click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Krav Maga

Krav Maga is a military self-defence and fighting system developed for the Israel Defense Forces and Israeli security forces derived from a combination of techniques sourced from boxing, aikido and karate along with realistic fight training. Krav Maga is known for its focus on its extreme efficiency, it was derived from the street-fighting experience of Hungarian-Israeli martial artist Imi Lichtenfeld, who made use of his training as a boxer and wrestler, while defending the Jewish quarter against fascist groups in Bratislava, during the mid-to-late 1930s. In the late 1940s, following his migration to Palestine, he began to provide lessons on combat training to what was to become the IDF. From the outset, the original concept of Krav Maga was to take the most simple and practical techniques of other fighting styles and to make them teachable to military conscripts. Krav Maga has a philosophy emphasizing aggression, simultaneous defensive and offensive maneuvers. Krav Maga has been used by the Israel Defense Forces' special forces units, security forces and by regular infantry units.

Related variations have been developed and adopted by Israeli law enforcement and intelligence organizations. There are several organizations teaching variations of Krav Maga internationally; the name in Hebrew can be translated as "contact combat". The root word krav means "combat" and maga means "contact". Like most martial arts, Krav Maga encourages students to avoid physical confrontation. If this is impossible or unsafe, it promotes finishing a fight as and aggressively as possible. Attacks are aimed at the most vulnerable parts of the body, training is not limited to techniques that avoid severe injury. Students learn to defend against all variety of attacks and are taught to counter in the quickest and most efficient way. Ideas in Krav Maga include: Simultaneous attack and defence Developing physical aggression, with the view that physical aggression is the most important component in a fight Continuing to strike the opponent until they are incapacitated. Attacking preemptively or counterattacking as soon as possible Using any objects at hand that could be used to hit an opponent.

Targeting attacks to the body's most vulnerable points, such as: the eyes, neck or throat, solar plexus, ribs, foot, liver, etc. Using simple and repeatable strikes. Maintaining awareness of surroundings while dealing with the threat in order to look for escape routes, further attackers, or objects that could be used to strike an opponent. Recognizing the importance of and expanding on instinctive response under stressTraining can cover the study and development of situational awareness to develop an understanding of one's surroundings, learning to understand the psychology of a street confrontation, identifying potential threats before an attack occurs, it may cover ways to deal with physical and verbal methods to avoid violence whenever possible. It teaches mental toughness, using controlled scenarios to strengthen mental fortitude in order for students to control the impulse and not do something rash, but instead attack only when necessary and as a last resort; some of the key focuses of techniques in Krav Maga are—as described above—effectiveness and instinctive response under stress.

To that end, Krav Maga is an eclectic system that has not sought to replace existing effective techniques, taking what is useful from available systems, for example: Strikes – as per karate, boxing, Take-downs and throws – per judo and wrestling Ground work – per judo and wrestling Escapes from chokes and holds- per judo, wrestling Empty-hand weapon defenses-per aikido Imre Lichtenfeld was born in 1910 in Budapest, Austro-Hungary and grew up in Bratislava. Lichtenfeld became active in a wide range of sports, including gymnastics and boxing. In 1928, Lichtenfeld won the Slovak Youth Wrestling Championship, in 1929 the adult championship; that same year, he won the national boxing championship and an international gymnastics championship. During the ensuing decade, Lichtenfeld athletic activities focused on wrestling, both as a contestant and a trainer. In the mid-1930s, anti-Semitic riots began to threaten the Jews of Czechoslovakia. Lichtenfeld became the leader of a group of Jewish boxers and wrestlers who took to the streets to defend Jewish neighborhoods against the growing numbers of anti-Semitic national socialists.

