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Kristian Birkeland

Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland was a Norwegian scientist. He is best remembered for his theories of atmospheric electric currents that elucidated the nature of the aurora borealis. In order to fund his research on the aurorae, he invented the electromagnetic cannon and the Birkeland–Eyde process of fixing nitrogen from the air. Birkeland was nominated for the Nobel Prize seven times. Birkeland was born in Christiania to Reinart Birkeland and Ingeborg and wrote his first scientific paper at the age of 18. Birkeland married Ida Charlotte Hammer in May 1905, they had no children and, due to Birkeland's preoccupation with his work, they divorced in 1911. Suffering from severe paranoia due to his use of Veronal as a sleeping aid, he died under mysterious circumstances in his room in the Hotel Seiyoken in Tokyo while visiting colleagues at the University of Tokyo. A post-mortem revealed that Birkeland had taken 10 g of veronal the night he died, instead of the 0.5 g recommended. The time of death was estimated at 7am on 15 June 1917.

Some authors have claimed. "On the nightstand lay a revolver". Birkeland organized several expeditions to Norway's high-latitude regions where he established a network of observatories under the auroral regions to collect magnetic field data; the results of the Norwegian Polar Expedition conducted from 1899 to 1900 contained the first determination of the global pattern of electric currents in the polar region from ground magnetic field measurements. The discovery of X-rays inspired Birkeland to develop vacuum chambers to study the influence of magnets on cathode rays. Birkeland noticed that an electron beam directed toward a magnetised terrella was guided toward the magnetic poles and produced rings of light around the poles and concluded that the aurora could be produced in a similar way, he developed a theory in which energetic electrons were ejected from sunspots on the solar surface, directed to the Earth, guided to the Earth's polar regions by the geomagnetic field where they produced the visible aurora.

This is the theory of the aurora today. Birkeland proposed in 1908 in his book The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902–1903 that polar electric currents, today referred to as auroral electrojets, were connected to a system of currents that flowed along geomagnetic field lines into and away from the polar region; such field-aligned currents are known today as Birkeland currents in his honour. He provided a diagram of field-aligned currents in the book, this diagram was reproduced on the back of the Norwegian 200 kroner 7th series banknote in the lower right corner, his terrella experiment is shown on the front at the left with a portrait of Birkeland on the right; the book on the 1902–1903 expedition contains chapters on magnetic storms on the Earth and their relationship to the Sun, the origin of the Sun itself, Halley's comet, the rings of Saturn. Birkeland's vision of what are now known as Birkeland currents became the source of a controversy that continued for over half a century, because their existence could not be confirmed from ground-based measurements alone.

His theory was disputed and ridiculed at the time as a fringe theory by mainstream scientists, most notoriously by the eminent British geophysicist and mathematician Sydney Chapman who argued the mainstream view that currents could not cross the vacuum of space and therefore the currents had to be generated by the Earth. Birkeland's theory of the aurora continued to be dismissed by mainstream astrophysicists after his death in 1917, it was notably championed by the Swedish plasma scientist Hannes Alfvén, but Alfvén's work in turn was disputed by Chapman. Proof of Birkeland's theory of the aurora only came in 1967; the crucial results were obtained from U. S. Navy satellite 1963-38C, carrying a magnetometer above the ionosphere. Magnetic disturbances were observed on nearly every pass over the high-latitude regions of the Earth; these were interpreted as hydromagnetic waves, but on analysis it was realized that they were due to field-aligned or Birkeland currents. The scale of Birkeland's research enterprises was such.

Recognizing that technological invention could bring wealth, he developed an electromagnetic cannon and, with some investors, formed a firearms company. The coil-gun worked; the most he could get from his largest machine was 100 m/s, corresponding to a disappointing projectile range of only 1 km. So he renamed the device an aerial torpedo and arranged a demonstration with the express aim of selling the company. At the demonstration, one of the coils shorted and produced a sensational inductive arc complete with noise and smoke; this was the first failure of any of the launchers. It could have been repaired and another demonstration organized. However, fate intervened in the form of an engineer named Sam Eyde. At a dinner party only one week Eyde told Birkeland that there was an industrial need for the biggest flash of lightning that can be brought down to Earth in order to make artificial fertilizer. Birkeland's reply was, "I have it!" There were no more attempts to sell the firearms company, he worked with Eyde only long enough to build a plasma arc device for the nitrogen fixation process.

