Real World Studios
Real World Studios is a residential recording studio founded by Peter Gabriel and situated in the village of Box, England, near to the city of Bath. It is associated with the Real World Records record label and WOMAD music festival. In 1986, when Peter Gabriel finished the album So, he decided it was time to move from Ashcombe House to a permanent recording facility. Most important for Gabriel was to be close to water. He, David Stallbaumer and Mike Large looked at several sites old mills, in the Bath area; the Real World site had the size and space they wanted, had a river, was in a beautiful part of the world, was accessible from London but with Bath less than 8 miles away. The 200-year-old Box Mill is a water mill on the By Brook. In 1864 it was part of the Box Brewery owned by the Pinchin family who in that year closed their Northgate Brewery at Pulteney Bridge in Bath. In 1867 it was described as malthouse; the mill was bought from Spafax in 1987 by Gabriel. It was converted and an additional building was added.
The architects were Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios. The new complex provides both accommodation space. Asked who left "the biggest mess" at the studio, Gabriel answered: "Black Grape, they had a lot of parties and a lot of Manchester would come down… and mysteriously, half the cars in the village would end up back in Manchester." The studio's 2,000 sq ft Big Room houses an mixing console, with additional outboard equipment surrounding the room. The Big Room is designed to be one large collaborative recording space, without dividing walls and houses two isolation booths. Adjoining the Big Room and within the old mill building is the Wood Room; this room features a booth, mezzanine floor and movable acoustic screens. The rooms can be booked together for a larger recording space, or independently for smaller or lower budget projects; the Big Room was equipped to accommodate re-recording mixing for film and television projects. With a foley stage and ADR room, Real World Studios has been host to film and TV projects including Quantum of Solace, The Golden Compass, Green Zone and The No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency.
The complex houses a large rehearsal room, a foley studio, surround-sound 7.1 mixing studio with dubbing facilities, kitchen/dining room and accommodation including a production cottage. Notable clients of Real World Studios include Alicia Keys, Amy Winehouse, Van Morrison, Beyoncé, Björk, Black Grape, Mumford & Sons, Jay-Z, Kanye West, Paolo Nutini, Robert Plant, The Vamps, Paloma Faith, Rag'n'Bone Man, Tom Jones, New Order, Kylie Minogue, Laura Marling, Pixies and Marillion. Real World Studios Real World Records Real World Studios video tour from BBC Wiltshire
Culture of Kraków
Kraków is considered by many to be the cultural capital of Poland. It was named the European Capital of Culture by the European Union for the year 2000; the city has some of the best museums in several famous theaters. It became the residence of two Polish Nobel laureates in literature: Wisława Szymborska and Czesław Miłosz, while a third Nobel laureate, the Yugoslav writer Ivo Andric lived and studied in Krakow, it is home to one of the world’s oldest universities, the Jagiellonian University of Kraków. Kraków has 28 museums as well as public art galleries, they are separated into the National and City museums: The National Museum established in 1879, the main branch of Poland's National Museum with permanent collections around the country, as well as the National Art Collection on Wawel Hill and the Czartoryski Museum featuring works by Leonardo and Rembrandt. Wawel Castle National Art Collection is located at Wawel, the former residence of three dynasties of Polish monarchs. Royal Chambers feature art, period furniture and European paintings, an unsurpassed display of the 16th-century monumental Flemish tapestries.
Wawel Treasury and Armory features Polish royal memorabilia, applied art, 15th to 18th century arms. The Wawel Eastern Collection features military accessories. Kraków National Museum with multiple branches in downtown Kraków, is the richest museum in the country with collections consisting of several hundred thousand items kept in big part in the Main Building but in the nine of its divisions: The Main Building serves as the chief venue for temporary exhibitions; the gallery of the 20th century Polish art houses nearly 500 works by Polish modern artists. Czartoryski Museum and Arsenal, world-famous for Leonardo's painting of Lady with an Ermine; the museum has other old masters on display including a dramatic landscape by Rembrandt. Manggha Museum of Japanese Art and Technology Stanisław Wyspiański Museum The Gallery of 19th Century Polish Art in Sukiennice, with the collection of some of the best known paintings and sculptures of the Young Poland movement. Jan Matejko Manor Emeryk Hutten-Czapski Museum Józef Mehoffer Manor The City of Krakow has a main Historical Museum that has branches throughout the city:- Kraków Museum of HistoryDivisions: The Main Building, devoted to the history of the city and its citizens with collections of maps and city stamps and rings of Lord Mayors, guild objects, portraits of nobility, the Kraków's famous Christmas cribs.