Lichtenfeld discovered, that actual fighting was different from competition fighting, although boxing and wrestling were good sports, they were not always practical for the aggressive and brutal nature of street combat. It was that he started to re-evaluate his ideas about fighting and started developing the skills and techniques that would become Krav Maga. Having become a thorn in the side of the anti-Semitic local authorities, in 1940 Lichtenfeld left his home with his family and friends on the last refugee ship to escape Europe. After making his way to Mandatory Palestine, Lichtenfeld joined the Haganah paramilitary organization. In 1944 Lichtenfeld began training fighters in his areas of expertise: physical fitness, wrestling, use of the knife, defense against knife attacks. During this period, Lichtenfeld trained several elite units of the Haganah including Palmach (striking force of the Haganah and forerunner of the

Hermione, Countess of Ranfurly

Hermione, Countess of Ranfurly, OBE, was the British author of To War With Whitaker: The Wartime Diaries of the Countess of Ranfurly, 1939–1945. Hermione Llewellyn was born in Postlip, into a wealthy family of Welsh origin, she had an older brother, Griffith Owen, two sisters and Daphne. "I continued being a disappointment --. Instead of minding, I determined to ride better, run faster, be funnier and give more generous presents than the rest of the family." Their father, Griffith Robert Poyntz Llewellyn, was dashing and extravagant. "We became poor quickly", she reported. Their mother, Emily Constance, became mentally ill during Hermione's childhood and was diagnosed with manic-depression; the family accompanied her to Switzerland for treatment. There was further family tragedy with Owen's death in an air crash, she completed her education in Sussex. In 1930 and impoverished, a 17-year-old Hermione moved to London to look for a job; as she noted, she was "ill-prepared for life beyond the bounds of a country estate", had no qualifications except "good English and good manners."

It was the height of the Depression, there were few available openings, but she managed to obtain a job selling gas appliances for the Gas Light and Coke Company. She had scarcely been in a kitchen, had difficulty giving personal advice to customers, she became a successful saleswoman and wrote that "people seemed to like it when I said:'Always buy a gas cooker with a large oven you can commit suicide with your husband'". Hermione subsequently found employment in a War Office typing pool, she remained short of money, though invited to balls and for weekends at country houses, she had to decline, as she could not afford to buy the necessary clothes. In 1937, Hermione went to Australia as secretary to Lord Wakehurst, appointed as Governor of New South Wales. On a visit to Canberra, she met Daniel Knox, 6th Earl of Ranfurly, aide-de-camp to the Australian Governor-General; the day she returned to England, she found Ranfurly seated on the sofa in her London flat, reading the Sporting Life. The Ranfurlys were on a stalking holiday in Scotland when the news came that Nazi Germany had invaded Poland.

Cutting short their trip, they returned to London, where a telegram awaited them from Dan's Yeomanry regiment, the Sherwood Rangers, telling him to report to duty in Nottinghamshire. Dan turned to their portly cook-butler and asked if he was coming too. Hermione recorded that "Whitaker sat there looking fat and rather red, he said,'To the war my Lord?' and Dan said'Yes'. And Whitaker said:'Very good, my Lord,' as though Dan had asked for a cup of coffee." The exchange was to provide the title of Lady Ranfurly's war diaries, which proved to be an unexpected publishing success in the 1990s. On their first wedding anniversary, Lord Ranfurly left with the Sherwood Rangers for a posting to the British-controlled Palestine. Regulations barred wives of the Yeomanry from joining their husbands at the front. However, Hermione ignored the rules, in February 1940 managed to obtain a passage to Egypt from a shady London travel agent, arriving in Palestine two weeks later. Hermione thought that with her secretarial skills, she would find a job in the Middle East.

It proved more difficult than expected, in September 1940 a one-eyed brigadier ordered her forcible repatriation to Britain with other "illegal wives". Determined not to be separated from her husband, she jumped ship from the RMS Empress of Britain at Cape Town, succeeded in obtaining an aeroplane ticket back to Egypt by implying to a travel agent that she was a spy on a secret mission; the Empress of Britain was sunk shortly after. On arrival in Cairo, Lady Ranfurly laid low in the flat of her friends Pamela and Patrick Hore-Ruthven, but her return became known, her actions infuriated the British military authorities. However, her secretarial skills were in short supply and she was soon recruited to work for the Special Operations Executive office in Cairo. Despite continued opposition from the Army, who failed in an attempt to have British ambassador Sir Miles Lampson remove her passport, she became the efficient secretary to George Pollock, the head of the SOE. At first pleased with her job, she became concerned about the SOE's actions and dubious security and finances, considered that the organisation was working "across, if not against, the war effort".

