Eta is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet. Originally denoting a consonant /h/, its value in the classical Attic dialect of Ancient Greek was a long vowel, raised to in hellenistic Greek. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 8 and it was derived from the Phoenician letter heth. Letters that arose from eta include the Latin H and the Cyrillic letter И, the letter shape H was originally used in most Greek dialects to represent the sound /h/, a voiceless glottal fricative. In this function, it was borrowed in the 8th century BC by the Etruscan and other Old Italic alphabets and this gave rise to the Latin alphabet with its letter H. Other regional variants of the Greek alphabet, in dialects that still preserved the sound /h/, in the southern Italian colonies of Heracleia and Tarentum, the letter shape was reduced to a half-heta lacking the right vertical stem. From this sign developed the sign for rough breathing or spiritus asper, in 403 BC, Athens took over the Ionian spelling system and with it the vocalic use of H.
This became the standard orthography in all of Greece, itacism is continued into Modern Greek, where the letter name is pronounced and represents the sound /i/. It shares this function with other letters and digraphs, which are all pronounced alike. This phenomenon at large is called iotacism, Eta was borrowed with the sound value of into the Cyrillic script, where it gave rise to the Cyrillic letter И. In Modern Greek the letter, represents a close front unrounded vowel, in Classical Greek, it represented a long open-mid front unrounded vowel, /ɛː/. The upper-case letter Η is used as a symbol in textual criticism for the Alexandrian text-type, the lower-case letter η is used as a symbol in, the efficiency of a Carnot heat engine, or packing fraction. Chemistry, the hapticity, or the number of atoms of an attached to one coordination site of the metal in a coordination compound. For example, a group can coordinate to palladium in the η¹ mode or the η³ mode. Optics, the impedance of a medium, or the quantum efficiency of detectors.
Particle physics, to represent the η mesons, experimental particle physics, η stands for pseudorapidity. Cosmology, η represents conformal time, dt = adη, relativity and Quantum field theory, η represents the metric tensor of Minkowski space. Statistics, η2 is the regression coefficient
Theta is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter Teth. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 9, in Ancient Greek, θ represented the aspirated voiceless dental plosive /t̪ʰ/, but in Modern Greek it represents the voiceless dental fricative /θ/. In its archaic form, θ was written as a cross within a circle, archaic crossed forms of theta are seen in the wheel letters of Linear A and Linear B. The cursive form ϑ was retained by Unicode as U+03D1 ϑ GREEK THETA SYMBOL, for the purpose of writing Greek text, the two can be font variants of a single character, but θ and ϑ are used as distinct symbols in technical and mathematical contexts. In the Latin script used for the Gaulish language, theta developed into the tau gallicum, conventionally transliterated as Ð, the phonetic value of the tau gallicum is thought to have been. The early Cyrillic letter fita developed from θ and this letter existed in the Russian alphabet until the 1918 Russian orthography reform.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, represents the voiceless dental fricative and it does not represent the consonant in the, which is the voiced dental fricative. The lower-case letter θ is used as a symbol for, A plane angle in geometry, a Variable in trigonometry A special function of several complex variables. One of the Chebyshev functions in prime number theory, the score of a test taker in item response theory. Theta Type Replication, a type of bacterial DNA replication specific to circular chromosomes, threshold value of an artificial neuron. A Bayer designation letter applied to a star in a constellation, usually the star so labelled. The parameter frequently used in writing the likelihood function, the Watterson estimator for the population mutation rate in population genetics. Indicates a minimum optimum integration level determined by the intersection of GG, the GG-LL schedules are a tool used in analyzing the potential benefits of a country pegging their domestic currency to a foreign currency.