Town Hall Tower Barbican Krzysztofory Palace Szołayski Museum The Silesian House known as Pomorska History of theatre in Krakow museum Jewish Museum at the Old Synagogue Hipolit Manor Celestat, the Residence of the Sharpshooters’ Society Artistic Salon of the District of Zwierzyniec Museum of National Remembrance at "Under the Eagle Pharmacy" History of Nowa Huta Museum Collegium Maius Museum of the Jagiellonian University. The 15th-century Collegium Maius is the oldest building of the Jagiellonian University featuring ancient lecture rooms, communal halls, former professors’ quarters and treasury with the Gothic sceptres of rectors and the golden ‘Jagiellonian globe’; the exhibits include medieval science instruments, old globes, collectibles, furniture and medals. Wieliczka Salt Mine, in continuous operation since the 13th century Cathedral Museum Museum of Archaeology Polish Aviation Museum Archdiocesean Museum Museum of Independence Armed Effort Museum Museum of Ethnography Museum of Pharmacy of the Jagiellonian University Museum of Geology of the Polish Academy of Sciences Czartoryski Library Museum of the Home Army Museum of Photography Museum of Natural History Museum of Zoology Rydlówka Manor: museum of the Young Poland movement The Cricoteka Centre for Documentation of Tadeusz Kantor Art Museum of Urban Engineering a.k.a.
Transportation Museum Galicia Jewish Museum Muzeum Katedry i Zakładu Anatomii UJ CM Kraków is home to many different and unique street festivals and parades. Most famous are its Nativity Cribs Festival held every December, the Jewish Culture Festival held at the end of June, International Jazz Festival held in April, Lajkonik Parade during the spring, a number of indoor festivals held throughout the year; the extended list of Kraków festivals includes: International Jazz Festival International Film Festival Juwenalia Student Festival Lajkonik Parade Enthronement of the Cock King Wreaths Midsummer Festival Summer in Krakow Festivals Summer Jazz Festival Jewish Culture Festival Krakow Summer Animation Days Festival of Military Bands Street Theater Festival Music in Old Krakow Krakow Jazz Festival International Summer Festival of Organ Music Folk Art Fair International Competition of Contemporary Chamber Music Organ Music Festival Unsound Festival and alternative music International Film Festival Etiuda&Anima, international film festival Zaduszki Jazz Festival Festival of Animated Film Christmas Market Kraków szopka Nativity Cribs Festival New Year's Party at the Main Square Kraków is home to one of nation's most active theatre scenes and some of the oldest continuing performing arts companies.
It is considered to be the second largest centre for Polish theatre behind Warsaw. It is home to both acclaimed productions by companies such a
Kraków spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre; the city has a population of about 770,000, with 8 million additional people living within a 100 km radius of its main square. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau became the capital of Germany's General Government.
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years; that year, UNESCO approved the first sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC, its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013 Kraków was approved as a UNESCO City of Literature; the city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016. The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus, the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. In Polish, Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak and means "Krak's". Krakus's name may derive from "krakula", a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge's staff, or a Proto-Slavic word "krak" meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most associated with the concept of genealogy; the first mention of Prince Krakus dates back to 1190, although the town existed as early as the 7th century, inhabited by the tribe of Vistulans. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of Kraków". In English, a person born or living in Kraków is a Cracovian. While in the 1990s the English version of the name was written Cracow, the most widespread modern English version is Krakow.
Kraków's early history begins with evidence of a Stone Age settlement on the present site of the Wawel Hill. A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski; the first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish government. By the end of the 10th century, the city was a leading centre of trade. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, a basilica; the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt identical, based on new location act and incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Bolesław V the Chaste who following the example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens.