The pair worked to develop the prototype furnace into a design, economically viable for large-scale manufacture. The resulting company, Norsk Hydro, hugely enriched Norway, Birkeland enjoyed adequate funding for research, his only real interest; the Birkeland–Eyde process is inefficient in terms of energy con

Sir William Cook, 2nd Baronet

Sir William Cook, 2nd Baronet (c. 1630 - January 1708, of Broome Hall, Norfolk was a member of the East Anglian gentry and Tory Member of Parliament. He was the eldest son of William Cook, whose father had acquired Broome Hall by marriage in 1603; the 1st Baronet remained neutral in the English Civil War, though he did sign the Norfolk address to George Monck for a free parliament in 1660 and was made a baronet three years later. The 2nd Baronet's mother was the 1st Baronet's first wife, Mary Astley, daughter of Thomas Astley of Melton Constable, he attended Emmanuel College, Cambridge from 1647 and Gray's Inn from 1648 and was noted as "very well versed in every kind of learning, but distinguished by the suavity of his manners". He was a Justice of the Peace for Norfolk from 1660 to 1668 and a captain in the militia from around October 1660 to 1679 or later, he became a commissioner for assessment Norfolk in 1661 and for Suffolk in 1679, holding both posts until 1680. His marriage settlement dates to 1664 - he married Jane Steward, daughter of William Steward of Barton Mills.

They had seven daughters. In 1675 he was made commissioner for recusants in Norfolk, he had become deputy lieutenant of Norfolk by 1676 and in 1681 he succeeded to his father's baronetcy. The 1677 session of parliament began to show fracture lines between Charles II's court and Parliament. Cook supported Robert Paston in backing the former, making him a potential pro-Crown candidate in the 1679 and 1681 elections. Cook did stand for Great Yarmouth in 1685 and won one of its two seats - in the same year he was made a freeman of Great Yarmouth. However, soon afterwards he wrote to William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury: He was appointed to nine minor committees during James II's single Parliament - he was the first man appointed to the committee for the bill for the renewal of the Yarmouth Harbour Act, meaning it was he who had introduced it. In 1688 he agreed that some of the laws penalising Roman Catholics and non-conformists might "require a review and amendment" but refused to agree to the abolition of the Test Acts.

He was thus removed from his deputy lieutenancy and all other local office in February 1688 and in October that year refused to sit on the bench alongside Roman Catholics. In the post-Glorious Revolution elections of 1689 he was returned for Norfolk and sat for the county in 1690 and 1698; when the House of Commons had to vote on the House of Lords' motion that the throne was not vacant, Cook voted in agreement. After brief sick leave early in 1690, he returned to Westminster and sat on twenty committees in the Convention Parliament, including ones to repeal the Corporation Act 1661, to inquire into the fall in rents, to adopt new oaths of supremacy and allegiance and to consider abolishing the hearth tax, he helped consider a bill for bringing in tithes more efficiently and committees to inquire into disasters during the war and to limit spending in elections. He had to sell Broome Hall and is buried at Cranworth, where his epitaph maintains him as a defender of monarchy "equally unaffected by the wicked artifices of rabid Papists and schismatics".

In the absence of any sons or relations, the baronetcy went extinct on his death

Ordinance Power of the President of the Philippines

The Ordinance Power is the rulemaking authority of the President of the Philippines defined in Book III, Title I, Chapter II of Administrative Code of 1987. Executive orders, according to Book III, Title I, Chapter II, Section 2 of Administrative Code of 1987, refer to the "Acts of the President providing for rules of a general or permanent character in implementation or execution of constitutional or statutory powers." Executive Order No. 292, which instituted the Administrative Code of 1987, is an example of an executive order. Administrative orders, according to Book III, Title I, Chapter II, Section 3 of Administrative Code of 1987, refer to the "Acts of the President which relate to particular aspects of governmental operations in pursuance of his duties as administrative head." Proclamations, according to Book III, Title I, Chapter II, Section 4 of Administrative Code of 1987, refer to the "Acts of the President fixing a date or declaring a status or condition of public moment or interest, upon the existence of which the operation of a specific law or regulation is made to depend."

