Archaic Greek alphabets
The system now familiar as the standard 24-letter Greek alphabet was originally the regional variant of the Ionian cities in Asia Minor. It was officially adopted in Athens in 403 BC and in most of the rest of the Greek world by the middle of the 4th century BC, the green type is the most archaic and closest to the Phoenician. The red type is the one that was transmitted to the West and became the ancestor of the Latin alphabet. The blue type is the one from which the standard Greek alphabet emerged, *Upsilon is derived from waw. The green type uses no additional letters beyond the Phoenician set, the aspirated plosives /pʰ/, /kʰ/ are spelled either simply as Π and Κ respectively, without a distinction from unaspirated /p/, /k/, or as digraphs ΠΗ, ΚΗ. Likewise, the clusters /ps/, /ks/ are simply spelled ΠΣ and this is the system found in Crete and in some other islands in the southern Aegean, notably Thera and Anaphe. The red type lacks Phoenician-derived Ξ for /ks/, but instead introduces a supplementary sign for that sound combination at the end of the alphabet, in addition, the red alphabet introduced letters for the aspirates, Φ = /pʰ/ and Ψ = /kʰ/.
Note that the use of Χ in the red set corresponds to the letter X in Latin, while it differs from the standard Greek alphabet, where Χ stands for /kʰ/, only Φ for /pʰ/ is common to all non-green alphabets. The red type is found in most parts of central mainland Greece, as well as the island of Euboea, the light blue type still lacks Ξ, and adds only letters for /pʰ/ and /kʰ/. Both of these correspond to the standard alphabet. The light blue system thus still has no letters for the clusters /ps/, /ks/. In this system, these are typically spelled ΦΣ and ΧΣ and this is the system found in Athens and several Aegean islands. The dark blue type, finally, is the one that has all the consonant symbols of the standard alphabet, in addition to Φ and Χ, it adds Ψ. This system is found in the cities of the Ionian dodecapolis, Knidos in Asia Minor, in the psilotic dialects of Anatolia and adjacent eastern Aegean islands, as well as Crete, vocalic Η was used only for /ɛː/. In a number of Aegean islands, notably Rhodes, Milos and Paros, in Knidos, a variant letter was invented to distinguish the two functions, Η was used for /h/, and for /ɛː/.
In south Italian colonies, especially Taranto, after c.400 BC and this latter symbol was turned into the diacritic sign for rough breathing by the Alexandrine grammarians. The normal letter epsilon was used exclusively for the latter, while a new special symbol stood both for short /e/ and for /ɛː/, the letter Digamma for the sound /w/ was generally used only in those local scripts where the sound was still in use in the spoken dialect. During the archaic period, this includes most of mainland Greece, as well as Euboea, in Athens and in Naxos it was apparently used only in the register of poetry
The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth. It was a made of bronze which in its styles covered the entire head and neck, with slits for the eyes. A large curved projection protected the nape of the neck, out of combat, a Greek hoplite would wear the helmet tipped upward for comfort. This practice gave rise to a series of variant forms in Italy, numerous examples of Corinthian helmets have been excavated, and they are frequently depicted on pottery. The Corinthian helmet was depicted on more sculpture than any other helmet, it seems the Greeks romantically associated it with glory, the Romans revered it, from copies of Greek originals to sculpture of their own. Given many Roman appropriations of ancient Greek ideas, this change was inspired by the over the forehead position common in Greek art. This helmet remained in use well into the 1st century AD, herodotus mentions the Corinthian helmet in his Histories when writing of the Machlyes and Auseans, two tribes living along the River Triton in ancient Libya.
The tribes chose annually two teams of the fairest maidens who fought each other ceremonially with sticks and stones and they were dressed in the finest Greek panoply topped off with a Corinthian helmet. The ritual fight was part of a festival honoring the virgin goddess Athena, young women who succumbed to their wounds during the ordeal were thought to have been punished by the goddess for lying about their virginity. An earlier version of the Corinthian helmet is worn by the Marvel Comics super villain Magneto
It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters and Ancient Greek use different diacritics. In standard Modern Greek spelling, orthography has been simplified to the monotonic system, examples In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the letters of the Greek alphabet have fairly stable and consistent symbol-to-sound mappings, making pronunciation of words largely predictable. Ancient Greek spelling was generally near-phonemic, among consonant letters, all letters that denoted voiced plosive consonants and aspirated plosives in Ancient Greek stand for corresponding fricative sounds in Modern Greek. This leads to groups of vowel letters denoting identical sounds today. Modern Greek orthography remains true to the spellings in most of these cases. The following vowel letters and digraphs are involved in the mergers, Modern Greek speakers typically use the same, modern, in other countries, students of Ancient Greek may use a variety of conventional approximations of the historical sound system in pronouncing Ancient Greek.
