Hatzor HaGlilit is a town in the Korazim Plateau in northern Israel near Rosh Pinna and Safed. It is named for the nearby biblical site of Tel Hazor. In 2017 it had a population of 9,060. Hatzor was a Canaanite and Israelite city within the tribe of Naphtali during late Bronze and early Iron Ages, conquered by Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser III in 732 BC and its population was deported, while the city was burnt to the ground. Hatzor HaGlilit was founded in 1952–1953 as a transition camp; the new founded camp was located on the land of the depopulated Palestinian village of Mughr al-Khayt, 1 km southeast of the village site. The two adjacent transition camps were named "Hatzor A" and Hatzor B", named for the nearby biblical site of Tel Hatzor, housed immigrants and refugees Jews from North Africa. In 1956, Hatzor HaGlilit was given the status of local council. By 1958, Hatzor HaGlilit received development town status. Over time, the city preserved its Jewish religious-traditional demographic status and a Jewish ultra-orthodox neighbourhood was established, housing Gur Hassids.
In December 2011, according to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the town was populated by 8,705 residents, with 0.0% population growth. One of the town's most well-known landmarks is the tomb of Honi the Circle-Maker, adjoining the burial sites of two of his grandsons, Abba Hilkiyah and Hanan HaNihba. According to Jewish legend, Honi HaM'agel had the power to bring rain through his prayers; the presence of this shrine attracted a large Gerrer hassid population to the town. HaReuveni, Immanuel. Lexicon of the Land of Israel. Miskal - Yedioth Ahronoth Books and Chemed Books. ISBN 965-448-413-7. Khalidi, All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948, Washington D. C.: Institute for Palestine Studies, ISBN 0-88728-224-5 Vilnai, Ze'ev. "Hatzor". Ariel Encyclopedia. Volume 3. Tel Aviv, Israel: Am Oved
1948 Arab–Israeli War
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the newly declared State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of former British Palestine, forming the second and final stage of the 1947–49 Palestine war. The first deaths of the 1947–49 Palestine war occurred on November 30, 1947, during an ambush of two buses carrying Jews. There had been tension and conflict between the Arabs and the Jews, between each of them and the British forces since the 1917 Balfour Declaration and the 1920 creation of the British Mandate of Palestine. British policies dissatisfied both Jews; the opposition by the Arabs developed into the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, while the Jewish resistance developed into the Jewish insurgency in Palestine. In 1947, these ongoing tensions erupted into civil war, following the 29 November 1947 adoption of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, which planned to divide Palestine into three areas: an Arab state, a Jewish state, the Special International Regime encompassing the cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem.
On 15 May 1948, the ongoing civil war transformed into an inter-state conflict between Israel and the Arab states, following the Israeli Declaration of Independence the previous day. A combined invasion by Egypt and Syria, together with expeditionary forces from Iraq, entered Palestine – Jordan having declared to Yishuv emissaries on 2 May that it would abide by a decision not to attack the Jewish state; the invading forces took control of the Arab areas and attacked Israeli forces and several Jewish settlements. The 10 months of fighting, interrupted by several truce periods, took place on the former territory of the British Mandate and for a short time in the Sinai Peninsula and southern Lebanon; as a result of the war, the State of Israel controlled both the area that the UN General Assembly Resolution 181 had recommended for the proposed Jewish state as well as 60% of the area of Arab state proposed by the 1948 Partition Plan, including the Jaffa and Ramle area, some parts of the Negev, a wide strip along the Tel Aviv–Jerusalem road, West Jerusalem and some territories in the West Bank.
Transjordan took control of the remainder of the former British mandate, which it annexed, the Egyptian military took control of the Gaza Strip. At the Jericho Conference on 1 December 1948, 2,000 Palestinian delegates called for unification of Palestine and Transjordan as a step toward full Arab unity. No state was created for the Palestinian Arabs; the conflict triggered significant demographic change throughout the Middle East. Around 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes in the area that became Israel, they became Palestinian refugees in what they refer to as Al-Nakba. In the three years following the war, about 700,000 Jews immigrated to Israel, with many of them having been expelled from their previous countries of residence in the Middle East. Following World War II, the surrounding Arab nations were emerging from mandatory rule. Transjordan, under the Hashemite ruler Abdullah I, gained independence from Britain in 1946 and was called Jordan in 1949, but it remained under heavy British influence.