The reserve ratio of banks in economic models, the ordinal collapsing function developed by Solomon Feferman The upper-case letter Θ is used as a symbol for, Quantity or temperature, by SI standard. An asymptotically tight bound in the analysis of algorithms, a certain ordinal number in set theory. Pentaquarks, exotic baryons in particle physics, a brain signal frequency ranging from 4–8 Hz. One of the known as Greeks in finance, representing time decay of options or the change in the intrinsic value of an option divided by the number of days until the option expires. A variable indicating temperature difference in heat transfer, according to Porphyry of Tyros, the Egyptians used an X within a circle as a symbol of the soul, having a value of nine, it was used as a symbol for Ennead
Qoph or Qop is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads. Aramaic Qop is derived from the Phoenician letter, and derivations from Aramaic include Hebrew Qof ק, Syriac Qōp̄ ܩ and its original sound value was a West Semitic emphatic stop, presumably or. In Hebrew gematria, it has the value of 100. The origin of the shape of qōp is uncertain. It is usually suggested to have originally depicted either a needle, specifically the eye of a needle, or the back of a head. According to a suggestion, it may have been a picture of a monkey. Besides Aramaic Qop, which rise to the letter in the Semitic abjads used in classical antiquity, Phoenician qōp is the origin of the Latin letter Q. The Arabic letter ق is named قاف qāf and it is written is several ways depending in its position in the word, It is usually transliterated into Latin script as q, though some scholarly works use ḳ. According to Sibawayh, author of the first book on Arabic grammar, in Hejazi Arabic, Najdi Arabic, Gulf Arabic, Libyan Arabic, rural Jordan, Southern Mesopotamian Arabic and some forms of Yemeni and Saidi Arabic and partially in Maghrebi dialects.
In Egyptian Arabic, as well as Levantine Arabic and forms of Algerian Arabic and Moroccan Arabic from around Tlemcen, in Sudanese Arabic and some forms of Yemeni Arabic. In rural Palestinian Arabic it is pronounced as a voiceless velar plosive. Optionally in Iraqi and in Gulf Arabic, it is pronounced as a voiced postalveolar affricate. Note, that most dialects of Arabic do use the sound for this letter when it is found in learned words borrowed from standard Arabic into the respective dialect. The Maghrebi style of writing qāf is different, having only a point above. The earliest Arabic manuscripts show qāf in several variants, pointed or unpointed, within Maghribi texts, there is no possibility of confusing it with the letter fāʼ, as it is instead written with a dot underneath in the Maghribi script. The Oxford Hebrew-English Dictionary transliterates the letter Qoph a transliteration as q or k, the English spellings of Biblical names containing this letter may represent it as c or k, e. g.
Cain for Hebrew Qayin, or Kenan for Qenan. In modern Israeli Hebrew the letter is called kuf, the letter represents /k/, i. e. no distinction is made between Qof and Kaph. However, many groups have made that distinction, with Qof being pronounced by Iraqi Jews and other Mizrahim
Upsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, Υʹ has a value of 400 and it is derived from the Phoenician waw. The name of the letter was originally just “υ”, but the name changed to “υ ψιλόν”, to distinguish it from οι, in early Greek it was pronounced like English oo. In Classical Greek, it was pronounced like French u or German ü, i. e and this was the case at least until the year 1030AD. In Modern Greek it is pronounced like continental i or English ee, in ancient Greek, it occurred in both long and short versions, but this distinction has been lost in Modern Greek. As an initial letter in Classical Greek it always carried the rough breathing as reflected in the many Greek-derived English words, such as those that begin with hyper- and hypo-. This rough breathing was derived from an older pronunciation that used a sibilant instead, Upsilon participated as the second element in falling diphthongs, which have subsequently developed in various ways, For instance, after alpha or epsilon it is pronounced or in Modern Greek.