Several letter combinations have special conventional sound values different from those of their single components, among them are several digraphs of vowel letters that formerly represented diphthongs but are now monophthongized. In addition to the three mentioned above, there is ⟨ου⟩, pronounced /u/, the Ancient Greek diphthongs ⟨αυ⟩, ⟨ευ⟩ and ⟨ηυ⟩ are pronounced, and respectively in voicing environments in Modern Greek. The Modern Greek consonant combinations ⟨μπ⟩ and ⟨ντ⟩ stand for and respectively, ⟨τζ⟩ stands for, in addition, both in Ancient and Modern Greek, the letter ⟨γ⟩, before another velar consonant, stands for the velar nasal, thus ⟨γγ⟩ and ⟨γκ⟩ are pronounced like English ⟨ng⟩. There are the combinations ⟨γχ⟩ and ⟨γξ⟩ and these signs were originally designed to mark different forms of the phonological pitch accent in Ancient Greek. The letter rho, although not a vowel, carries a rough breathing in word-initial position, if a rho was geminated within a word, the first ρ always had the smooth breathing and the second the rough breathing leading to the transiliteration rrh.
The vowel letters ⟨α, η, ω⟩ carry an additional diacritic in certain words, the iota subscript. This iota represents the former offglide of what were originally long diphthongs, ⟨ᾱι, ηι, ωι⟩, another diacritic used in Greek is the diaeresis, indicating a hiatus. In 1982, a new, simplified orthography, known as monotonic, was adopted for use in Modern Greek by the Greek state. Although it is not a diacritic, the comma has a function as a silent letter in a handful of Greek words, principally distinguishing ό. There are many different methods of rendering Greek text or Greek names in the Latin script, the form in which classical Greek names are conventionally rendered in English goes back to the way Greek loanwords were incorporated into Latin in antiquity. In this system, ⟨κ⟩ is replaced with ⟨c⟩, the diphthongs ⟨αι⟩ and ⟨οι⟩ are rendered as ⟨ae⟩ and ⟨oe⟩ respectively, and ⟨ει⟩ and ⟨ου⟩ are simplified to ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩ respectively
Qoph or Qop is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads. Aramaic Qop is derived from the Phoenician letter, and derivations from Aramaic include Hebrew Qof ק, Syriac Qōp̄ ܩ and its original sound value was a West Semitic emphatic stop, presumably or. In Hebrew gematria, it has the value of 100. The origin of the shape of qōp is uncertain. It is usually suggested to have originally depicted either a needle, specifically the eye of a needle, or the back of a head. According to a suggestion, it may have been a picture of a monkey. Besides Aramaic Qop, which rise to the letter in the Semitic abjads used in classical antiquity, Phoenician qōp is the origin of the Latin letter Q. The Arabic letter ق is named قاف qāf and it is written is several ways depending in its position in the word, It is usually transliterated into Latin script as q, though some scholarly works use ḳ. According to Sibawayh, author of the first book on Arabic grammar, in Hejazi Arabic, Najdi Arabic, Gulf Arabic, Libyan Arabic, rural Jordan, Southern Mesopotamian Arabic and some forms of Yemeni and Saidi Arabic and partially in Maghrebi dialects.
In Egyptian Arabic, as well as Levantine Arabic and forms of Algerian Arabic and Moroccan Arabic from around Tlemcen, in Sudanese Arabic and some forms of Yemeni Arabic. In rural Palestinian Arabic it is pronounced as a voiceless velar plosive. Optionally in Iraqi and in Gulf Arabic, it is pronounced as a voiced postalveolar affricate. Note, that most dialects of Arabic do use the sound for this letter when it is found in learned words borrowed from standard Arabic into the respective dialect. The Maghrebi style of writing qāf is different, having only a point above. The earliest Arabic manuscripts show qāf in several variants, pointed or unpointed, within Maghribi texts, there is no possibility of confusing it with the letter fāʼ, as it is instead written with a dot underneath in the Maghribi script. The Oxford Hebrew-English Dictionary transliterates the letter Qoph a transliteration as q or k, the English spellings of Biblical names containing this letter may represent it as c or k, e. g.
