The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It comprises a deep water basin, which rises through a narrow slope into the shallower water above the continental shelves; the Bering Sea is separated from the Gulf of Alaska by the Alaska Peninsula. It covers over 2,000,000 square kilometers and is bordered on the east and northeast by Alaska, on the west by Russian Far East and the Kamchatka Peninsula, on the south by the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands and on the far north by the Bering Strait, which connects the Bering Sea to the Arctic Ocean's Chukchi Sea. Bristol Bay is the portion of the Bering Sea which separates the Alaska Peninsula from mainland Alaska; the Bering Sea is named for Vitus Bering, a Danish navigator in Russian service, who in 1728 was the first European to systematically explore it, sailing from the Pacific Ocean northward to the Arctic Ocean. The Bering Sea ecosystem includes resources within the jurisdiction of the United States and Russia, as well as international waters in the middle of the sea.
The interaction between currents, sea ice, weather makes for a vigorous and productive ecosystem. Most scientists believe that during the most recent ice age, sea level was low enough to allow humans to migrate east on foot from Asia to North America across what is now the Bering Strait. Other animals including megafauna migrated in both directions; this is referred to as the "Bering land bridge" and is believed by most, though not all scientists, to be the first point of entry of humans into the Americas. There is a small portion of the Kula Plate in the Bering Sea; the Kula Plate is an ancient tectonic plate. On 18 December 2018, a large meteor exploded above the Bering Sea; the space rock exploded with 10 times the energy released by the Hiroshima atomic bomb. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bering Sea as follows: On the North; the Southern limit of the Chuckchi Sea. On the South. A line running from Kabuch Point in the Alaskan Peninsula, through the Aleutian Islands to the South extremes of the Komandorski Islands and on to Cape Kamchatka in such a way that all the narrow waters between Alaska and Kamchatka are included in the Bering Sea.
Islands of the Bering Sea include: Pribilof Islands, including St. Paul Island Komandorski Islands, including Bering Island St. Lawrence Island Diomede Islands King Island St. Matthew Island Karaginsky Island Nunivak Island Sledge Island Hagemeister Island Regions of the Bering Sea include: Bering Strait Bristol Bay Gulf of Anadyr Norton SoundThe Bering Sea contains 16 submarine canyons including the largest submarine canyon in the world, Zhemchug Canyon; the Bering Sea shelf break is the dominant driver of primary productivity in the Bering Sea. This zone, where the shallower continental shelf drops off into the North Aleutians Basin is known as the "Greenbelt". Nutrient upwelling from the cold waters of the Aleutian basin flowing up the slope and mixing with shallower waters of the shelf provide for constant production of phytoplankton; the second driver of productivity in the Bering Sea is seasonal sea ice that, in part, triggers the spring phytoplankton bloom. Seasonal melting of sea ice causes an influx of lower salinity water into the middle and other shelf areas, causing stratification and hydrographic effects which influence productivity.
In addition to the hydrographic and productivity influence of melting sea ice, the ice itself provides an attachment substrate for the growth of algae as well as interstitial ice algae. Some evidence suggests that great changes to the Bering Sea ecosystem have occurred. Warm water conditions in the summer of 1997 resulted in a massive bloom of low energy coccolithophorid phytoplankton. A long record of carbon isotopes, reflective of primary production trends of the Bering Sea, exists from historical samples of bowhead whale baleen. Trends in carbon isotope ratios in whale baleen samples suggest that a 30–40% decline in average seasonal primary productivity has occurred over the last 50 years; the implication is that the carrying capacity of the Bering Sea is much lower now than it has been in the past. The sea supports many whale species including the beluga, humpback whale, bowhead whale, gray whale and blue whale, the vulnerable sperm whale, the endangered fin whale, sei whale and the rarest in the world, the North Pacific right whale.
Other marine mammals include walrus, Steller sea lion, northern fur seal and polar bear. The Bering Sea is important to the seabirds of the world. Over 30 species of seabirds and 20 million individuals breed in the Bering Sea region. Seabird species include tufted puffins, the endangered short-tailed albatross, spectacled eider, red-legged kittiwakes. Many of these species are unique to the area, which provides productive foraging habitat along the shelf edge and in other nutrient-rich upwelling regions, such as the Pribilof and Pervenets canyons; the Bering Sea is home to colonies of crested auklets, with upwards of a million individuals. Two Bering Sea species, the Steller's sea cow and spectacled cormorant, are extinct because of overexploitation by man. In addition, a small subspecies of Canada goose, the Bering Canada goose is extinct due to overhunting and introduction of rats to their breeding islands; the Bering Sea supports many species of fish. Some species of fish support valuable commercial fisheries.