In March 1941, she expressed her concerns to the visiting Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden and in May to General Wavell, the Commander-in-Chief for the Middle East. Wavell could take no direct action since SOE did not come under the War Office, but sharing her concerns, he asked her to pass on any documents that aroused her suspicion, she achieved this by stealing questionable documents from the office each evening, typing a copy of them and returning the originals to their positions the next morning. Her subterfuge led directly to a major reorganisation of SOE Cairo in the summer of 1941. In April 1941, Dan Ranfurly was reported missing after the Battle of Tobruk, Hermione had no knowledge about whether he was living or dead until she received a letter from him five months later, he remained a prisoner of war in Italy for three years, escaping

Threshold pledge system

The threshold pledge or fund and release system is a way of making a fundraising pledge as a group of individuals involving charitable goals or financing the provision of a public good. An amount of money is set as the goal or threshold to reach for the specified purpose and interested individuals will pitch in, but the money at first either remains with the pledgers or is held in escrow; when the threshold is reached, the pledges are called in and a contract is formed so that the collective good is supplied. If the threshold is not reached by a certain date, the pledges are either never collected or, if held in escrow, are returned to the pledgers. In economics, this type of model is known as an assurance contract; this system is most applied to creative works, both for financing new productions and for buying out existing works. Street Performer Protocol is an early description of a type of threshold pledge system. SPP is the threshold pledge system encouraging the creation of creative works in the public domain or copylefted, described by Steven Schear and separately by cryptographers John Kelsey and Bruce Schneier.

This assumes that current forms of copyright and business models of the creative industries will become inefficient or unworkable in the future, because of the ease of copying and distribution of digital information. Under the Street Performer Protocol, the artist announces that when a certain amount of money is received in escrow, the artist will release a work into the public domain or under a free content license. Interested donors make their donations to a publisher, who contracts with the artist for the work's creation and keeps the donations in escrow, identified by their donors, until the work is released. If the artist releases the work on time, the artist receives payment from the escrow fund. If not, the publisher repays the donors with interest; as detailed above, contributions may be refunded if the threshold is not reached within a reasonable expiring date. The assessed threshold includes a fee which compensates the publisher for costs and assumption of risks; the publisher may act like a traditional publisher, by soliciting sample works and deciding which ones to support, or it may serve only as an escrow agent and not care about the quality of the works.

In software, source code escrow is a publishing model that applies the SPP to source code, released under an open source or free software license. The Street Performer Protocol is a natural extension of the much older idea of funding the production of written or creative works through agreements between groups of potential readers or users; the first illustrated edition of John Milton's Paradise Lost was published under a subscription system. Unlike today's meaning of subscription, this meant that a fixed number of people had to sign up and pay some amount before the concert could take place or the printing press started; these three concertos K413-415... formed an important milestone in his career, being the first in the series of great concertos that he wrote for Vienna, the first to be published in a printed edition. However, he followed the usual practice of making them available in manuscript copies. Mozart advertised for subscribers in January 1783: "These three concertos, which can be performed with full orchestra including wind instruments, or only a quattro, with 2 violins, 1 viola and violoncello, will be available at the beginning of April to those who have subscribed for them."

Six months Mozart complained that it was taking a long time to secure enough subscribers. This was despite the fact that he had meanwhile scored a great success on two fronts:… However, there are a number of differences between this traditional model and the SPP; the most important difference is that traditionally, the subscribers would be among the first to get access and would do so with the understanding that the work would always be a "rare" good. Additionally, subscriptions were sold at a set price, but some wealthy subscribers may have given more in order to be a patron. In the modern Street Performer Protocol, each funder chooses the amount they want to pay, the work is released to the public and reproduced. In 1970, Stephen Breyer argued for the importance of this model in "The Uneasy Case for Copyright"; the Street Performer Protocol was used to release the source code and brand name of the Blender 3D animation program. After NaN Technologies BV went bankrupt in 2002, the copyright and trademark rights to Blender went to the newly created NaN Holding BV.