Cain for Hebrew Qayin, or Kenan for Qenan. In modern Israeli Hebrew the letter is called kuf, the letter represents /k/, i. e. no distinction is made between Qof and Kaph. However, many groups have made that distinction, with Qof being pronounced by Iraqi Jews and other Mizrahim
Greek ligatures are graphic combinations of the letters of the Greek alphabet that were used in medieval handwritten Greek and in early printing. Ligatures were used in the writing style and very extensively in minuscule writing. There were dozens of conventional ligatures, some of them stood for frequent letter combinations, some for inflectional endings of words, and some were abbreviations of entire words. In early printed Greek from around 1500, many ligatures fashioned after contemporary manuscript hands continued to be used. Important models for this early typesetting practice were the designs of Aldus Manutius in Venice, and those of Claude Garamond in Paris, the use of ligatures gradually declined during the 17th and 18th centuries and became mostly obsolete in modern typesetting. The ου ligature is still used in decorative writing, while the καὶ abbreviation has some limited usage in functions similar to the Latin ampersand. Another ligature that was frequent in early modern printing is a ligature of Ο with ς for a terminal ος.
The ligature ϛ for στ, now called stigma, survived in a special role besides its use as a ligature proper. It took on the function of a sign for 6, having been visually conflated with the cursive form of the ancient letter digamma. In the modern computer encoding standard Unicode, the abbreviation ϗ has been encoded since version 3.0 of the standard, an uppercase version Ϗ was added in version 5.1. A lower and upper case stigma, designed for its use, is encoded in Unicode. Letters derived from the ου ligature exist for use in Latin, Greek digraphs Latin and Cyrillic Ou digraphs iota adscript, which is written with a ligatured iota, ᾼ iota subscript, written with a ligatured iota, ᾳ Tau-Rho Chi-Rho
Upsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, Υʹ has a value of 400 and it is derived from the Phoenician waw. The name of the letter was originally just “υ”, but the name changed to “υ ψιλόν”, to distinguish it from οι, in early Greek it was pronounced like English oo. In Classical Greek, it was pronounced like French u or German ü, i. e and this was the case at least until the year 1030AD. In Modern Greek it is pronounced like continental i or English ee, in ancient Greek, it occurred in both long and short versions, but this distinction has been lost in Modern Greek. As an initial letter in Classical Greek it always carried the rough breathing as reflected in the many Greek-derived English words, such as those that begin with hyper- and hypo-. This rough breathing was derived from an older pronunciation that used a sibilant instead, Upsilon participated as the second element in falling diphthongs, which have subsequently developed in various ways, For instance, after alpha or epsilon it is pronounced or in Modern Greek.
The usage of Y in Latin dates back to the first century BC and it was used to transcribe loanwords from Greek, so it was not a native sound of Latin and was usually pronounced /u/ or /i/. The latter pronunciation was the most common in the Classical period and was used mostly by uneducated people, four letters of the Latin alphabet arose from it, V and Y and, much later, U and W. In the Cyrillic script, the letters U and izhitsa arose from it, in some languages, the name upsilon is used to refer to the Latin letter Y as well as the Greek letter. In particle physics the capital Greek letter Υ denotes an Upsilon particle, note that the symbol should always look like Υ in order to avoid confusion with a Latin Y denoting the hypercharge. Automobile manufacturer Lancia has a model called the Ypsilon, in linguistics, the symbol is used to represent a labiodental approximant. In astrophysics and physical cosmology, Υ refers to the mass-to-light ratio, Upsilon is known as Pythagoras letter, or the Samian letter, because Pythagoras used it as an emblem of the path of virtue or vice.
As the Roman writer Persius wrote in Satire III, and the letter which spreads out into Pythagorean branches has pointed out to you the steep path which rises on the right, Greek Upsilon Coptic Ua Latin Upsilon Mathematical Upsilon These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup, brady Haran for the University of Nottingham
Epsilon is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid front unrounded vowel /e/. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value five and it was derived from the Phoenician letter He. Letters that arose from epsilon include the Roman E, Ë and Ɛ, in essence, the uppercase form of epsilon looks identical to Latin E. The lowercase version has two variants, both inherited from medieval Greek handwriting. One, the most common in typography and inherited from medieval minuscule. The other, known as lunate or uncial epsilon and inherited from earlier uncial writing, while in normal typography these are just alternative font variants, they may have different meanings as mathematical symbols. Computer systems therefore offer distinct encodings for them, in Unicode, the character U+0一3F5 Greek lunate epsilon symbol is provided specifically for the lunate form. In TeX, \epsilon denotes the lunate form, while \varepsilon denotes the reversed-3 form, there is a Latin epsilon or open e, which looks similar to the Greek lowercase epsilon.