A notable example of a proclamation is Proclamation No. 1081, which declared martial law on September 23, 1972." Memorandum orders, according to Book III, Title I, Chapter II, Section 5 of Administrative Code of 1987, refer to the "Acts of the President on matters of administrative detail or of subordinate or temporary interest which only concern a particular officer or office of the Government." Memorandum circulars, according to Book III, Title I, Chapter II, Section 6 of Administrative Code of 1987, refer to the "Acts of the President on matters relating to internal administration, which the President desires to bring to the attention of all or some of the departments, bureaus or offices of the Government, for information or compliance." General or special orders, according to Book III, Title I, Chapter II, Section 7 of Administrative Code of 1987, refer to the "Acts and commands of the President in his capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines."

Arthur Malet

Arthur Malet was an English stage and television actor based in the United States. Vivian Arthur Rivers Malet was born in 1927 in Lee-on-the-Solent, England, the son of Henry Guy Rivers Malet and Olga Muriel Balfour, he came to some prominence in 1960s films playing characters much older than his real age, such as Mr. Dawes, Jr. in Disney's Mary Poppins, King Eidilleg in Disney's 1985 animated film The Black Cauldron. He played undertaker Ted Ulam in Norman Jewison's 1967 film In the Heat of the Night, Joe Fenwick in a 1972 episode of Columbo, "Dagger of the Mind", he went on to play a village elder in Mel Brooks's Young Frankenstein in 1974, the graveyard keeper in John Carpenter's Halloween in 1978, a houseman in the 1984 film Oh God, You Devil, Tootles in 1991's Hook, Owen Owens in the 1992 film Toys. His appearances on television included episodes of The Donna Reed Show, The Rifleman, Adventures in Paradise, The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, Bewitched, Dallas. In 1965 he appeared as murder victim Ralph Day in the Perry Mason episode, "The Case of the Golden Venom."

He played a vagrant who claimed to have stolen Aunt Bea's pin on The Andy Griffith Show in 1966. In 1969 Malet appeared as the Night Clerk on the TV Series The Virginian in the episode titled "Journey to Scathelock." In 1995, he portrayed Charles Randolph in A Little Princess. In 1997, he did voice work in Anastasia, he voiced the character of "Mr. Ages" in The Secret of NIMH in 1982 and reprised the role in The Secret of NIMH 2: Timmy to the Rescue in 1998. Malet died on 18 May 2013 in Santa Monica, California. Arthur Malet on IMDb Arthur Malet at the Internet Broadway Database Arthur Malet at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Arthur Malet at Find a Grave

Carlos Moreno (actor)

Carlos Moreno was an Argentine actor and director. He worked on movies and television shows, he was born in Buenos Aires Province. Moreno survived. On 9 March 2014, he suffered another heart attack, this time fatal, in Buenos Aires, he was 75 years old. Moreno trained under renowned film and theater personalities like Carlos Gandolfo, Augusto Fernández, Agustín Alezzo and Hedy Crilla, he was a versatile actor, whose career included acting in TV shows and films. He was most prolific on TV, acting in 30 shows, but the most important and favourite of all them is Cebollitas. Besides acting in plays, he directed numerous plays, he acted in 15 films as a supporting actor. He made his silver screen debut in 1968 with the film The Project and went on to work in films like Knights of the Round Bed, The Power of Censorship, The Clinic of Dr. Curette, I'll Be Anything But I Love and The Hooky among others. Another Heart is the only film. Carlos Moreno on IMDb

Leonard L. Northrup Jr.