In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the new built fortifications. In 1335, King Casimir III of Poland declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after him, Kazimierz; the defensive walls were erected around the central section of Kazimierz in 1362, a plot was set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka. The city rose to prominence in 1364, when Casimir III of Poland founded the University of Kraków, the second oldest university in central Europe after the Charles University in Prague. King Casimir began work on a campus for the Academy in Kazimierz, but he died in 1370 and the campus was never completed; the city continued to grow under the joint Lithuanian-Polish Jagiellon dynasty. As the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League, the city attracted many craftsmen and guilds as science and the arts began to flourish; the royal chancery and the University ensured a first flourishing of Polish literary culture in the city.
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's Złoty Golden Age. Many works of Pol
Klezmer is a musical tradition of the Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe. Played by professional musicians called klezmorim in ensembles known as kapelye, the genre consisted of dance tunes and instrumental display pieces for weddings and other celebrations. In the United States the genre evolved as Yiddish-speaking Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe, who arrived between 1880 and 1924, came into contact with American jazz. During the initial years after the klezmer revival of the 1970s, the American sub-variety was what most people knew as klezmer, although in the 21st century musicians began paying more attention to the "original" pre-jazz traditions as revivalists including Josh Horowitz, Yale Strom and Bob Cohen have spent years doing field research in Eastern/Central Europe. Additionally immigrants from the Soviet Union, such as German Goldenshtayn, took their surviving repertoires to the United States and Israel in the 1980s. Compared with most other European folk-music styles, little is known about the history of klezmer music, much of what is said about it remains uncertain.
There is however, a heavy influence of Romani Music, which makes sense since many Jews and Roma lived side by side in Europe. The term klezmer comes from a combination of Hebrew words: kli, meaning "tool, or utensil" and zemer, meaning "to make music". Klezmer referred to musical instruments, was extended to refer, as a pejorative, to musicians themselves. From the 16th to 18th centuries, it replaced older terms such as leyts, it was not until the late 20th century that the word came to identify a musical genre. Early 20th century recordings and writings most refer to the style as "Yiddish" music, although it is sometimes called Freilech music; the first recordings to use the term "klezmer" to refer to the music were The Klezmorim's East Side Wedding and Streets of Gold in 1977/78, followed by Andy Statman and Zev Feldman's Jewish Klezmer Music in 1979. Klezmer is identifiable by its characteristic expressive melodies, reminiscent of the human voice, complete with laughing and weeping; this is not a coincidence.
A number of dreydlekh, such as krekhts are used to produce this style. Various musical styles influenced traditional klezmer music; the strongest and most enduring is Romanian music. Klezmer musicians heard and adapted traditional Romanian music, reflected in the dance forms found throughout surviving klezmer music repertoire The Bible has several descriptions of orchestras and Levites making music, but after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, many Rabbis discouraged musical instruments. However, the importance of merrymaking at weddings was not diminished, musicians came forth to fill that niche, klezmorim; the first klezmer known by name was Yakobius ben Yakobius, a player of the aulos in Samaria in the 2nd century CE. The earliest written record of the klezmorim is in the 15th century, it is unlikely that they played music recognizable as klezmer today since the style and structure of klezmer as we know it today is thought to have come from 19th century Bessarabia, where the bulk of today's traditional repertoire was written.
Klezmorim based much of their secular instrumental music upon the devotional vocal music of the synagogue, in particular cantorial music. So, klezmorim—along with other entertainers—were looked down on by Rabbis because of their secular traveling lifestyle. Klezmorim travelled and played with Romani musicians, because they occupied similar social strata, they had a great influence on each other musically and linguistically. Klezmorim were respected for their musical abilities and diverse repertoire, but they were by no means restricted to playing klezmer, they sometimes played for Christian churches and local aristocracy, taught some Italian classical violin virtuosos. Like other professional musicians, klezmorim were limited by authorities. In Ukraine they were banned from playing loud instruments, until the 19th century. Hence musicians took up the violin and other stringed instruments; the first musician to play klezmer in European concerts, Josef Gusikov, played a type of xylophone which he invented and called a "wood and straw instrument".