It is encoded in Unicode as U+025B and U+0190 and is used as an IPA phonetic symbol, the lunate or uncial epsilon has provided inspiration for the euro sign. The lunate epsilon is not to be confused with the set membership symbol, in addition, mathematicians have read the symbol ∈ as element of, as in 1 is an element of the natural numbers for 1 ∈ N, for example. As late as 1960, ϵ itself was used for set membership, Only gradually did a fully separate stylized symbol take the place of epsilon. In a related context, Peano introduced the use of a backwards epsilon, ∍, for the phrase such that, the letter Ε was taken over from the Phoenician letter He when Greeks first adopted alphabetic writing. In archaic Greek writing, its shape is often identical to that of the Phoenician letter. Archaic writing often preserves the Phoenician form with a stem extending slightly below the lowest horizontal bar. In the classical era, through the influence of cursive writing styles. Besides its classical Greek sound value, the short /e/ phoneme, for instance, in early Attic before c.500 B. C. it was used both for the long, open /ɛː/, and for the long close /eː/.
In the former role, it was replaced in the classic Greek alphabet by Eta. Some dialects used yet other ways of distinguishing between various e-like sounds, in Corinth, the normal function of Ε to denote /e/ and /ɛː/ was taken by a glyph resembling a pointed B, while Ε was used only for long close /eː/
Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is the goddess of wisdom and war in ancient Greek religion and mythology. Minerva is the Roman goddess identified with Athena, Athena is known for her calm temperament, as she moves slowly to anger. She is noted to have fought for just reasons. Athena is portrayed as a companion of heroes and is the patron goddess of heroic endeavour. She is the patroness of Athens. The Athenians founded the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her city, Athens. Veneration of Athena was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes, in her role as a protector of the city, many people throughout the Greek world worshipped Athena as Athena Polias. While the city of Athens and the goddess Athena essentially bear the same name, Athena is associated with Athens, a plural name, because it was the place where she presided over her sisterhood, the Athenai, in earliest times. Mycenae was the city where the Goddess was called Mykene, at Thebes she was called Thebe, and the city again a plural, Thebae.
Similarly, at Athens she was called Athena, and the city Athenae, Athena had a special relationship with Athens, as is shown by the etymological connection of the names of the goddess and the city. According to mythical lore, she competed with Poseidon and she won by creating the olive tree, the Athenians would accept her gift and name the city after her. In history, the citizens of Athens built a statue of Athena as a temple to the goddess, which had piercing eyes, a helmet on her head, attired with an aegis or cuirass, and an extremely long spear. It had a shield with the head of the Gorgon on it. A large snake accompanied her and she held Nike, the goddess of victory, Mylonas believes that Athena was a Mycenaean creation. On the other hand, Nilsson claims that she was the goddess of the palace who protected the king, a-ta-no-dju-wa-ja is found in Linear A Minoan, the final part being regarded as the Linear A Minoan equivalent of the Linear B Mycenaean di-u-ja or di-wi-ja. Divine Athena was a weaver and the deity of crafts, whether her name is attested in Eteocretan or not will have to wait for decipherment of Linear A.
Perhaps, the name Theonoe may mean she who knows divine things better than others. Thus for Plato her name was to be derived from Greek Ἀθεονόα, Plato noted that the citizens of Sais in Egypt worshipped a goddess whose Egyptian name was Neith, and which was identified with Athena. Neith was the war goddess and huntress deity of the Egyptians since the ancient Pre-Dynastic period, in addition, ancient Greek myths reported that Athena had visited many mythological places such as Libyas Triton River in North Africa and the Phlegraean plain
Eta is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet. Originally denoting a consonant /h/, its value in the classical Attic dialect of Ancient Greek was a long vowel, raised to in hellenistic Greek. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 8 and it was derived from the Phoenician letter heth. Letters that arose from eta include the Latin H and the Cyrillic letter И, the letter shape H was originally used in most Greek dialects to represent the sound /h/, a voiceless glottal fricative. In this function, it was borrowed in the 8th century BC by the Etruscan and other Old Italic alphabets and this gave rise to the Latin alphabet with its letter H. Other regional variants of the Greek alphabet, in dialects that still preserved the sound /h/, in the southern Italian colonies of Heracleia and Tarentum, the letter shape was reduced to a half-heta lacking the right vertical stem. From this sign developed the sign for rough breathing or spiritus asper, in 403 BC, Athens took over the Ionian spelling system and with it the vocalic use of H.