Egypt gained nominal independence in 1922, but Britain continued to exert a strong influence on the country until the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 which limited Britain's presence to a garrison of troops on the Suez Canal until 1945. Lebanon became an independent state in 1943, but French troops would not withdraw until 1946, the same year that Syria won its independence from France. In 1945, at British prompting, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Yemen formed the Arab League to coordinate policy between the Arab states. Iraq and Transjordan coordinated policies signing a mutual defence treaty, while Egypt and Saudi Arabia feared that Transjordan would annex part or all of Palestine, use it as a steppingstone to attack or undermine Syria and the Hijaz. On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of a plan to partition the British Mandate of Palestine into two states, one Arab and one Jewish, the City of Jerusalem; the General Assembly resolution on Partition was greeted with overwhelming joy in Jewish communities and widespread outrage in the Arab world.
In Palestine, violence erupted immediately, feeding into a spiral of reprisals and counter-reprisals. The British refrained from intervening as tensions boiled over into a low-level conflict that escalated into a full-scale civil war. From January onwards, operations became militarized, with the intervention of a number of Arab Liberation Army regiments inside Palestine, each active in a variety of distinct sectors around the different coastal towns, they consolidated their presence in Samaria. Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni came from Egypt with several hundred men of the Army of the Holy War. Having recruited a few thousand volunteers, al-Husayni organized the blockade of the 100,000 Jewish residents of Jerusalem. To counter this, the Yishuv authorities tried to supply the city with convoys of up to 100 armoured vehicles, but the operation became more and more impractical as the number of casualties in the relief convoys surged. By March, Al-Hussayni's tactic had paid off. All of Haganah's armoured vehicles had been destroyed, the blockade was in full operation, hundreds of Haganah members who had tried to bring supplies into the city were killed.
The situation for those who dwelt in the Jewish settlements in the isolated Negev and North of Galilee was more critical. While the Jewish population had received strict orders r
A dolmen or cromlech is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table". Most date from the early Neolithic and were sometimes covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. Small pad-stones may be wedged between supporting stones to achieve a level appearance. In many instances, the covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the mound intact, it remains unclear. The oldest known are found in Western Europe. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it, they are all regarded as tombs or burial chambers, despite the absence of clear evidence for this. Human remains, sometimes accompanied by artefacts, have been found in or close to the dolmens which could be scientifically dated using radiocarbon dating. However, it has been impossible to prove that these remains date from the time when the stones were set in place.
The word dolmen has an unclear history. The word entered archaeology when Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne used it to describe megalithic tombs in his Origines gauloises using the spelling dolmin; the Oxford English Dictionary does not mention "dolmin" in English and gives its first citation for "dolmen" from a book on Brittany in 1859, describing the word as "The French term, used by some English authors, for a cromlech...". The name was derived from a Breton language term meaning "stone table" but doubt has been cast on this, the OED describes its origin as "Modern French". A book on Cornish antiquities from 1754 said that the current term in the Cornish language for a cromlech was tolmen and the OED says that "There is reason to think that this was the term inexactly reproduced by Latour d'Auvergne as dolmen, misapplied by him and succeeding French archaeologists to the cromlech". Nonetheless it has now replaced cromlech as the usual English term in archaeology, when the more technical and descriptive alternatives are not used.
Dolmens are known by a variety of names in other languages, including Irish: dolmain and Portuguese: anta, Bulgarian: Долмени Dolmeni, German: Hünengrab/Hünenbett and Dutch: hunebed, Basque: trikuharri, Abkhazian: Adamra, Adyghe Ispun, dysse, dös, Korean: 고인돌 goindol, "dol", "dolmaengi", Hebrew: גַלעֵד. Granja is used in Portugal and Spain; the rarer forms anta and ganda appear. In the Basque Country, they are attributed to a race of giants; the etymology of the German: Hünenbett, Hünengrab and Dutch: hunebed - with Hüne/hune meaning "giant" - all evoke the image of giants buried there. Of other Celtic languages, Welsh: cromlech was borrowed into English and quoit is used in English in Cornwall. Great dolmen Passage grave Polygonal dolmen Rectangular, enlarged or extended dolmen Simple dolmen Holcombe, Charles. A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5. Piccolo, Salvatore. Ancient Stones: The Prehistoric Dolmens of Sicily.