The usage of Y in Latin dates back to the first century BC and it was used to transcribe loanwords from Greek, so it was not a native sound of Latin and was usually pronounced /u/ or /i/. The latter pronunciation was the most common in the Classical period and was used mostly by uneducated people, four letters of the Latin alphabet arose from it, V and Y and, much later, U and W. In the Cyrillic script, the letters U and izhitsa arose from it, in some languages, the name upsilon is used to refer to the Latin letter Y as well as the Greek letter. In particle physics the capital Greek letter Υ denotes an Upsilon particle, note that the symbol should always look like Υ in order to avoid confusion with a Latin Y denoting the hypercharge. Automobile manufacturer Lancia has a model called the Ypsilon, in linguistics, the symbol is used to represent a labiodental approximant. In astrophysics and physical cosmology, Υ refers to the mass-to-light ratio, Upsilon is known as Pythagoras letter, or the Samian letter, because Pythagoras used it as an emblem of the path of virtue or vice.
As the Roman writer Persius wrote in Satire III, and the letter which spreads out into Pythagorean branches has pointed out to you the steep path which rises on the right, Greek Upsilon Coptic Ua Latin Upsilon Mathematical Upsilon These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup, brady Haran for the University of Nottingham
The obol was a form of ancient Greek currency and weight. Obols were used from early times, according to Plutarch they were originally spits of copper or bronze traded by weight, while six obols make a drachma or a handful, since that was as many as the hand could grasp. Heraklides of Pontus in his work on Etymologies mentions the obols of Heraion and this is confirmed by the historian Ephorus on his work On Inventions. Excavations at Argos discovered several dozen of these early obols, dated well before 800 BC, Plutarch states the Spartans had an iron obol of four coppers. They retained the cumbersome and impractical bars rather than proper coins to discourage the pursuit of wealth, in Classical Athens, obols were traded as silver coins. Six obols made up the drachma, there were coins worth two obols and three obols. Each obol was divisible into eight coppers, during this era, an obol purchased a kantharos and chous of wine. Three obols was a rate for prostitutes. Legend had it that those without wealth or whose friends refused to follow proper burial rites were forced to wander the banks of the river for one hundred years.
The obol or obolus was a measurement of Greek, Roman, in ancient Greece, it was generally reckoned as 1⁄6 drachma. Under Roman rule, it was defined as 1⁄48 of a Roman ounce or about 0.57 grams, the apothecaries system reckoned the obol or obolus as 1⁄48 ounce or 1⁄2 scruple. The obolus, along with the mirror, was a symbol of new schismatic heretics in the short story The Theologians by Argentine author Jorge Luis Borges. The currency of the United States of the Ionian Islands was called the Obol The British halfpenny, known as the obol Obelisks. I of the Loeb Classical Library edition,1914 Plutarch, Lycurgus,9 A History of Measures The Use of Obeliskoi How we came to know about the iron obols, the antecedents of the drachma
Pegasus is one of the best known creatures in Greek mythology. He is a winged divine stallion usually depicted as white in color. He was sired by Poseidon, in his role as horse-god and he was the brother of Chrysaor, born at a single birthing when his mother was decapitated by Perseus. Greco-Roman poets write about his ascent to heaven after his birth and his obeisance to Zeus, king of the gods, friend of the Muses, Pegasus is the creator of Hippocrene, the fountain on Mt. Helicon. He was captured by the Greek hero Bellerophon near the fountain Peirene with the help of Athena, Pegasus allows the hero to ride him to defeat a monster, the Chimera, before realizing many other exploits. His rider, falls off his back trying to reach Mount Olympus, Zeus transformed him into the constellation Pegasus and placed him up in the sky. Hypotheses have been proposed regarding its relationship with the Muses, the gods Athena, Zeus, the symbolism of Pegasus varies with time. Pegasus is the subject of a rich iconography, especially through the ancient Greek pottery and paintings.
The poet Hesiod presents an etymology of the name Pegasus as derived from πηγή pēgē spring, the pegai of Okeanos. A proposed etymology of the name is Luwian pihassas, meaning lightning, and Pihassassi, the proponents of this etymology adduce Pegasus role, reported as early as Hesiod, as bringer of thunderbolts to Zeus. It was first suggested in 1952 and remains widely accepted, according to legend, everywhere the winged horse struck his hoof to the earth, an inspiring spring burst forth. Hesiod relates how Pegasus was peacefully drinking from a spring when the hero Bellerophon captured him, Hesiod says Pegasus carried thunderbolts for Zeus. In another version, when Perseus beheaded Medusa, they were born of the Earth, a variation of this story holds that they were formed from the mingling of Medusas blood and sea foam, implying that Poseidon had involvement in their making. The last version bears resemblance to Hesiods account of the birth of Aphrodite from the foam created when Uranuss severed genitals were cast into the sea by Cronus, Pegasus aided the hero Bellerophon in his fight against both the Chimera.