This became the standard orthography in all of Greece, itacism is continued into Modern Greek, where the letter name is pronounced and represents the sound /i/. It shares this function with other letters and digraphs, which are all pronounced alike. This phenomenon at large is called iotacism, Eta was borrowed with the sound value of into the Cyrillic script, where it gave rise to the Cyrillic letter И. In Modern Greek the letter, represents a close front unrounded vowel, in Classical Greek, it represented a long open-mid front unrounded vowel, /ɛː/. The upper-case letter Η is used as a symbol in textual criticism for the Alexandrian text-type, the lower-case letter η is used as a symbol in, the efficiency of a Carnot heat engine, or packing fraction. Chemistry, the hapticity, or the number of atoms of an attached to one coordination site of the metal in a coordination compound. For example, a group can coordinate to palladium in the η¹ mode or the η³ mode. Optics, the impedance of a medium, or the quantum efficiency of detectors.
Particle physics, to represent the η mesons, experimental particle physics, η stands for pseudorapidity. Cosmology, η represents conformal time, dt = adη, relativity and Quantum field theory, η represents the metric tensor of Minkowski space. Statistics, η2 is the regression coefficient
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love, beauty and procreation. She is identified with the planet Venus, and her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus, as with many ancient Greek deities, there is more than one story about her origins. According to Hesiods Theogony, she was born when Cronus cut off Uranuss genitals and threw them into the sea, according to Homers Iliad, she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. In Plato, these two origins are said to be of hitherto separate entities, Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos, Aphrodite had many lovers—both gods, such as Ares, and men, such as Anchises. She played a role in the Eros and Psyche legend, and was lover and surrogate mother of Adonis. Many lesser beings were said to be children of Aphrodite, Aphrodite is known as Cytherea and Cypris after the two cult sites and Cyprus, which claimed to be her place of birth. Myrtle, doves and swans were sacred to her, the ancient Greeks identified her with the Ancient Egyptian goddess Hathor. Aphrodite had many names such as Acidalia and Cerigo, each used by a different local cult of the goddess in Greece.
The Greeks recognized all of these names as referring to the single goddess Aphrodite, despite the differences in what these local cults believed the goddess demanded of them. The Attic philosophers of the 4th century, drew a distinction between a celestial Aphrodite of transcendent principles, and a separate, common Aphrodite who was the goddess of the people, hesiod derives Aphrodite from aphrós sea-foam, interpreting the name as risen from the foam. Michael Janda, accepting this as genuine, claims the birth myth as an Indo-European mytheme. Likewise, Witczak proposes an Indo-European compound *abʰor- very and *dʰei- to shine and it has been argued that etymologies based on comparison with Eos are unlikely since Aphrodites attributes are entirely different from those of Eos or the Vedic deity Ushas. A number of improbable non-Greek etymologies have suggested in scholarship. One Semitic etymology compares Aphrodite to the Assyrian barīrītu, the name of a demon that appears in Middle Babylonian.
Hammarström looks to Etruscan, comparing prϑni lord, an Etruscan honorific loaned into Greek as πρύτανις and this would make the theonym in origin an honorific, the lady. Hjalmar Frisk and Robert Beekes reject this etymology as implausible, especially since Aphrodite actually appears in Etruscan in the borrowed form Apru, the medieval Etymologicum Magnum offers a highly contrived etymology, deriving Aphrodite from the compound habrodíaitos, she who lives delicately, from habrós and díaita. The alteration from b to ph is explained as a characteristic of Greek obvious from the Macedonians. Aphrodite is usually said to have been born near her chief center of worship, Paphos, on the island of Cyprus, other versions of her myth have her born near the island of Cythera, hence another of her names, Cytherea
The Latin alphabet is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. It is the script of the English language and is often referred to simply as the alphabet in English. It is an alphabet which originated in the 7th century BC in Italy and has changed continually over the last 2500 years. It has roots in the Semitic alphabet and its offshoot alphabets, the Phoenician, the phonetic values of some letters changed, some letters were lost and gained, and several writing styles developed. Two such styles, the minuscule and majuscule hands, were combined into one script with alternate forms for the lower and upper case letters, due to classicism, modern uppercase letters differ only slightly from their classical counterparts. The Latin alphabet started out as uppercase serifed letters known as roman square capitals, the lowercase letters evolved through cursive styles that developed to adapt the formerly inscribed alphabet to being written with a pen. Throughout the ages, many stylistic variations of each letter have evolved that are still identified as being the same letter.