The newly created Blender Foundation campaigned for donations to obtain the right to release the software as free and open source under the GNU General Public License. NaN Holding BV set the price tag at 100,000 euros. More than 1,300 users became members and donated more than 50 euros each, in addition to anonymous users, non-membership individual donations and companies. On October 13, 2002, Blender was released on the Internet as free/open source software. Variations of the SPP include the Rational Street Performer Protocol and the Wall Street Performer Protocol. Com

J. Tomilson Hill

James Tomilson "Tom" Hill III is an American billionaire hedge fund manager, the vice chairman of the Blackstone Group, president and CEO of Blackstone Alternative Asset Management, the firm's hedge funds business. He sits on the firm's management and executive committees, is a main board board of director. Hill was born in New York and attended The Buckley School and Milton Academy, where he was a varsity wrestler. Hill received his B. A. cum laude, from Harvard College, where he wrote for The Harvard Lampoon and studied history and Japanese studies. He received his M. B. A. from Harvard Business School. Hill started his career at First Boston in 1973, where he was one of the founding principals of its mergers and acquisitions department, moved to Smith Barney, where he served as the head of its mergers and acquisitions department. In 1982, he joined Lehman Brothers as a partner in its M&A department and became head of M&A, head of Investment Banking and co-CEO. In 1993 Hill joined Blackstone, where he served as co-head of the corporate mergers and acquisitions advisory group.

In 2007, he became vice chairman of the firm. Since 2000, he has served as president and chief executive of Blackstone's hedge fund business, Blackstone Alternative Asset Management, has grown that business's assets under management from $1.3 billion in 2000 to $56 billion as of December 31, 2013. BAAM is the world's largest discretionary allocator to hedge funds, with investors including corporate and public pension funds, sovereign wealth funds and central banks; the business's growth from 2007 to 2013, at a time when the industry contracted was featured in a June 2013 Harvard Business Review case study. Hill has appeared at the 2014 Credit Suisse Financial Services Forum, the 2011 Milken Institute Global Conference, the 2012 Bloomberg Hedge Fund Summit, among others. In 2014, Hill was inducted into Institutional Investor's Alpha's "Hedge Fund Hall of Fame". Hill is the chairman of Lincoln Center Theater and has served as chairman of the Smithsonian's Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.

He serves on the board of directors of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Telluride Foundation, the Advantage Testing Foundation, Our Lady Queen of Angels School, a Catholic school in East Harlem, part of the Partnership for Inner-City Education school network. In 2014, the Frick Collection presented "Renaissance and Baroque Bronzes from the Hill Collection", a group of thirty-three statuettes from Hill's personal collection that date from the mid-fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries. In 2017, Hill will opened the Hill Art Foundation a gallery on West 24th Street in Chelsea to exhibit his private collection to the public in 2019. Hill lives in Manhattan with his wife, Saint Louis native Janine W. Hill, who serves as director of fellowship affairs and studies strategic planning at the Council on Foreign Relations, they have two daughters: Astrid Hill Dattilo. Institutional Investor's Alpha, September 2014: Hedge Fund Hall of Fame "The Mythic and Heroic, Just Inches Tall", The New York Times, January 2014 DealBook, December 2013: A Second Act for a Top Wall Street Strategist Financial Times, November 2013: Bronze Meets Tin at the Frick Collection Metropolitan Museum of Art, January 2012: J. Tomilson Hill Elected Trustee of Metropolitan Museum Pensions & Investments, January 2011: A huge presence: Face to face with Blackstone's J. Tomilson Hill Blackstone.com profile Exhibition page at the Frick Harvard Business Review case study

