Korean cuisine is the customary cooking traditions and practices of the culinary arts of Korea. Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of political change. Originating from ancient agricultural and nomadic traditions in Korea and southern Manchuria, Korean cuisine has evolved through a complex interaction of the natural environment and different cultural trends. Korean cuisine is based on rice and meats. Traditional Korean meals are named for the number of side dishes that accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Kimchi is served at nearly every meal. Used ingredients include sesame oil, soy sauce, garlic, gochukaru and napa cabbage. Ingredients and dishes vary by province. Many regional dishes have become national, dishes that were once regional have proliferated in different variations across the country. Korean royal court cuisine once brought all of the unique regional specialties together for the royal family. Foods are regulated by Korean cultural etiquette. Grains have been one of the most important staples of the Korean diet.
Early myths of the foundations of various kingdoms in Korea center on grains. One foundation myth relates to Jumong, who received barley seeds from two doves sent by his mother after establishing the kingdom of Goguryeo, yet another myth speaks of the three founding deities of Jeju Island, who were to be wed to the three princesses of Tamna. During the pre-modern era, grains such as barley and millet were the main staples, they were supplemented by wheat and buckwheat. Rice is not an indigenous crop to Korea and millet was the preferred grain before rice was cultivated. Rice became the grain of choice during the Three Kingdoms period in the Silla and Baekje Kingdoms in the southern regions of the peninsula. Rice was such an important commodity in Silla; the Sino-Korean word for "tax" is a compound character. The preference for rice escalated into the Joseon period, when new methods of cultivation and new varieties emerged that would help increase production; as rice was prohibitively expensive when it first came to Korea, the grain was mixed with other grains to "stretch" the rice.
White rice, rice with the bran removed, has been the preferred form of rice since its introduction into the cuisine. The most traditional method of cooking the rice has been to cook it in an iron pot called a sot or musoe sot; this method of rice cookery dates back to at least the Goryeo period, these pots have been found in tombs from the Silla period. The sot is still used today. Rice is used to make a number of items, outside of the traditional bowl of plain white rice, it is ground into a flour and used to make rice cakes called tteok in over two hundred varieties. It is cooked down into a congee or gruel and mixed with other grains, meat, or seafood. Koreans produce a number of rice wines, both in filtered and unfiltered versions. Legumes have been significant crops in Korean history and cuisine, according to the earliest preserved legumes found in archaeological sites in Korea; the excavation at Okbang site, South Gyeongsang province indicates soybeans were cultivated as a food crop circa 1000–900 BCE.
They are made into tofu, while soybean sprouts are sauteed as a vegetable and whole soybeans are seasoned and served as a side dish. They are made into soy milk, used as the base for the noodle dish called kongguksu. A byproduct of soy milk production is biji or kong-biji, used to thicken stews and porridges. Soybeans may be one of the beans in kongbap, boiled together with several types of beans and other grains, they are the primary ingredient in the production of fermented condiments collectively referred to as jang, such as soybean pastes and cheonggukjang, a soy sauce called ganjang, chili pepper paste or gochujang and others. Mung beans are used in Korean cuisine, where they are called nokdu. Mung bean sprouts, called sukju namul, are served as a side dish and sautéed with sesame oil and salt. Ground mung beans are used to make a porridge called nokdujuk, eaten as a nutritional supplement and digestive aid for ill patients. A popular snack, bindaetteok, is made with fresh mung bean sprouts.
Starch extracted from ground mung beans is used to make transparent cellophane noodles. The noodles are the main ingredients for japchae and sundae, are a subsidiary ingredient for soups and stews; the starch can be used to make jelly-like foods, such as nokdumuk and hwangpomuk. The muk have a bland flavor, so are served seasoned with soy sauce, sesame oil and crumbled seaweed or other seasonings such as tangpyeongchae. Cultivation of azuki beans dates back to ancient times according to an excavation from Odong-ri, North Hamgyong Province, assumed to be that of Mumun period. Azuki beans are eaten as patbap, a bowl of rice mixed with the beans, or as a filling and covering for tteok and breads. A porridge made with azuki beans, called patjuk, is eaten during the winter season. On Dongjinal, a Korean tr
José Fajardo Nelson is a Panamanian footballer who plays as a forward for Independiente and the Panama national team. Fajardo began his career with promoted side Independiente in the Liga Panameña de Fútbol during the 2017–18 season. Fajardo finished as top scorer of the 2018 Clausura, leading Independiente to their first national league title. Fajardo made his international debut for Panama on 25 October 2017 in a 5–0 friendly away win against Grenada. On 14 May 2018, Fajardo was included in Panama's preliminary squad for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. However, he did not make the final 23. IndependienteLiga Panameña de Fútbol: 2018 Clausura José Fajardo at National-Football-Teams.com
Charles Terlinden was a Belgian historian, professor at the Catholic University of Louvain, papal chamberlain. Terlinden was born in Schaerbeek on 6 July 1878, he studied law at Saint-Louis University Faculty in Brussels, at the Faculty of Law of the Catholic University of Louvain. After completing a doctorate in law, he began historical studies under Alfred Cauchie, with a thesis on Pope Clement IX and the War of Candia, he followed this in 1906 with a second thesis on William I of the Netherlands and the Catholic Church in Belgium, making him a triple doctor. He saw action at Melle. After the war he was a historical adviser to the Belgian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, in the aftermath was vocally critical of the way that Austria-Hungary had been dismembered. From 1918 until his death he was Professor of Modern and Contemporary History at the Catholic University of Louvain. During the Second World War he wrote a number of popularising works about strong women in Belgian history. From 1955 until his death he was president of the Belgian Historical Institute in Rome.
He died in Brussels on 23 January 1972. Obituaries were published in the Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire, Revue belge d'histoire militaire, Bulletin de l'Institut historique belge de Rome, Bulletin de la Commission royale d'Histoire; the History of the Scheldt, London, 1920 Histoire de la Belgique contemporaine, 2 vols. Brussels, 1929 Histoire militaire des Belges, Brussels, 1931 A travers notre histoire et nos gloires, Brussels, 1943 L'Archiduchesse Isabelle, Brussels, 1943 Princesses belges du passé, Brussels, 1943 Figures de princesses, Brussels, 1944 La Renaissance en Belgique, Brussels, 1945 Impérialisme et équilibre, Brussels, 1952 Carolus Quintus: Charles Quint, empereur des Deux Mondes, 1965