It was laid out like a cymbalom, attracted comments from Felix Mendelssohn and Liszt. Around 1855 under the reign of Alexander II of Russia, Ukraine permitted loud instruments; the clarinet started to replace the violin as the instrument of choice. A shift towards brass and percussion happened when klezmorim were conscripted into military bands; as Jews left Eastern Europe and the shtetls, klezmer spread throughout the globe, to the United States as well as to Canada and Argentina. The klezmer tradition was not maintained much by U. S. Jews. In the 1920s, clarinetists Dave Tarras and Naftule Brandwein caused a brief, influential revival, but Hankus Netsky has noted that "few of the performers of this era referred to themselves as klezmorim, the term is found nowhere in any Jewish instrumental recording of the time." (The soprano Isa Kremer was a popular exponent of Yiddish song internationally during the firs
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
Schindler's List is a 1993 American epic historical period drama film directed and co-produced by Steven Spielberg and written by Steven Zaillian. It is based on the novel Schindler's Ark by Australian novelist Thomas Keneally; the film follows Oskar Schindler, a Sudeten German businessman, who saved the lives of more than a thousand Polish-Jewish refugees from the Holocaust by employing them in his factories during World War II. It stars Liam Neeson as Schindler, Ralph Fiennes as SS officer Amon Göth, Ben Kingsley as Schindler's Jewish accountant Itzhak Stern. Ideas for a film about the Schindlerjuden were proposed as early as 1963. Poldek Pfefferberg, one of the Schindlerjuden, made it his life's mission to tell the story of Schindler. Spielberg became interested in the story when executive Sidney Sheinberg sent him a book review of Schindler's Ark. Universal Pictures bought the rights to the novel, but Spielberg, unsure if he was ready to make a film about the Holocaust, tried to pass the project to several other directors before deciding to direct the film himself.
Principal photography took place in Kraków, over the course of 72 days in 1993. Spielberg approached it as a documentary. Cinematographer Janusz Kamiński wanted to give the film a sense of timelessness. John Williams composed the score, violinist Itzhak Perlman performs the film's main theme. Schindler's List premiered on November 30, 1993, in Washington, D. C. and it was released on December 1993, in the United States. Listed among the greatest films made, it was a box office success, earning $322 million worldwide on a $22 million budget, it was the recipient of seven Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Original Score, as well as numerous other awards. In 2007, the American Film Institute ranked the film 8th on its list of the 100 best American films of all time; the Library of Congress selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry in 2004. In Kraków during World War II, the Germans have forced local Polish Jews into the overcrowded Kraków Ghetto.
Oskar Schindler, an ethnic German from Czechoslovakia, arrives in the city hoping to make his fortune. A member of the Nazi Party, Schindler lavishes bribes on Wehrmacht and SS officials and acquires a factory to produce enamelware. To help him run the business, Schindler enlists the aid of Itzhak Stern, a local Jewish official who has contacts with black marketeers and the Jewish business community. Stern helps Schindler arrange financing for the factory. Schindler maintains friendly relations with the Nazis and enjoys wealth and status as "Herr Direktor", Stern handles administration. Schindler hires Jewish workers because they cost less, while Stern ensures that as many people as possible are deemed essential to the German war effort, which saves them from being transported to concentration camps or killed. SS-Untersturmführer Amon Göth arrives in Kraków to oversee construction of Płaszów concentration camp; when the camp is completed, he orders the ghetto liquidated. Many people are killed in the process of emptying the ghetto.
Schindler is profoundly affected. He notices a young girl in a red coat as she hides from the Nazis, sees her body among a wagonload of corpses. Schindler is careful to maintain his friendship with Göth and, through bribery and lavish gifts, continues to enjoy SS support. Göth brutally mistreats his Jewish maid Helen Hirsch and randomly shoots people from the balcony of his villa, the prisoners are in constant fear for their lives; as time passes, Schindler's focus shifts from making money to trying to save as many lives as possible. To better protect his workers, Schindler bribes Göth into allowing him to build a sub-camp; as the Germans begin to lose the war, Göth is ordered to ship the remaining Jews at Płaszów to Auschwitz concentration camp. Schindler asks Göth to allow him to move his workers to a new munitions factory he plans to build in Brünnlitz near his home town Zwittau. Göth charges a huge bribe. Schindler and Stern create "Schindler's List" – a list of about 850 people to be transferred to Brinnlitz and thus saved from transport to Auschwitz.