Hinge Studios

Hinge Studios was a premiere recording and mixing facility located in Chicago and home to Grammy winning producer/mixer Craig Bauer. Opened by Bauer in 1993, the studio was a pioneer in ushering in the world of digital recording with one of the country’s first Euphonix CSII digitally controlled recording consoles and the first Otari RADAR 48 track hard disk recording system. In 2014, Hinge Studios relocated to Los Angeles, where the studio was temporarily operating at the historic Devonshire Studios in North Hollywood. Hinge Studios is now permanently located in Los Angeles, California, in a acclaimed Northward Acoustics designed room; the studio features ATC speakers. Hinge Studios and Bauer have hosted and recorded a diverse roster of talent over the years, including: Kanye West, Lupe Fiasco, Justin Timberlake, Halo Circus, Justin Young, THE Nghbrs, Anita Wilson, Ed Sheeran, The Clark Sisters, Janet Jackson, Common, Jennifer Hudson, Lil’ Kim, Wu-Tang Clan, Da Brat, Brian Culbertson, Richard Marx, 98°, Yolanda Adams, Steve Cole, Dave Koz, Dennis DeYoung, Donald Lawrence, Destiny’s Child, Public Enemy, Hezekiah Walker and The Smashing Pumpkins.

Hinge Studios Chicago was once dubbed “Kanye West’s fortress of solitude in the late ‘90s” by MTVNews. In 2012, he mixed Ed Sheeran's live performances at HINGE studios as part of The Warner Sound "The Live Room" series, which has collectively garnered 95 million views on YouTube; the performances included "The A Team", "Give Me Love", "You Don't Need Me, I Don't Need You", "Lego House" and "Be My Husband". Craig Bauer received a Grammy award at the 50th Annual Grammy Awards for mixing The Clark Sisters’ 2007 album, Live: One Last Time and has been recognized by NARAS and the Grammy‘s for over 30 nominations in various categories and genres, he has been nominated twice for Album of the Year. Official website The Warren Sound: Ed Sheeran at The Live Room, Hinge Studios

Makeover

A makeover is a radical change in appearance. When the word is used to describe a change in human physical appearance, it may imply a change in clothing, haircut, or cosmetics. A personal makeover might include plastic surgery, dental veneers, or contact lenses. Sometimes a makeover is used to refer to non-physical things, such as a makeover of character, personality or attitude, it can refer to a dramatic change in construction, such as when a building is renovated or is refurbished. Makeovers are referred to in a positive manner, as a way to start fresh or improve your life. Makeovers are popular television subjects. Long a staple subject of daytime talk shows, they have moved into the limelight in television shows such as Queer Eye. Other popular makeover shows include What Not to Wear, How to Look Good Naked, Extreme Makeover, MADE, Ambush Makeover and Pimp My Ride. There is a category of reality TV based on giving makeovers to homes, such as Extreme Makeover: Home Edition, 60 Minute Makeover and Property Brothers.

See makeover reality television series. Computer software and online tools can be used for performing what are known as Virtual Makeovers. Using a photograph of a human face, software can apply cosmetics and various eyewear such as contact lenses and sunglasses in order to allow users to visualize different looks without physically trying them on. Today, virtual makeup works in real-time using phone camera tracking, examples are Visage Technologies's MakeApp, L'Oreal's Makeup Genius, Oriflame's Makeup Wizard. In movies there is a common trope of a character a girl, undergoing a dramatic makeover in appearance or personality. Here are some examples of movies with this trope. Now, Voyager Cinderella My Fair Lady Grease The Breakfast Club Clueless The Princess Diaries Mean Girls There is a series of books, aimed at teenage girls, called The Makeover Series, written by Suzanne Weyn. There are several experts. Makeover artists specialize in hair styling, make-up or clothing. "The Makeover Guy" is a registered trademark for author and makeover expert Christopher Hopkins, known for his television head-to-toe makeovers.

He has a book called "Staging Your Comeback: A Complete Beauty Revival for Women Over 45". Pygmalion Nine Beautiful Women and After Makeover Virtual makeover with colored lens