Commercial fish species include 6 species of Pacific salmon
Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge
Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge is a national wildlife refuge in central Alaska, United States. One of 16 refuges in Alaska, it was established in 1980 when Congress passed The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. At 1,640,000 acres, Kanuti Refuge is about the size of the state of Delaware. Located at the Arctic Circle, the refuge is a prime example of Alaska's boreal ecosystem, it is dominated with some white birch and poplars. The region's short, hot summers are marked by numerous thunderstorms and lightning strikes, leading to a continuous cycle of burn and recovery. Natural wildfires create diverse habitats with the different plant species supporting a variety of wildlife; the refuge's boreal forest is home to 37 species of mammals, including two species of fox, Canadian lynx and black bear species, wolf packs, mink, muskrat, marten, river otter and wolverine. Caribou from the Western Arctic and Ray Mountain herds winter on Kanuti, as well; the refuge's migratory fish, chinook and coho salmon, as well as sheefish, are creatures of extremes.
Its sheefish make the longest spawning journey of any of their species, while Kanuti's salmon have to swim more than 1,000 miles up the Yukon River before entering the Koyukuk River system to spawn. Refuge waters support twelve other fish species, including northern pike. Protecting breeding habitat for migratory birds is central to the mission of Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Nearly 130 species of birds spend all of the year on refuge lands. With the loss of wetlands in regions outside Alaska, the importance of Kanuti as a nesting area for birds is to increase. Certain lands within the Kanuti Refuge boundary are now under Native Alaskan ownership. Subsistence hunting is permitted within the refuge. Permafrost inhibits drainage of the surface water, leaving a soggy landscape that can make hiking difficult, if not impossible, in certain parts of the refuge. No designated trails, campsites, or public use cabins exist within refuge boundaries. List of largest National Wildlife Refuges Refuge profile Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Henry Tureman Allen
Major General Henry Tureman Allen was a senior United States Army officer known for exploring the Copper River in Alaska in 1885 along with the Tanana and Koyukuk rivers by transversing 1,500 miles of wilderness. His trek has been compared by Nelson A. Miles to that of Clark. Henry was born in Kentucky, he graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1882, was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the cavalry. He served on the staff of General Nelson Miles, he served as a military attaché to Russia and Germany. Allen served in the Spanish–American War in the Battle of El Caney. Allen was stationed to the Philippines to serve as military governor of Leyte in 1901, he organized and commanded the Philippine Constabulary, before going on in 1904 as an observer with the Japanese Army in Korea. In August 1917, during World War I, Allen was promoted to brigadier general and given command of the 90th Infantry Division an Army National Guard division based in Texas, his instructions were to bring them to full strength and convey them to the Western Front in June 1918.
Allen succeeded Pierrepont Noyes as U. S. Commissioner in the Inter-Allied Rhineland High Commission. Allen is buried in Arlington National Cemetery under a statue designed by the sculptor Albert Jaegers. Allen was born on April 1859 in Sharpsburg, Kentucky, his parents were Susan and Sanford Allen and he was the thirteenth of fourteen children. After attending Peeks Mill Military Academy, Allen attended Georgetown College and graduated in 1878, he transferred to United States Military Academy at West Point. Once he graduated from the academy in 1882, he accepted a commission in the cavalry. From 1888 until 1890, Allen worked as an instructor at West Point, he served on duty in the American Old West at Fort Keogh, Montana Territory and guarded the Northern Pacific Railroad while it was under construction and served as a military attache to Russia and Germany. Allen was satisfied when he was first assigned to serve in Alaska in 1884, he wrote to his fiancée that, "I am willing to forgo any benefit that I might receive by going East for an attempt at exploration in Alaska."
At the time Allen was served as General Nelson A. Miles's aide-de-camp, he supervised Lieutenant William R. Abercrombie's shipments from Sitka to Nuchek. Allen was sent by Miles to search for Abercrombie, whom Miles had sent to explore the Copper River. Allen discovered Abercrombie close to the mouth of the river. Due to the moving glaciers and rough terrain, Abercrombie did not succeed in going more than 60 miles up the river. Following the expeditions of Frederick Schwatka, which covered a lot of Alaskan land but did not contribute much to a map of the area, Abercrombie, who had failed to make it through the lower canyons of the Copper, Allen devised a plan to explore both the Tanana and Copper rivers, which were two of the biggest uncharted rivers in Alaska. Miles gave permission for Allen to go ahead with his plan, however Miles had wanted at minimum four to ten men and one medical officer to be included on the trip. Allen insisted on only three men including himself and General Philip Sheridan approved of Allen's original trio plan.
With Sgt. Cady Robertson and Pvt. Fred Fickett and $2,000, in the spring of 1885, Allen arrived at the Copper River Delta. Allen's plan of action was to reach the headwaters of the Copper River on ice. Though he had little proper food, faced freezing rain, difficult terrain, Allen continued to move ahead north along the river. John Bremner joined the expedition when Allen came to an Indian village. Although Allen's supplies were dwindling, he was able to explore the Chitina River, the Copper River's major tributary. During the expedition, Allen learned how to build and navigate skin boats like the Indians in the region. With these boats they moved upriver, losing more provisions along the way. On one occasion they had to eat "rotten, wormy meat."After the detachment took up new guides and his men decided to leave the Copper River and cross into the Alaska Range through a portal that Allen named Miles Pass. They became the first men to chart the rugged river and one of the highest mountain ranges in North America.
