World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Republic of Korea Army
The Republic of Korea Army known as the ROK Army, is the army of South Korea, responsible for ground-based warfare. It is the largest of the military branches of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces with 464,000 members as of 2018; this size is maintained through conscription. The modern South Korean army traces its lineage back to the Gwangmu Reform, when the Beolgyegoon was established by Emperor Gojong in 1881; the 1st of every October is celebrated in South Korea as Armed Forces Day. It commemorates the day during the Korean War when units of the ROK Army first crossed the 38th Parallel, thus leading the UN Coalition north into North Korean territory for the first time; the National Security Guard Of South Korea was formed out of the Republic Of Korea Army. This organization was created during the American occupation period from 1945-1948; the National Security Guard Of South Korea was a reserve unit of the National Police. In addition to some Nationalist Chinese and post-Manchurian soldiers remnants of the Imperial Japanese Army contributed to the force.
The National Defense Force was established on January 15, 1946 replacing the American lead constabulary from 1945. The outbreak of the Korean War caught the South Korean forces unprepared, requiring the United Nations to intervene with U. S.-led forces. The South Korean military developed during the Korean War, suffering enormous casualties and loss of equipment; as the Soviets had armed North Korea, the United States armed and trained the South Korean military throughout the Korean War. The South Korean army is structured to operate in both the mountainous terrain native to the Korean Peninsula and in North Korea with its 950,000 strong Korean People's Army Ground Force, two-thirds of, permanently garrisoned in the frontline near the DMZ; the current administration has initiated a program over the next two decades to design a purely domestic means of self-defense, whereby South Korea would be able to counter a North Korean attack. The ROK Army was organized into 3 armies: the First Army, Third Army and Second Operational Command.
Each with its own headquarters and divisions. The Third Army was responsible for the defense of the capital as well as the western section of the DMZ; the First Army was responsible for the defense of the eastern section of the DMZ whereas the 2nd OC formed the rearguard. Under a restructuring plan aimed at reducing redundancy, the Second ROK Army was converted as the Second Operations Command in 2007, the First and Third ROK Armies were merged as the Ground Operations Command in 2019; the army consists of 495,000 troops 2,400-2,500 tanks, 2,700 armored fighting vehicles, 5,800 artillery pieces, 60 guided missile systems, 600 helicopters as of 2014. Main battle tank types include: 880 M48 Patton series and its upgrades such as M48A3K, M48A5, M48A5K, 33 Soviet T-80U and 2 T-80UK, as well as 1,524 K1A1 and K1 tanks, which bear a 120 mm smoothbore gun and are of local manufacture; the future replacement for the K1 and K1A1 MBTs has been named the K2 Black Panther, which will be fitted with a 1500 hp MTU-based engine, 55-caliber 120 mm main gun with autoloader.
The new tank will feature radar equipment as well as all-bearing laser detection and defense systems, anti-missile active protection, heavy reactive armor and sensor package comparable to the American M1A2 Abrams and German Leopard 2A6. The ROK Army is planning to field 390 Black Panthers. In addition Republic of Korea manufactures the K-9 howitzer which have been exported to Turkey as the T-155 howitzer as well as the ZMA series TIFV's which saw action in UN peacekeeping operations as part of the Malaysian peacekeeping forces. A variation of the K200, the KAFVs can be retrofitted to bear a 90 mm cannon, 40 mm grenade turret, M230-1 Chain gun Turret, or MK-30 Chaingun Turret. A replacement for K200 series IFVs are being tested, designated as K21 KNIFV, which will have various capabilities for both land and naval warfare; the initial production is set for 2008, with the ROKA planning to field 1,000 units until 2015. The K21 KNIFV's chassis will be constructed out of fiberglass, reducing the vehicle's load and enabling it to travel at higher speeds without bulky and powerful engines.