Thornham/Norfolk: Brazen Head Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9565106-2-4. Murphy, Cornelius; the Prehistoric Archaeology of the Beara Peninsula, Co. Cork. Department of Archaeology, University College Cork, 1997 Trifonov, V. 2006. Russia's megaliths: unearthing the lost prehistoric tombs of Caucasian warlords in the Zhane valley. St. Petersburg: The Institute for Study of Material Culture History, Russian Academy of Sciences. Available from Kudin, M. 2001. Dolmeni i ritual. Dolmen Path – Russian Megaliths. Available from Knight, Peter. Ancient Stones of Dorset, 1996. World heritage site of dolmen in Korea Piccolo, Salvatore. "Dolmen." Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map Dolmen Museum in Italian and English Goindol: Dolmen of Korea Research Centre of Dolmens in Northeast Asia Poulnabrone Dolmen in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland "Dolmen sites in Korea". on UNESCO's World Heritage List. Jersey Heritage Trust Dolmen Pictures by Robert Triest
Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcanic landforms. They are built by ejecta from a volcanic vent, piling up around the vent in the shape of a cone with a central crater. Volcanic cones are of different types, depending upon the nature and size of the fragments ejected during the eruption. Types of volcanic cones include stratocones, spatter cones, tuff cones, cinder cones. Stratocones are large cone-shaped volcanoes made up of lava flows, explosively erupted pyroclastic rocks, igneous intrusives that are centered around a cylindrical vent. Unlike shield volcanoes, they are characterized by a steep profile and periodic alternating, explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions; some have collapsed. The central core of a stratocone is dominated by a central core of intrusive rocks that range from around 500 meters to over several kilometers in diameter; this central core is surrounded by multiple generations of lava flows, many of which are brecciated, a wide range of pyroclastic rocks and reworked volcanic debris.
The typical stratocone is an andesitic to dacitic volcano, associated with subduction zones. They are known as either stratified volcano, composite cone, bedded volcano, cone of mixed type or Vesuvian-type volcano. A spatter cone is a low, steep-sided hill or mound that consists of welded lava fragments, called spatter, which has formed around a lava fountain issuing from a central vent. Spatter cones are about 3–5 meters high. In case of a linear fissure, lava fountaining will create broad embankments of spatter, called spatter ramparts, along both sides of the fissure. Spatter cones are more circular and cone shaped, while spatter ramparts are linear wall-like features. Spatter cones and spatter ramparts are formed by lava fountaining associated with mafic fluid lavas, such as those erupted in the Hawaiian Islands; as blobs of molten lava, are erupted into the air by a lava fountain, they can lack the time needed to cool before hitting the ground. The spatter are not solid, like taffy, as they land and they bind to the underlying spatter as both slowly ooze down the side of the cone.
As a result, the spatter builds up a cone, composed of spatter either agglutinated or welded to each other. A tuff cone, sometimes called an ash cone, is a small monogenetic volcanic cone produced by phreatic explosions directly associated with magma brought to the surface through a conduit from a deep-seated magma reservoir, they are characterized by high rims that have a maximum relief of 100–800 meters above the crater floor and steep slopes that are greater than 25 degrees. They have a rim to rim diameter of 300–5,000 meters. A tuff cone consists of thick-bedded pyroclastic flow and surge deposits created by eruption-fed density currents and bomb-scoria beds derived from fallout from its eruption column; the tuffs composing a tuff cone have been altered, palagonitized, by either its interaction with groundwater or when it was deposited warm and wet. The pyroclastic deposits of tuff cones differ from the pyroclastic deposits of spatter cones by their lack or paucity of lava spatter, smaller grain-size, excellent bedding.