When one of the enlisted men and Bremner received scurvy from their poor diets, Allen refrained from exploring the Tanana to its headwaters and decided to head to a trading post at its mouth. The post was more than 560 miles away and they were to pass through land belonging to hostile Indians. After arriving at the Tanana, Allen met the hostile natives and learned relieving that they were only interested in the pills Allen had with him. In total, Allen had explored through 1,500 miles in unexplored wilderness in only five months time. General Miles stated that Allen's expedition, "exceeded all explorations on the American continent since Lewis and Clark." After the Spanish–American War began in April 1898, Allen left from his position in Germany and by June 1898 was placed in command of Troop D of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment. He became a major of volunteers and was ordered off to Cuba, he and the volunteers served on escort duty during the Santiago Land Campaign. They fought on July 1, 1898, in the Battle of El Caney.
On July 10, Allen took control of its camp containing over 20,000 refugees. Though there was not adequate food nor medicine, a disaster was averted when Santiago de Cuba surrendered only six days allowing the refugees to return to their homes. Allen developed a case of malaria or yellow fever and had to go back to the Unit
Huslia is a city in Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, United States. Known as Hussliakatna, it is inhabited by Koyukuk-hotana Athabascans; the population was 293 at the 2000 census and 275 as of the 2010 census. Huslia is located at 65°42′7″N 156°23′14″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.2 square miles, of which, 16.4 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it is water. Huslia first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as the unincorporated village of "Cutoff." The name changed to Huslia beginning with the 1960 census and incorporated as such in 1969. As of the census of 2000, there were 293 people, 88 households, 63 families residing in the city; the population density was 17.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 111 housing units at an average density of 6.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4.44% White, 93.52% Native American, 0.34% Pacific Islander, 1.71% from two or more races. 1.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 88 households out of which 56.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.8% were married couples living together, 26.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families. 22.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.33 and the average family size was 3.83. In the city, the population was spread out with 43.0% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 15.7% from 45 to 64, 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,000, the median income for a family was $31,000. Males had a median income of $52,500 versus $30,313 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,983. About 22.9% of families and 28.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.9% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over.
The Yukon–Koyukuk School District operates the Jimmy Huntington School in Huslia. Huslia Airport is a state-owned public-use airport located one nautical mile east of Huslia. Huslia Airport covers an area of 203 acres at an elevation of 220 feet above mean sea level, it has one runway designated 3/21 with a gravel surface measuring 4,000 by 75 feet. This replaced the former runway, which measured 3,000 by 60 feet. Although most U. S. airports use the same three-letter location identifier for the FAA and IATA, this airport is assigned HLA by the FAA and HSL by the IATA. The airport's ICAO identifier is PAHL. Alaska Division of Community and Regional Affairs: Huslia Constitution of the Native Tribe of Huslia, Alaska
Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska
Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area is a census area in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,588, it has the largest area of any county-equivalent in the United States. It therefore has no borough seat, its largest communities are the cities of Galena, in the west, Fort Yukon, in the northeast. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the census area has 147,805 square miles, of which 145,505 square miles is land and 2,300 square miles is water; the area is the same size as the U. S. state of Montana or the country of Germany. The area is bigger than 47 of the 50 states, with only California and Alaska itself being bigger than the county size, its population density, at 0.0449 inhabitants per square mile, is the lowest in the United States. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,551 people, 2,309 households, 1,480 families residing in the census area; the population density was 22.3 square miles per person. It is the least densely populated county-equivalent of all 3,141 county-equivalents of the United States.
There were 3,917 housing units at an average density of 0.027 per square mile. The racial makeup of the census area was 24.27% White, 0.09% Black or African American, 70.89% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, 3.91% from two or more races. 1.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.95% reported speaking an Athabaskan language at home. There were 2,309 households out of which 38.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.90% were married couples living together, 16.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.90% were non-families. 30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.53. In the census area the population was spread out with 35.00% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 7.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years.
For every 100 females there were 118.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 122.60 males. Galena City School District operates public schools serving Galena. Nenana City School District operates public schools serving Nenana. Yukon–Koyukuk School District and Yukon Flats School District operate public schools serving rural areas. List of airports in Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area Crow Lake U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area "Census Area map: Alaska Department of Labor"
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Salix herbacea, the dwarf willow, least willow or snowbed willow, is a species of tiny creeping willow adapted to survive in harsh arctic and subarctic environments. Distributed in alpine and arctic environments around the North Atlantic Ocean, it is one of the smallest of woody plants. S. herbacea is adapted to survive in harsh environments, has a wide distribution on both sides of the North Atlantic, in arctic northwest Asia, northern Europe and eastern Canada, further south on high mountains, south to the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Rila in Europe, the northern Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States. It grows in tundra and rocky moorland at over 1,500 m altitude in the south of its range but down to sea level in the Arctic; the dwarf willow is one of the smallest woody plants in the world. It grows to only 1–6 cm in height, with spreading prostrate branches, reddish brown and sparsely hairy at first, growing just underground forming open mats; the leaves are deciduous, crenate to toothed and shiny green with paler undersides, 0.3–2 cm long and broad.
Like other willows, it is dioecious, with male and female catkins on separate plants. As a result, the plant's appearance varies. Media related to Salix herbacea at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Salix herbacea at Wikispecies