When constructed, the NIFV will be lighter than other IFVs, including the American Bradley series and Russian BMP series, increasing both speed and payload. The ROK Army fields the mobile K-SAM "Pegasus", fitted with 8 missiles that fly at maximum speeds of mach 2.6, the K-30 "Biho" series, which features a 30 mm twin gun system for anti-aerial fire support. Besides having vehicles and equipment of their own design as well as American models, the ROK Army possesses inventories of Russian-built AFVs, including BMP-3 IFVs and T-80U MBTs, given by the Russian government to pay off the financial debt owed to South Korea. Other notable foreign equipment in service with the ROK Army includes the Mistral MANPADS. A new infantry rifle, the Daewoo K11 entered service in 2010; the overall concept of this weapon is similar to the American OICW. Capital Defense Command'SHIELD' 1st Air Defense Brigade 52nd Homeland Defense Infantry Division 56th Homeland Defense Infantry Division Special Warfare Command'LION' 1st Special Forces Brigade'EAGLE' 3rd Special Forces Brigade'FLYING TIGER' (3공수특전여단'비호부대'
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
United States Army Military Government in Korea
The United States Army Military Government in Korea was the official ruling body of the southern half of the Korean Peninsula from September 8, 1945 to August 15, 1948. The country during this period was plagued with political and economic chaos, which arose from a variety of causes; the after-effects of the Japanese occupation were still being felt in the occupation zone, as well as in the Soviet zone in the North. Popular discontent stemmed from the U. S. Military Government's support of the Japanese colonial government. In addition, the U. S. military was unprepared for the challenge of administering the country, arriving with no knowledge of the language or political situation. Thus, many of their policies had unintended destabilizing effects. Waves of refugees from North Korea and returnees from abroad helped to keep the country in turmoil; the short-lived People's Republic of Korea had been established in August, in consultation with Japanese authorities, spread throughout the country. The U.
S. Military Government outlawed it in the South shortly after their arrival; the leader of the People's Republic, Yeo Un-hyeong, stepped down and formed the Working People's Party. The U. S. administration refused to recognize the members of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, led by Kim Ku, who were obliged to enter the country as private citizens. After the surrender of the Empire of Japan to the Allies, division at the 38th parallel marked the beginning of Soviet and American command over the North and South, respectively. U. S. forces landed at Incheon on September 8, 1945, established a military government shortly thereafter. The forces landing at Incheon were of the XXIV Corps of the U. S. Tenth Army, they were commanded by Lt. General John R. Hodge, who took charge of the government. Four days before he arrived in Korea, Hodge told his officers that Korea "was an enemy of the United States". On September 9, at a surrender ceremony, Hodge announced that the Japanese colonial government would remain intact, including its personnel and its governor-general.
After a major outcry, Hodge replaced the governor-general with an American and removed all the Japanese bureau chiefs, though he, in turn, enlisted the former Japanese bureaucrats as advisors. Faced with mounting popular discontent, in October 1945 Hodge established the Korean Advisory Council; the majority of the Council seats were given to members of the Korean Democratic Party, formed at the encouragement of the U. S. and was made up of large landowners, wealthy businesspeople, former officials in the colonial government. A few members of the PRK were offered to join, but they refused and instead criticized the Council appointees for their collaboration with the Japanese. A proposal was made in 1945 for a long-term trusteeship arrangement. In December 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to administer the country under the U. S.-Soviet Joint Commission, as termed by the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers. It was agreed. However, both the United States and the USSR approved Korean-led governments in their respective halves, each of, favorable to the occupying power's political ideology.
From a number of perspectives, it may be argued that not all Koreans favoured these arrangements. In the south the interim legislature and the interim government were headed by Kim Kyu-shik and Syngman Rhee and the elections for which were met with a large uprising; the USAMGIK tried to contain civil violence in the south by banning strikes on December 8 and outlawing the revolutionary government and the people's committees on December 12. Things spiraled out of control however, with a massive strike on September 23, 1946 by 8,000 railway workers in Busan which spread to other cities in the South. On October 1, police attempts to control rioters in Daegu caused the death of three student demonstrators and injuries to many others, sparking a mass counter-attack killing 38 policemen. In Yeongcheon, a police station came under attack by a 10,000-strong crowd on October 3, killing over 40 policemen and the county chief. Other attacks killed pro-Japanese officials; the U. S. administration responded by declaring martial law, firing into crowds of demonstrators and killing a publicly unknown number of people.