But not always, tuff cones lack associated lava flows. A tuff ring is a related type of small monogenetic volcano, produced by phreatic explosions directly associated with magma brought to the surface through a conduit from a deep-seated magma reservoir.. They are characterized by rims that have a low, broad topographic profiles and gentle topographic slopes that are 25 degrees or less; the maximum thickness of the pyroclastic debris comprising the rim of a typical tuff ring is thin, less than 50 meters to 100 meters thick. The pyroclastic materials that comprise their rim consist of fresh and unaltered and thin-bedded volcanic surge and air fall deposits, their rims can contain variable amounts of local country rock blasted out of their crater. In contrast to tuff cones, the crater of a tuff ring has been excavated below the existing ground surface; as a result, water fills a tuff ring's crater to form a lake once eruptions cease. Both tuff cones and their associated tuff rings were created by explosive eruptions from a vent where the magma is interacting with either groundwater or a shallow body of water as found within a lake or sea.
The interaction between the magma, expanding steam, volcanic gases resulted in the production and ejection of fine-grained pyroclastic debris called ash with the consistency of flour. The volcanic ash comprising a tuff cone accumulated either as fallout from eruption columns, from low-density volcanic surges and pyroclastic flows, or combination of these. Tuff cones are associated with volcanic eruptions within shallow bodies of water and tuff rings are associated with eruptions within either water saturated sediments and bedrock or permafrostNext to spatter cones, tuff cones and their associated tuff rings are among the most common types of volcanoes on Earth. An example of a tuff cone is Diamond Head at Waikīkī in Hawaiʻi. Clusters of pitted cones observed in the Nephentes/Amenthes region of Mars at the southern margin of the ancient Utopia impact basin are interpreted as being tuff cones and rings. Cinder cones known as scoria cones and less scoria mounds, are small, steep-sided volcanic cones built of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, volcanic ash, or scoria.
They consist of loose pyroclastic debris formed by explosive eruptions or lava fountains from a single, typi
Sea of Galilee
The Sea of Galilee, Kinneret or Kinnereth, is a freshwater lake in Israel. It is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the second-lowest lake in the world, at levels between 215 metres and 209 metres below sea level, it is 53 km in circumference, about 21 km long, 13 km wide. Its area is 166.7 km2 at its fullest, its maximum depth is 43 m. The lake is fed by underground springs, although its main source is the Jordan River, which flows through it from north to south; the Sea of Galilee is situated in northeast Israel, between the Golan Heights and the Galilee region, in the Jordan Rift Valley, the valley caused by the separation of the African and Arabian Plates. The area is subject to earthquakes, in the past, volcanic activity; this is evident by other igneous rocks that define the geology of Galilee. The lake has been called by different names throughout its history depending on the dominant settlement on its shores. With the changing fate of the towns, the lake's name changed; the modern Hebrew name, comes from the Hebrew Bible, the main source of the Christian Old Testament, where it appears as the "sea of Kinneret" in Numbers 34:11 and Joshua 13:27, spelled כנרות "Kinnerot" in Hebrew in Joshua 11:2.
This name was found in the scripts of Ugarit, in the Aqhat Epic. As the name of a city, Kinneret was listed among the "fenced cities" in Joshua 19:35. A persistent, though erroneous, popular etymology of the name presumes that the name Kinneret may originate from the Hebrew word kinnor in view of the shape of the lake; the scholarly consensus, however, is that the origin of the name lies with the important Bronze and Iron Age city of Kinneret, excavated at Tell el-'Oreimeh. However, there is no evidence that the city of Kinneret itself was not named after the body of water rather than vice versa, or for the origin of the town's name. All Old and New Testament writers use the term "sea", with the exception of Luke who calls it "the Lake of Gennesaret", from the Greek λίμνη Γεννησαρέτ, the "Grecized form of Chinnereth" according to Easton; the Babylonian Talmud, as well as Flavius Josephus mention the sea by the name "Sea of Ginosar" after the small fertile plain of Ginosar that lies on its western side.
