonstrations, the Fortress garrison of 8,000 men declared for the Bolsheviks, they surrendered to government forces without a struggle on July 6.
On October 25, the fortress fell into Bolshevik hands. Following the ultimatum from the Petrograd Soviet to the Provisional Government ministers in the Winter Palace, after the blank salvo of the Cruiser Aurora at 21.00, the guns of the Fortress fired 30 or so shells at the Winter Palace. Just two hit, inflicting only minor damage, the defenders refused to surrender at that time. At 02.10 on the morning of October 26, the Winter Palace was taken by forces under Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko. Between 1918 and 1921 at least 112 persons, including 4 grand dukes, were killed here. In 1924, most of the site was converted to a museum. In 1931, the Gas Dynamics Laboratory was added to the site; the structure suffered heavy damage during the bombardment of the city during WWII by the German army who were laying siege to the city. It is a prime tourist attraction. In the years before and after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution and Paul Fortress was portrayed by Bolshevik propaganda as a hellish, torturous place, where thousands of prisoners suffered endlessly in filthy and grossly overcrowded dungeons amid frequent torture and malnutrition.
Such legends had the effect of turning the prison into a symbol of government oppression in the minds of the common folk. In reality, conditions in the fortress were far less brutal; when the fortress was liberated during the early stages of the revolution in February 1917, the prison was holding only nineteen incarcerated prisoners, the ringleaders of a mutinous army regiment that had sided with the revolutionaries during the mass protests on the 26th. Despite their ultimate falsehood, stories about the prison were vital to the spread of Bolshevik revolutionary sentiment; the legends served to portray the government as cruel and indiscriminate in the administration of justice, helping to turn the common mind against Tsarist rule. Many inmates, after being released, wrote chilling and exaggerated accounts of life there that solidified the structure's horrible image in the public mind and pushed the people further towards dissent. Writers purposely exaggerated their experiences to garner more hatred for the government.
The fortress contains several notable buildings clustered around the Peter and Paul Cathedral, which has a 122.5 m bell-tower and a gilded angel-topped cupola. The cathedral is the burial place of all Russian tsars from Peter I to Alexander III, with the exception of Peter II and Ivan VI; the remains of Nicholas II and his family and entourage were re-interred there, in the side chapel of St. Catherine, on July 17, 1998, the 80th anniversary of their deaths. Toward the end of 2006, the remains of Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna were brought from Roskilde Cathedral outside Copenhagen and reinterred next to her husband, Alexander III; the newer Grand Ducal Mausoleum is connected to the cathedral by a corrid