Among the earliest edicts promulgated by USAMGIK was one reopening all schools, issued in November 1945. No immediate changes were made in the educational system, carried over from the Japanese colonial period. In this area, as in others, the military government sought to maintain the forms of the Japanese occupation system. Although it did not implement sweeping educational reforms, the military government did lay the foundations for reforms which were implemented early in the First Republic. In 1946, a council of about 100 Korean educators was convened to map out the future path of Korean education. Although the military government was hostile to leftism from the beginning, it did tolerate the activities of left-wing political groups, including the Korean Communist Party, they had attempted to strike a balance between hard-left and hard-right groups, encouraging moderation. However, these overtures had the adverse effect of angering powerful leaders such as Syngman Rhee; this period of reconciliation did not last long.
Within a short time, the military
40th Infantry Division (United States)
The 40th Infantry Division is a modular division of the United States Army. Following the army's modularization the division has become a four-brigade combat team with National Guardsmen from throughout the Pacific/Western United States and Oceania, its division headquarters is located at Los Alamitos Joint Forces Training Base in Los Alamitos, California. After seeing service in World War I as a depot division, it was reorganized as the National Guard division for California and Utah, before seeing service in the Pacific Theatre of World War II; the division served in Korea and some of its units were designated for Vietnam. The division was reorganized redesigned as a National Guard unit within California. Reorganizations included units from other states; as configured, the 40th Infantry Division has oversight and responsibility for the training and readiness of units in California, Hawaii, Washington, New Mexico, Nebraska, Utah and the Northern Mariana Islands. The 40th Infantry Division was organized at Camp Kearny, near San Diego, California, on 16 September 1917 designated as the 19th Division.
It was composed of National Guard units from the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah. The division was activated on 18 July 1917, as a National Guard division from the California and Utah Army National Guards, it was sent overseas on 3 August 1918 and redesignated as the 6th Depot Division. Major General F. S. Strong was assigned as commander on 25 August 1917, but was replaced less than a month by Brigadier General G. H. Cameron on 18 September 1917; the division saw a rapid turnover of leaders – Brigadier General L. S. Lyon, Brigadier General G. H. Cameron, Brigadier General L. S. Lyon and Major General F. S. Strong again on 8 December 1917. Headquarters, 40th Division 79th Infantry Brigade 157th Infantry Regiment 158th Infantry Regiment 144th Machine Gun Battalion 80th Infantry Brigade 159th Infantry Regiment 160th Infantry Regiment 145th Machine Gun Battalion 65th Field Artillery Brigade 143rd Field Artillery Regiment (75 mm} 144th Field Artillery Regiment 145th Field Artillery Regiment 115th Trench Mortar Battery 143rd Machine Gun Battalion 115th Engineer Regiment 115th Field Signal Battalion Headquarters Troop, 40th Division 115th Train Headquarters and Military Police 115th Ammunition Train 115th Supply Train 115th Engineer Train 115th Sanitary Train 157th, 158th, 159th, 160th Ambulance Companies and Field HospitalsWhen the division arrived in France in August 1918, the German Army had just completed a series of offensives that started on 21 March and ended on 15 July 1918.
It was decided that the new divisions would be used as depot divisions, supplying fresh troops to the more experienced combat divisions. By the end of the war, the 40th Division had provided over 27,000 replacements to the 26th, 28th, 32nd, 77th, 80th, 81st, 82nd, 89th Divisions, thus the division as a whole did not serve in combat, but many division personnel fought, notably Captain Nelson Miles Holderman, who received the Medal of Honor for his actions in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. The division returned to the United States on 30 June 1919; the division was reconstituted on 18 June 1926 with its headquarters in Berkeley. The division was organized much as it was in 1917 with a lot of the units coming from Nevada and Utah. However, the Arizona and Colorado infantry regiments were replaced by two new California regiments, the 184th Infantry and 185th Infantry. In 1937 the division headquarters was moved to Los Angeles. Major General Walter P. Story Major General Ernest J. Dawley Major General Rapp Brush Brigadier General Donald J. Myers The 40th Infantry Division was ordered into federal service on 3 March 1941.
