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Krishna

Krishna is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshipped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu and as the supreme God in his own right, he is considered by ISKCON devotees. He is the god of compassion and love in Hinduism, is one of the most popular and revered among Indian divinities. Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Krishna Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar. In Krishna Charitas, Krishna is born to Devaki and her husband, Vasudeva Anakadundubhi of the Yadava clan in Mathura. Krishna is depicted with a flute in his hand; the current tradition of the monotheistic cult of Krishna, is the result of the amalgamation of several ancient traditions the independent cults of Vāsudeva-Krishna, Gopala-Krishna and Bala-Krishna, as well as Bhagavatism. The anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are titled as Krishna Leela, he is a central character in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana and the Bhagavad Gita, is mentioned in many Hindu philosophical and mythological texts.

They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, as the universal supreme being. His iconography reflects these legends, shows him in different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, a young boy with Radha or surrounded by women devotees, or a friendly charioteer giving counsel to Arjuna; the synonyms of Krishna have been traced to 1st millennium BCE literature. In some sub-traditions, Krishna is worshipped as Svayam Bhagavan, this is sometimes referred to as Krishnaism; these sub-traditions arose in the context of the medieval era Bhakti movement. Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatanatyam, Kuchipudi and Manipuri dance, he is a pan-Hindu god, but is revered in some locations such as Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh,Dwarka and Junagadh in Gujarat. Since the 1960s, the worship of Krishna has spread to the Western world and to Africa due to the work of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness.

The name "Krishna" originates from the Sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, an adjective meaning "black", "dark", or "dark blue". The waning moon is called Krishna Paksha, relating to the adjective meaning "darkening"; the name is interpreted sometimes as "all-attractive". As a name of Vishnu, Krishna is listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna is depicted in idols as black- or blue-skinned. Krishna is known by various other names and titles that reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Mohan "enchanter"; some names for Krishna hold regional importance. The tradition of Krishna appears to be an amalgamation of several independent deities of ancient India, the earliest to be attested being Vāsudeva. Vāsudeva was a hero-god of the tribe of the Vrishnis, belonging to the Vrishni heroes, whose worship is attested from the 5th-6th century in the writings of Pāṇini, from the 2nd century BCE in epigraphy with the Heliodorus pillar. At one point in time, it is thought that the tribe of the Vrishnis fused with the tribe of the Yadavas, whose own hero-god was named Krishna.

Vāsudeva and Krishna fused to become a single deity, which appears in the Mahabaratha, they start to be identified with Vishnu in the Mahabaratha and the Bhagavad Gita. Around the 4th century CE, another tradition, the cult of Gopala-Krishna, the protector of cattle, was absorbed into the Krishna tradition. Around 180 BCE the Indo-Greek king Agathocles issued some coinage bearing images of deities that are now interpreted as being related to Vaisnava imagery in India; the deities displayed on the coins appear to be Saṃkarṣaṇa-Balarama with attributes consisting of the Gada mace and the plow, Vāsudeva-Krishna with attributes of the Shankha and the Sudarshana Chakra wheel. According to Bopearachchi, the headdress on top of the deity is a misrepresentation of a shaft with a half-moon parasol on top; the Heliodorus Pillar, a stone pillar with a Brahmi script inscription was discovered by colonial era archaeologists in Besnagar. Based on the internal evidence of the inscription, it has been dated to between 125 and 100 BCE, now known after Heliodorus – an Indo-Greek who served as an ambassador of the Greek king Antialcidas to a regional Indian king Kasiputra Bhagabhadra.

The Heliodorus pillar inscription is a private religious dedication of Heliodorus to "Vāsudeva", an early deity and another name for Krishna in the Indian tradition. It states that the column was constructed by "the Bhagavata Heliodorus" and that it is a "Garuda pillar". Additionally, the inscription includes a Krishna-related verse from chapter 11.7 of the Mahabharata stating that the path to immortality and heaven is to live a life of three virtues: self-temperance and vigilance. The Heliodorus pillar site was excavated by archaeologists in the 1960s; the effort

Huangjin Gui

Huangjin Gui is a premium variety of Chinese oolong tea traditionally from Anxi in Fujian province. Named after the yellow golden color of its budding leaves and its unique flowery aroma, it is said to be reminiscent of Osmanthus; this oolong is similar to Tieguanyin, with only a little oxidation. It has a flowery, delicate aroma without the astringency of a green tea or the heaviness of a Red/Black Tea. There are two legends behind this tea: the legend of farmer Wei. Both date its origins back to about the mid-nineteenth century; the first legend is in 1860 that this tea originated from tea seedling given to Lin Ziqin by the bride Wang Dan from her home on their wedding day and planted next to their ancestral temple. The plants that grew were to represent the prosperity of their families uniting; as a result, it is given as a wedding present. The tea produced from these had a unique golden color and fragrance like osmanthus, so named as Huang Dan which has similar pronunciation to Wang Dan according to local language.

The other story is in 1850 that a tea farmer named Wei Zhen was strolling by a brook when he noticed a golden plant on the horizon. As a tea farmer he felt obligated to cultivate it. To his surprise it had powerful fragrance of osmanthus and light yet yellow color liquid remained, so together with neighbors they named it as Huang Dan. In 1900s tea merchant Lin Jintai got this tea popular in South East Asia as precious as gold, but the old name Huang Dan was not attractive enough, so he changed to Huang Jin Gui. There are two Huang Jin Gui mother bushes corresponding to different legend. One is about Wang legend in Luo Yan village, one is about Wei legend in Mei Zhuang village. According to the government file, Mei Zhuang village was split up from Luo Yan village in 1961. Both locations got big protective change recently; the farm where Wang legend mother bush locate is made into a beautiful park in 2017, the mother bush is protective with introductory text about its story and history. Mother bush of Wang legend had a stone tablet set up in 2009 which introduce its history and cited support by the Bureau of Finance of Fujian province.

There is a small ancestral temple next to it

Andricus lignicola

Cola-nut galls develop as a chemically induced distortion of leaf axillary or terminal buds on pedunculate oak or sessile oak trees, caused by the agamic gall wasp Andricus lignicola which lays single eggs within leaf buds using their ovipositor. A previous name or synonym for the species A. lignicola is A. lignicolus and A. venheurni. The galls are found in small groups, which however do not coalesce, helping to prevent mis-identification with the oak marble gall, in addition the shape is ovoid rather than spherical and it is scaly rather than smooth, it grows up to about 10 x 8 mm and is at first green changing to grey-brown, with light red patches where the original bud scales have separated. It is hard and firm, but does not always persist on the tree for long. Once the imago has emerged a small circular hole is apparent, it is well known in continental Europe. The imago of the agamic phase emerges in early summer following the gall's inception; the bisexual generation gall is similar to that of A. kollari, effecting the live bud of Quercus species and has only been seen under culture conditions.

Removing and destroying cola-nut galls before they dry and the wasps emerge may help to reduce an infestation. While large, sometimes present in quite large numbers on scrub specimens, they cause no measurable harm. Gall Gall wasp Knopper gall Oak apple Oak marble gall Pineapple gall Red-pea gall Rose bedeguar gall "Gall". Infoplease encyclopedia. Retrieved 4 November 2008. "Andricus lignicola". Hedgerows and Verges of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2011