The next morning, still clutching the bridle, he found Pegasus drinking at the Pierian spring and caught Pegasus, michauds Biographie universelle relates that when Pegasus was born, he flew to where thunder and lightning are released. Then, according to versions of the myth, Athena tamed him and gave him to Perseus. In fact Pegasus is an addition to the story of Perseus. Pegasus and Athena left Bellerophon and continued to Olympus where he was stabled with Zeus other steeds, because of his faithful service to Zeus, he was honoured with transformation into a constellation
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period. The complex polytonic orthography notates Ancient Greek phonology, the simple monotonic orthography, introduced in 1982, corresponds to Modern Greek phonology, and requires only two diacritics. Polytonic orthography is the system for Ancient Greek and Medieval Greek. The acute accent, the accent, and the circumflex indicate different kinds of pitch accent. The rough breathing indicates the presence of the /h/ sound before a letter, monotonic orthography is the standard system for Modern Greek. A tonos and a diaeresis can be combined on a vowel to indicate a stressed vowel after a hiatus. Although it is not a diacritic, the hypodiastole has in a way the function of a sound-changing diacritic in a handful of Greek words, principally distinguishing ό. The original Greek alphabet did not have any diacritics, the Greek alphabet is attested since the 8th century BC. Until 403 BC, variations of the Greek alphabet—which exclusively used what is now known as capitals —were used in different cities, from 403 on, the Athenians decided to employ a version of the Ionian alphabet.
With the spread of Koine Greek, a continuation of the Attic dialect, the Ionian alphabet, was made up only of capitals. During the Hellenistic period, Aristophanes of Byzantium introduced the breathings—marks of aspiration and it was not until the 2nd century AD that the accents and breathings appeared sporadically in the papyri. The need for the diacritics arose from the divergence between spelling and pronunciation. The majuscule, i. e. a system where text is entirely in capital letters, was used until the 8th century. By the Byzantine period, the rule which turns an acute accent on the last syllable into a grave accent —except before a punctuation sign or an enclitic—had been firmly established. Certain authors have argued that the grave originally denoted the absence of accent, the rule is, in their view. Originally certain proclitic words lost their accent before another word and received the grave, drawing e. g. on evidence from Ancient Greek music, consider that the grave was linguistically real and expressed a word-final modification of the acute pitch.
In the development of the language, the ancient pitch accent was replaced by an intensity or stress accent, making the three types of accent identical, and the /h/ sound became silent. At the beginning of the 20th century, the grave was replaced by the acute, and the iota subscript and the breathings on the rho were abolished, except in printed texts
Koppa or Qoppa is a letter that was used in early forms of the Greek alphabet, derived from Phoenician qoph. It was originally used to denote the /k/ sound, but dropped out of use as a character in favor of Kappa. It has remained in use as a symbol in the system of Greek numerals. Koppa is the source of Latin Q, as well as the Cyrillic numeral sign of the same name, in Phoenician, qoph was pronounced, in Greek, which lacked such a sound, it was instead used for /k/ before back vowels Ο, Υ and Ω. In this function, it was borrowed into the Italic alphabets, however, as the sound /k/ had two redundant spellings, koppa was eventually replaced by kappa in Greek. It remained in use as a letter in some Doric regions into the 5th century BC, the koppa was used as a symbol for the city of Corinth, which had the early spelling of Ϙόρινθος. Koppa remained in use in the system of Milesian Greek numerals and it has continued to be used in this function into modern times, though its shape has changed over time.