It was at the time a National Guard division from the California, Nevada Army National Guard, Utah Army National Guards. In February 1942, the 40th Infantry Division was reorganized from a'square', two-brigade, four-regiment division to a three-regiment division without any intermediate brigade headquarters, thus the 79th and 80th Infantry Brigade were inactivated. The division departed for overseas service on 23 August 1942; the division's first overseas assignment was the defense of the outer Hawaiian Islands, where it arrived in September 1942. Training continued as defensive positions were maintained. In July 1943, the division was concentrated on Oahu, relieved the 24th Infantry Division of the defense of the North Sector. Relieved of the North Sector in October 1943, the 40th entered upon a period of intensive amphibious and jungle training. On 20 December 1943, the first units left for Guadalcanal, by mid-January 1944, movement was completed, the division prepared for its first combat assignment.
On 24 April 1944, it left Guadalcanal for New Britain. The regiments of the division took positions at Talasea on the northern side of the island, at Arawe on the southern side, at near the western end. Neutralization of the enemy was effected by patrols. No major battle was fought. Heavy rain and mud were constant problems; the 40th was relieved of missions on New Britain on 27 November 1944 by the Australian 5th Division, began training for the Luzon landing. Sailing from Borgen Bay on 9 December 1944, the division made an assault landing at Lingayen, under command of XIV Corps, on 9 January 1945. Seizing Lingayen airfield, the division occupied Bolinao Peninsula and San Miguel, advanced toward Manila, in
The Iraqi Army the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. It was known as the Royal Iraqi Army up until the coup of July 1958; the Iraqi Army in its modern form was first created by the United Kingdom during the inter-war period of de facto British control of Mandatory Iraq. Following the invasion of Iraq by U. S. forces in 2003, the Iraqi Army was rebuilt along American lines with enormous amounts of U. S. military assistance at every level. Because of the Iraqi insurgency that began shortly after the invasion, the Iraqi Army was designed to be a counter-insurgency force. With the withdrawal of U. S. troops in 2011, Iraqi forces have assumed full responsibility for their own security. A New York Times article suggested that, between 2004 and 2014, the U. S. had provided the Iraqi Army with $25 billion in training and equipment in addition to an larger sum from the Iraqi treasury.
The Army extensively collaborated with Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces during anti-ISIL operations. The threat of war with newly forming Republic of Turkey, which claimed the Ottoman vilayet of Mosul as part of their country, led the British to form the Iraqi Army on 6 January 1921; the Mussa Al-Kadhum Brigade consisted of ex-Iraqi-Ottoman officers, whose barracks were located in Kadhimyah. The United Kingdom provided support and training to the Iraqi Army and the Iraqi Air Force through a small military mission based in Baghdad. Iraqi Army Day celebrates the soldiers. From 1533 to 1918, Iraq was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, fought as part of the Military of the Ottoman Empire. After 1917, the United Kingdom took control of the country; the first Iraqi military forces established by the British were the Iraq Levies, several battalions of troops tasked to guard the Royal Air Force bases from which the British controlled Iraq. In August 1921, the British installed Hashemite King Faisal I as the client ruler of the British Mandate of Iraq.
Faisal had been forced out as the King of Syria by the French. British authorities selected Sunni Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry offices in Iraq; the British and the Iraqis formalized the relationship between the two nations with the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1922. With Faisal's ascension to the throne, the Iraqi Army became the Royal Iraqi Army. In 1922, the army totalled 3,618 men; this was well below the 6,000 men requested by the Iraqi monarchy and less than the British set limit of 4,500. Unattractive salaries hindered early recruiting efforts. At this time, the United Kingdom maintained the right to levy local forces like the British-officered Iraq Levies which were under direct British control. With a strength of 4,984 men, the Iraq Levies outnumbered the army with its British set limit of 4,500 men. In 1924, the army grew to 5,772 men and, by the following year, had grown still more to reach 7,500 men, it was to stay at 7,500 men until 1933. The force now had six infantry battalions, three cavalry regiments, two mountain regiments, one field battery.