The train carrying the women and children is accidentally redirected to Auschwitz-Birkenau. At the new factory, Schindler forbids the SS guards from entering the factory floor and encourages the Jews to observe the Jewish Sabbath. Over the next seven months, he spends much of his fortune bribing Nazi officials and buying shell casings from other companies. Schindler runs out of money in 1945; as a Nazi Party member and war profiteer, Schindler must flee the advancing Red Army to avoid capture. The SS guards in Schindler's factory have been ordered to kill the Jewish workforce, but Schindler persuades them not to, so that they can "return to families as men, instead of murderers." He prepares to head west, hoping to surrender to the Americans. The workers give Schindler a signed statement attesting to his role in saving Jewish lives and present him with a ring engraved with a Talmudic quotation: "Whoever saves one life saves the world entire." Schindler is touched but ashamed, as he feels he should have done more.
He breaks down sobbing, is comforted by the workers. After he and his wife leave, the Schindlerjuden spend the n
Academy of Music in Kraków
The Academy of Music in Kraków is a conservatory located in central Kraków, Poland. It is the alma mater of the renowned Polish contemporary composer Krzysztof Penderecki, its Rector for 15 years; the Academy is the only one in Poland to have two winners of the International Chopin Competition in Warsaw as well as a few further prize-winners among its alumni. The Academy was founded in 1888 by the eminent Polish composer Władysław Żeleński thanks to his artistic connections and patronage of Princess Marcelina Czartoryska, a concert pianist and former pupil of Frédéric Chopin; until 1945 it operated as a conservatory under the name of Conservatory of the Music Society or, the Cracow Conservatory. During the partitions of Poland, as the region of Lesser Poland and Kraków was ruled by the Austrian Empire – in the late 18th century, it was necessary to gain the consent of the Austrian administration and meet the imperial requirements set for all conservatoires; the newly opened school was inspected by Joseph Dachs and Johann Fuchs, both professors of the Vienna Conservatoire, received their enthusiastic opinion.
It enjoyed a period of great growth in the twenty years between the two wars under directors Wiktor Barabasz and Boleslaw Wallek-Walewski. The professorial staff included such names as Zbigniew Drzewiecki, Jan Gall, Zdzisław Jachimecki, Egon Petri and Severin Eisenberger. Closed during the Nazi occupation of 1939-1945 after Sonderaktion Krakau in 1939, the conservatoire continued its activity underground and reopened on 1 September 1945, becoming the State Higher School of Music as of 1 February 1946 under its first rector, Prof. Zbigniew Drzewiecki. In 1979 it gained the rank of an Academy of Music. On 1 October 2000 the Academy inaugurated its new premises at St. Thomas Street. Institute of Composition and Theory of Music Institute of Choral Music and Music Education Institute of Church Music Department of Composition Departmend of Conducting Department of Theory and Analysis Department of Theory and Aural Training Department of Choral Music Department of Music Education Electroacoustic Music Studio Piano Department Organ Department Wind Instruments and Accordicon Department Harpsichord and Early Music Department Violin and Viola Department Cello and Double Bass Department Chamber Music Department Contemporary Music and Jazz Department Vocal Department The list does not include graduates who became staff of the Academy.
Sylvia Čápová-Vizváry, pianist Halina Czerny-Stefańska Adam Harasiewicz Jan Hoffman Kazimierz Kord Adam Kopyciński Abel Korzeniowski Waldemar Maciszewski Władysława Markiewiczówna From postgraduate studies Lidia Grychtołówna Wojciech Kilar Zbigniew Drzewiecki Jan Gall Zdzisław Jachimecki Egon Petri Severin Eisenberger Also graduated from the Academy: Marcel Chyrzyński Jerzy Katlewicz Krzysztof Meyer Krzysztof Penderecki Andrzej Pikul Paweł Przytocki Bogusław Schaeffer Stanisław Skrowaczewski Regina Smendzianka Jadwiga Szamotulska Non-graduates Peter Holtslag Stefan Kisielewski Bolesław Kon Roman Palester Katarzyna Popowa-Zydroń Ada Sari Jadwiga Szamotulska Eugenia Umińska Bolesław Woytowicz Tadeusz Żmudziński 1994 – Krzysztof Penderecki 1997 – Paul Sacher 2001 – Mieczysław Tomaszewski 2003 – Helmuth Rilling 2005 – Peter Lukas Graf 2007 – Krystyna Moszumańska-Nazar 2008 – Henryk Mikołaj Górecki 2013 – Paul Badura-Skoda 2015 – Pope Benedict XVI 2016 - Kaja Danczowska 2019 - Barbara Świątek-Żelazna Culture of Kraków