From the Cumae alphabet, the Etruscan alphabet was derived, the Latins ultimately adopted 21 of the original 26 Etruscan letters. Gaius Julius Hyginus, who recorded much Roman mythology, mentions in Fab, the Parcae, Clotho and Atropos invented seven Greek letters — A B H T I Y. Others say that Mercury invented them from the flight of cranes, palamedes, son of Nauplius, invented eleven letters, too, invented four letters — Ó E Z PH, Epicharmus of Sicily, two — P and PS. The Greek letters Mercury is said to have brought to Egypt, Cadmus in exile from Arcadia, took them to Italy, and his mother Carmenta changed them to Latin to the number of 15. Apollo on the added the rest. The original Latin alphabet was, The oldest Latin inscriptions do not distinguish between /ɡ/ and /k/, representing both by C, K and Q according to position, K was used before A, Q was used before O or V, C was used elsewhere. This is explained by the fact that the Etruscan language did not make this distinction, C originated as a turned form of Greek Gamma and Q from Greek Koppa.
In Latin, K survived only in a few such as Kalendae, Q survived only before V. G was invented to distinguish between /ɡ/ and /k/, it was simply a C with an additional diacritic. C stood for /ɡ/ I stood for both /i/ and /j/, V stood for both /u/ and /w/. K was marginalized in favour of C, which stood for both /ɡ/ and /k/
Pegasus is one of the best known creatures in Greek mythology. He is a winged divine stallion usually depicted as white in color. He was sired by Poseidon, in his role as horse-god and he was the brother of Chrysaor, born at a single birthing when his mother was decapitated by Perseus. Greco-Roman poets write about his ascent to heaven after his birth and his obeisance to Zeus, king of the gods, friend of the Muses, Pegasus is the creator of Hippocrene, the fountain on Mt. Helicon. He was captured by the Greek hero Bellerophon near the fountain Peirene with the help of Athena, Pegasus allows the hero to ride him to defeat a monster, the Chimera, before realizing many other exploits. His rider, falls off his back trying to reach Mount Olympus, Zeus transformed him into the constellation Pegasus and placed him up in the sky. Hypotheses have been proposed regarding its relationship with the Muses, the gods Athena, Zeus, the symbolism of Pegasus varies with time. Pegasus is the subject of a rich iconography, especially through the ancient Greek pottery and paintings.
The poet Hesiod presents an etymology of the name Pegasus as derived from πηγή pēgē spring, the pegai of Okeanos. A proposed etymology of the name is Luwian pihassas, meaning lightning, and Pihassassi, the proponents of this etymology adduce Pegasus role, reported as early as Hesiod, as bringer of thunderbolts to Zeus. It was first suggested in 1952 and remains widely accepted, according to legend, everywhere the winged horse struck his hoof to the earth, an inspiring spring burst forth. Hesiod relates how Pegasus was peacefully drinking from a spring when the hero Bellerophon captured him, Hesiod says Pegasus carried thunderbolts for Zeus. In another version, when Perseus beheaded Medusa, they were born of the Earth, a variation of this story holds that they were formed from the mingling of Medusas blood and sea foam, implying that Poseidon had involvement in their making. The last version bears resemblance to Hesiods account of the birth of Aphrodite from the foam created when Uranuss severed genitals were cast into the sea by Cronus, Pegasus aided the hero Bellerophon in his fight against both the Chimera.
The next morning, still clutching the bridle, he found Pegasus drinking at the Pierian spring and caught Pegasus, michauds Biographie universelle relates that when Pegasus was born, he flew to where thunder and lightning are released. Then, according to versions of the myth, Athena tamed him and gave him to Perseus. In fact Pegasus is an addition to the story of Perseus. Pegasus and Athena left Bellerophon and continued to Olympus where he was stabled with Zeus other steeds, because of his faithful service to Zeus, he was honoured with transformation into a constellation