In the Greek cursive script, the Q-like shape with a circle on top was often broken up at the side or at the top. These are the shapes in which it was borrowed into the early Cyrillic alphabet, as well as into Gothic, in both cases with the same numeric function. In the Coptic script, the identical-looking sign ϥ is used as a numeral for 90, although as a letter it has an unrelated sound value, /f/. Later, in handwriting, the shape changed further into a simple zigzag line. Modern typography of the numeral Koppa has most often employed some version of the Z-shaped character, other variants common in older print include shapes based on the open uncial form. Some of these shapes may be indistinguishable from realizations of the other Greek numeral, Koppa has sometimes been replaced by a lowercase Latin q, a mirrored uppercase P, or a 5 turned upside down. As with the usage of stigma and Sampi, modern typographical practice normally does not observe a contrast between uppercase and lowercase forms for numeric koppa. A lowercase form was encoded in version 3.0, a second pair of codepoints specifically for the original closed epigraphical shape was introduced in version 3.2.
This left the older two code points to cover primarily the numeral glyphs, older fonts may have the numeral glyph at the uppercase codepoint, while this position may be filled with any of several less common glyphs in newer ones. A serifed version similar to his koppa was adopted as the glyph for the Unicode code charts, along with a lowercase form with heavy curved arms. Some current Unicode fonts have adopted these new shapes, while many font designers have opted for some combination of the more traditional glyphs, including the uncial and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet
Epsilon is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid front unrounded vowel /e/. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value five and it was derived from the Phoenician letter He. Letters that arose from epsilon include the Roman E, Ë and Ɛ, in essence, the uppercase form of epsilon looks identical to Latin E. The lowercase version has two variants, both inherited from medieval Greek handwriting. One, the most common in typography and inherited from medieval minuscule. The other, known as lunate or uncial epsilon and inherited from earlier uncial writing, while in normal typography these are just alternative font variants, they may have different meanings as mathematical symbols. Computer systems therefore offer distinct encodings for them, in Unicode, the character U+0一3F5 Greek lunate epsilon symbol is provided specifically for the lunate form. In TeX, \epsilon denotes the lunate form, while \varepsilon denotes the reversed-3 form, there is a Latin epsilon or open e, which looks similar to the Greek lowercase epsilon.
It is encoded in Unicode as U+025B and U+0190 and is used as an IPA phonetic symbol, the lunate or uncial epsilon has provided inspiration for the euro sign. The lunate epsilon is not to be confused with the set membership symbol, in addition, mathematicians have read the symbol ∈ as element of, as in 1 is an element of the natural numbers for 1 ∈ N, for example. As late as 1960, ϵ itself was used for set membership, Only gradually did a fully separate stylized symbol take the place of epsilon. In a related context, Peano introduced the use of a backwards epsilon, ∍, for the phrase such that, the letter Ε was taken over from the Phoenician letter He when Greeks first adopted alphabetic writing. In archaic Greek writing, its shape is often identical to that of the Phoenician letter. Archaic writing often preserves the Phoenician form with a stem extending slightly below the lowest horizontal bar. In the classical era, through the influence of cursive writing styles. Besides its classical Greek sound value, the short /e/ phoneme, for instance, in early Attic before c.500 B. C. it was used both for the long, open /ɛː/, and for the long close /eː/.
In the former role, it was replaced in the classic Greek alphabet by Eta. Some dialects used yet other ways of distinguishing between various e-like sounds, in Corinth, the normal function of Ε to denote /e/ and /ɛː/ was taken by a glyph resembling a pointed B, while Ε was used only for long close /eː/
The modern Albanian alphabet is a Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters, The vowels are shown in bold. Listen to the pronunciation of the letters, the earliest mention of Albanian writings describes them Licet Albanenses aliam omnino linguam a latina habeant et diversam, tamen litteram latinam habent in uso et in omnibus suis libris. The history of the Albanian alphabet is closely linked with the influence of religion among Albanians, there were attempts for an original Albanian alphabet in the period of 1750–1850. The current alphabet in use among Albanians is one of the two approved in the Congress of Manastir held by Albanian intellectuals from November 14 to 22 November 1908. A first reference for Latin letters was in a medieval Latin manuscript of 1332, the earliest document discovered so far that is written in Albanian is a manuscript from 1210 by Theodor of Shkodra, presumably written in Latin characters. The first certain document in Albanian Formula e pagëzimit, issued by Pal Engjëlli, was written in Latin characters.