Ginosar is yet another name derived from "Kinneret". In the New Testament the term "sea of Galilee" is used in the gospel of Matthew 4:18. Sea of Tiberias is the name mentioned in Roman texts and in the Jerusalem Talmud, was adopted into Arabic as Buhairet Tabariyya, "Lake Tiberias". From the Umayyad through the Mamluk period the lake was known in Arabic as "Bahr al-Minya", the "Sea of Minya", after the Umayyad qasr complex whose ruins are still visible at Khirbat al-Minya; this is the name employed by the medieval Persian and Arab scholars Al-Baladhuri, Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir. In 1989, remains of a hunter-gatherer site were found under the water at the southern end. Remains of mud huts were found in Ohalo. Nahal Ein Gev, located about 3 km east of the lake, contains a village from the late Natufian period; the site is considered one of the first permanent human settlements in the world from a time predating the Neolithic revolution. The Sea of Galilee lies on the ancient Via Maris; the Greeks and Romans founded flourishing towns and settlements on the land-locked lake including Hippos and Tiberias.
The first-century historian Flavius Josephus was so impressed by the area that he wrote, "One may call this place the ambition of Nature". Archaeologists discovered one such boat, nicknamed the Jesus Boat, in 1986. In the New Testament, much of the ministry of Jesus occurs on the shores of the Sea of Galilee. In those days, there was a continuous ribbon development of settlements and villages around the lake and plenty of trade and ferrying by boat; the Synoptic Gospels of Mark and Luke describe how Jesus recruited four of his apostles from the shores of the Kinneret: the fishermen Simon and his brother Andrew and the brothers John and James. One of Jesus' famous teaching episodes, the Sermon on the Mount, is supposed to have been given on a hill overlooking the Kinneret. Many of his miracles are said to have occurred here including his walking on water, calming the storm, the disciples and the miraculous catch of fish, his feeding five thousand people. In John's Gospel the sea provides the setting for Jesus' third post-resurrection appearance to his disciples.
In 135 CE, Bar Kokhba's revolt was put down. The Romans responded by banning all Jews from Jerusalem; the center of Jewish culture and learning shifted to the region of Galilee and the Kinneret the city of Tiberias. It was in this region; the Sea of Galilee's importance declined when the Byzantines lost control and the area was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate and subsequent Islamic empires. Apart from Tiberias, the major towns and cities in the area were abandoned; the palace Khirbat al-Minya was built by the lake during the reign of
Emek HaYarden Regional Council
Emek HaYarden Regional Council is a regional council comprising much of the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, the southern parts of its eastern shore, the northern part of the Jordan Valley all the way to Beit She'an in the south. It was the first regional council in Israel, established in 1949. In Israel the northern part of the Jordan Valley is called Emeq HaYarden and was part of Israel before the 1967 Six-Day War; the two Hebrew words emek and bik'a are synonymous, both "Emeq HaYarden" and "Bik'at HaYarden" meaning "Jordan Valley". Most of the settlements are of the kibbutz type and are located on Highway 90, a north-south road which traverses the council's territory parallel to the Jordan River and along the western shore of the Sea of Galilee; the offices of the council are located between the Tzemah Industrial Zone. This regional council provides various municipal services for the villages within its territory: Official website
Mount of Beatitudes
The Mount of Beatitudes is a hill in northern Israel, in the Korazim Plateau. It is; the traditional location for the Mount of Beatitudes is on the northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee, between Capernaum and Gennesaret, on the southern slopes of the Korazim Plateau. Its highest point is 58 metres below sea level, 155 metres above the surface of the lake; the actual location of the Sermon on the Mount is not certain, but the present site has been commemorated for more than 1600 years. The site is near Tabgha. Other suggested locations have included the nearby Mount Arbel, or the Horns of Hattin. A Byzantine church was erected lower down the slope from the current site in the 4th century, it was used until the 7th century. Remains of a cistern and a monastery are still visible; the current Roman Catholic Franciscan chapel was built in 1937-38 following plans by Italian architect Antonio Barluzzi. Pope John Paul II celebrated a Mass at this site in March 2000; the Jesus Trail pilgrimage route connects the Mount to other sites from the life of Jesus.
Christianity in Israel Domus Galilaeae Tourism in Israel Macmillan Bible Atlas, ISBN 0-02-500605-3 Oxford Archaeological Guide: The Holy Land, pg 279. ISBN 0-19-288013-6