In 1932, the Kingdom of Iraq was granted official independence. This was in accordance with the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930, whereby the United Kingdom would end its official mandate on the condition that the Iraqi government would allow British advisers to take part in government affairs, allow British military bases to remain, a requirement that Iraq assist the United Kingdom in wartime. Upon achieving independence in 1932, political tensions arose over the continued British presence in Iraq, with Iraq's government and politicians split between those considered pro-British and those who were considered anti-British; the pro-British faction was represented by politicians such as Nuri as-Said who did not oppose a continued British presence. The anti-British faction was represented by politicians such as Rashid Ali al-Gaylani who demanded that remaining British influence in the country be removed. In 1936, General Bakr Sidqi, who had won a reputation from suppressing tribal revolts, was named Chief of the General Staff and pressured the King to demand that the Cabinet resign.
From that year to 1941, five coups by the RIrA occurred during each year led by the chief officers of the army against the government to pressure the government to concede to Army demands. In early April 1941, during World War II, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani and members of the anti-British "Golden Square" launched a coup d'état against the current government. Prime Minister Taha al-Hashimi resigned and Rashid Ali al-Gaylani took his place as Prime Minister. Rashid Ali proclaimed himself chief of a "National Defence Government." He installed a more compliant Regent. He attempted to restrict the rights of the British which were granted them under the 1930 treaty. On April 30 Iraqi Army units took the high ground to the south of RAF Habbaniya. An Iraqi envoy was sent to demand that no movements, either ground or air, were to take place from the base; the British refused the demand and themselves demanded that the Iraqi units leave the area at once. In addition, the British landed forces at Basra and the Iraqis demanded that these forces be removed.
At 0500 hours on 2 May 1941, the Anglo-Iraqi War broke out between the British and Rashid Ali's new government when the British at RAF Habbaniya launched air strikes against the Iraqis. By this time, the army had grown significantly, it had four infantry divisions with some 60,000 men. At full strength, each division had three brigades; the Iraqi 1st and 3rd Divisions were stationed in Baghdad. Based within Baghdad was the Independent Mechanized Brigade comprising a L3/35 light tank company, an a
Francis William Farrell
Francis William Farrell was a lieutenant general in the United States Army. He successively commanded V Corps and Seventh United States Army. Farrell was born on May 1900, in Chicago, Illinois, he graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1920. Assigned to the infantry branch, General Farrell graduated from the Infantry Officer Course in 1921, he served in several infantry assignments, including postings to Hawaii and China. In 1928, General Farrell transferred to the Field Artillery branch, he completed the Field Artillery Officer Course in 1928. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, he was an instructor at West Point, he graduated from the Command and General Staff College in 1939. From 1942 to 1944, Farrell served in the Pacific Theater as chief of staff of the 11th Airborne Division, he commanded the 11th Airborne Division Artillery from 1944 to 1946. After World War II, Farrell was assigned to Fort Bragg, North Carolina as commander of the 13th Airborne Division Artillery. In mid-1946, Farrell was named chief of staff of the 82nd Airborne Division.
He served in this assignment for only a few months before being appointed as chief of the Air Branch at Army Ground Forces, where he remained from late 1946 until 1948. Farrell was named director of the Technical Training Group at Sandia Missile Base, New Mexico in 1948. From 1950 to 1951, he was commander of the Korean Military Advisory Group, responsible for training and logistical support to the fledgling South Korean Army. In 1952, Farrell was assigned as deputy assistant chief of staff for operations on the Army Staff, serving until 1953, he commanded the 82nd Airborne Division from 1953 to 1955. In 1955, he was assigned as special assistant for national security affairs, advising the Joint Chiefs of Staff. General Farrell was named to command V Corps in 1957, serving until 1959. In 1959, General Farrell was assigned as commander of the Seventh United States Army, remaining in this post until he reached retirement age in 1960. After retiring from the Army in 1960, General Farrell was appointed as New York State's Civil Defense Director, serving from 1961 to 1963.
In retirement, he resided in Arlington, where he died on January 27, 1981. He was buried in Section 30 of Arlington National Cemetery, his awards and decorations included two Distinguished Service Medals, the Silver Star, the Legion of Merit, two awards of the Bronze Star, two Air Medals. Francis William Farrell at Find a Grave