It was a phrase that was supposed to be used by the relatives of a dying person if they couldnt make it to churches during the troubled times of the Ottoman invasion. The Greek intellectual Anastasios Michael, in his speech to the Berlin Academy mentions an Albanian alphabet produced recently by Kosmas from Cyprus and it is assumed that this is the alphabet used for the Gospel of Elbasan. Anastasios calls Kosmas the Cadmus of Albania, in 1857 Kostandin Kristoforidhi, an Albanian scholar and translator, drafted in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire, a Memorandum for the Albanian language. He went to Malta, where he stayed until 1860 in a Protestant seminary, finishing the translation of The New Testament in the Tosk and he was helped by Nikolla Serreqi from Shkodër with the Gheg version of the Testament. In November 1869, a Commission for the Alphabet of the Albanian Language was gathered in Istanbul, one of its members was Kostandin Kristoforidhi and the main purpose of the Commission was the creation of a unique alphabet for all the Albanians.
In January 1870 the Commission ended its work of the standardization of the alphabet, a plan on the creation of textbooks and spread of Albanian schools was drafted. However this plan was not realized, because the Ottoman Government wouldnt finance the expenses for the establishment of such schools, Sami Frashëri, Koto Hoxhi, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto created an alphabet. This was based on the principle of one sound one letter and this was called the Istanbul alphabet. In 1905 this alphabet was in use in all Albanian territory and South, including Catholic, Muslim. One year earlier, in 1904 had been published the Albanian dictionary of Kostandin Kristoforidhi, the dictionary had been drafted 25 years before its publication and was written in the Greek alphabet. The so-called Bashkimi alphabet was designed by the Society for the Unity of the Albanian Language for being written on a French typewriter, in 1908, the Congress of Monastir was held by Albanian intellectuals in Bitola, Ottoman Empire, modern-day Republic of Macedonia.
The Congress was hosted by the Bashkimi club, and prominent delegates included Gjergj Fishta, Ndre Mjeda, Mithat Frashëri, Sotir Peçi, Shahin Kolonja, there was much debate and the contending alphabets were Istanbul and Agimi
The stater was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece. The term is used for similar coins, imitating Greek staters. The stater, as a Greek silver currency, first as ingots, the earliest known stamped stater is an electrum turtle coin, struck at Aegina that dates to about 700 BC. It is on display at the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris, the silver stater minted at Corinth of 8.6 grams weight was divided into three silver drachmas of 2.9 grams, but was often linked to the Athenian silver didrachm coin weighing 8.6 grams. In comparison, the Athenian silver tetradrachm was weighing 17.2 grams. There existed a gold stater, but it was minted in some places, and was mainly an accounting unit worth 20–28 drachmas depending on place and time. The use of gold staters in coinage seems mostly of Macedonian origin, the best known types of Greek gold staters are the 28 drachmas Kyzikenos from Cyzicus. Celtic tribes brought the concept to Western and Central Europe after obtaining it while serving as mercenaries in north Greece.
Gold staters were minted in Gaul by Gallic chiefs modeled after those of Philip II of Macedonia, some of these staters in the form of the Gallo-Belgic series were imported to Britain on a large scale. These went on to influence a range of staters produced in Britain, british Gold staters generally weighed between 6.5 and 4.5 grams. Celtic staters were minted in present-day Czech Republic and Poland. The conquests of Alexander extended Greek culture east, leading to the adoption of staters in Asia, Gold staters have been found from the ancient region of Gandhara from the time of Kanishka