Leonard "Lynn" L. Northrup Jr. was an American engineer, a pioneer of the commercialization of solar thermal energy. Influenced by the work of John Yellott, Maria Telkes, Harry Tabor, Northrup's company designed, patented and manufactured some of the first commercial solar water heaters, solar concentrators, solar-powered air conditioning systems, solar power towers and photovoltaic thermal hybrid systems in the United States; the company he founded became part of ARCO Solar, which in turn became BP Solar, which became the largest solar energy company in the world. Northrup was a prolific inventor with 14 US patents. Lynn Northrup Jr. a fourth generation Texan, was the son of L. L. Northrup Sr. an inventor in his own right, Dolly McKaskle Northrup, a retail entrepreneur, both members of pioneer Texas families. He was educated at Woodrow Wilson High School in Dallas and received a BA from Southern Methodist University, a MS from the University of Denver, a Master of Business Administration from Harvard Business School.

Northrup served as a captain the United States Army Corps of Engineers during and shortly after World War II. After the War, Northrup went to work for Storm Vulcan, a Dallas company, where he invented a machine to clean aircraft engines, he embarked on a venture to fit cars with air conditioning equipment, putting the machinery in the trunk and piping the cooled air through tubes in the headliner. This caught the interest of engineers from General Motors, who copied the system in Cadillacs in the late 1940s. "After market" automotive AC units were manufactured in Texas until the 1980s. He sold some of the first air conditioning units, built by the Curtis Mathes Corporation, an early leader in manufacturing window units. Northrup married Jane Keliher and started a family in Dallas, where he designed and built one of the first single-family houses in the United States with central air conditioning, he founded a company to install air conditioning in commercial buildings. With a Marketing Plan from G F Sweetman, he became one of largest suppliers of Curtis Mathes fans and compressors in the nation.

He developed a company to manage, install and clean air filtration systems. In the late 1960s, Northrup bought a controlling interest in Donmark Corporation, a manufacturer of residential air conditioning and heating equipment from Curtis Mathes, his lifelong friend. Northrup promoted the use of “all electric” central heating and cooling equipment, building a manufacturing facility in Dallas and in Hutchins and selling to apartment developers. In designing these systems, Northrup focused on the total installed cost of the unit, including the framing and plumbing costs. During the mid-1970s, Northrup became interested in boosting the efficiency of air conditioning systems, began looking at novel approaches, including water-source geothermal heat pumps, the innovative use of scroll compressors in split system central air conditioning systems to achieve a higher efficiency rating, which have since become the standard compressor for high-efficiency residential air conditioning equipment. In the early 1970s, before the Arab Oil Embargo and the spike in oil prices, Northrup became interested in the commercialization of solar thermal systems for heating potable water and swimming pools.

Such systems had been commercialized in other countries where climatic conditions were favorable, energy costs were high, there was a tradition of scientific innovation notably solar power in Israel. Work in the United States had been limited to academia and a few companies in Arizona and California. Northrup began experimenting with solar collectors to heat air, using finned heat exchangers, engaged solar pioneer Professor John Yellott as a consultant on the absorptivity and emissivity or various surfaces and configurations, on the transparency of various glasses and glazing material that exhibit the "greenhouse effect" - transparent to incoming solar radiation, but opaque to the re-radiation of infrared from the heated surface - hence a thermal trap or collector that exhibits the "greenhouse effect". Additionally, he hired Maria Telkes, an expert on phase change materials molten salts, as a way to store thermal energy, consulted with Israeli solar thermal pioneer Harry Tabor on surface coatings, including “black chrome” for solar panels.

This work lead to the commercialization of flat panel solar water heaters, solar pool heaters, marketed as Northrup Energy products directly and via dealers, with particular success in Hawaii, where solar thermosiphon systems could be used with antifreeze. With low temperature products in production and distribution, Northrup turned his attention to achieving higher temperatures – which would entail various methods of concentrating incoming insolation and tracking the sun - with varying degrees of success. Northrup’s break-through technology was a collector that used a long curved acrylic fresnel lens to concentrate or focus sunlight at a theoretical ratio of 12 to 1 onto a linear flat copper tube, coated with a variant of Dr. Tabor's “black chrome” absorptive surface; the array 10’ long, tracked the movement of the sun during the day, with the elevation fixed. The tracking device was ingenious – it consisted of two photoelectric cells at the base of a tube with a baffle between them. Current from the cells went to a control board.

When the cell output was equalized, the baffle and the tube would be pointing at the sun. This was sufficient to e