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Ku Klux Klan

The Ku Klux Klan called the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist hate group, whose primary target is African Americans. The Klan has existed in three distinct eras at different points in time during the history of the United States; each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in iterations—Nordicism and anti-Catholicism. The first Klan used terrorism – both physical assault and murder – against politically active blacks and their allies in the South in the late 1860s, until it was suppressed around 1872. All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society and all are considered "right-wing extremist" organizations. In each era, membership was secret and estimates of the total were exaggerated by both friends and enemies. Known as the “Invisible Empire of the South,” the first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s during Reconstruction died out by the early 1870s, it sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South by using violence against African-American leaders.

Each chapter was autonomous and secret as to membership and plans. Its numerous chapters across the South were suppressed through federal law enforcement. Members made their own colorful, costumes: robes and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities; the second Klan started small in Georgia in 1915. It grew after 1920 and flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, including urban areas of the Midwest and West. Taking inspiration from D. W. Griffith's 1915 silent film The Birth of a Nation, which mythologized the founding of the first Klan, it employed marketing techniques and a popular fraternal organization structure. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacy took a pro-Prohibition stance, it opposed Catholics and Jews, while stressing its opposition to the alleged political power of the Pope and the Catholic Church; this second organization was funded by initiation fees and selling its members a standard white costume. The chapters did not have dues.

It used K-words which were similar to those used by the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades to intimidate others. It declined in the half of the 1920s; the third and current manifestation of the KKK emerged after 1950, in the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name. They have focused on opposition to the civil rights movement using violence and murder to suppress activists, it is classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center. As of 2016, the Anti-Defamation League puts total KKK membership nationwide at around 3,000, while the Southern Poverty Law Center puts it at 6,000 members total; the second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to America's "Anglo-Saxon" blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism. Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality every Christian denomination has denounced the KKK; the first Klan was founded in Pulaski, Tennessee, on December 24, 1865 by six former officers of the Confederate army as a fraternal social club inspired at least in part by the largely defunct Sons of Malta.

It borrowed parts of the initiation ceremony from that group, with the same purpose: "ludicrous initiations, the baffling of public curiosity, the amusement for members were the only objects of the Klan", according to Albert Stevens in 1907. The name is derived from the Greek word kyklos which means circle; the manual of rituals was printed by Laps D. McCord of Pulaski. According to The Cyclopædia of Fraternities, "Beginning in April, 1867, there was a gradual transformation... The members had conjured up a veritable Frankenstein, they had played with an engine of power and mystery, though organized on innocent lines, found themselves overcome by a belief that something must lie behind it all – that there was, after all, a serious purpose, a work for the Klan to do."Although there was little organizational structure above the local level, similar groups rose across the South and adopted the same name and methods. Klan groups spread throughout the South as an insurgent movement promoting resistance and white supremacy during the Reconstruction Era.

For example, Confederate veteran John W. Morton founded a chapter in Tennessee; as a secret vigilante group, the Klan targeted their allies. "They targeted white Northern leaders, Southern sympathizers and politically active blacks." In 1870 and 1871, the federal government passed the Enforcement Acts, which were intended to prosecute and suppress Klan crimes. The first Klan had mixed results in terms of achieving its objectives, it weakened the black political establishment through its use of assassinations and threats of violence. On the other hand, it caused a sharp backlash, with passage of federal laws that historian Eric Foner says were a success in terms of "restoring order, reinvigorating the morale of Southern Republicans, enabling blacks to exercise their rights as citizens". Historian George C. Rable argues that the Klan was a political failure and therefore was discarded by the Democratic leaders of the South, he says: the Klan declined in strength in part because of internal weaknesses.

More fundamentally, it de

Șomcuta Mare

Șomcuta Mare is a town in Maramureș County, Romania. The town administers seven villages: Buciumi, Ciolt, Codru Butesii, Finteușu Mare, Hovrila and Vălenii Șomcutei, it was declared a town in 2004. The exact founding date of Șomcuta Mare is unknown. In the 14th century, the locality, along with the "Chioar Domain" enters the possession of Romanian voivodes of Maramureș; as of 1566, the "Chioar Domain" is divided in 12 voivodeships, of which those led by voivode Dan Butean are administrated from Șomcuta Mare, covering 14 villages. In the year of 1599 Șomcuta Mare along with the remaining "Chioar Domain" is transferred to the rule of Mihai Viteazul. In 1713 "Cetatea de piatră" is destroyed. In 1738, the "Chioar Domain" is transformed into a "Ținut", leading to an increased administrative importance of Șomcuta Mare. With the help of Gheorghe Șincai a school is founded in the year of 1784. At the end of the 19th century the locality becomes an important trading point, with well established markets; the area had 3 operating banks: "Casa de Economii a Districtului Chioar", "Casa de Economii Chioreană" and "Banca de Comerț".

During the inter-war oil presses, 3 leather processing factories operate in the area as well as an agriculture school is opened. Between 1922 and 1929 a gymnasium is opened. In the years of 1930-1931 the newspaper "Chioar" is published. After World War II, the locality reached a higher urbanisation level, its status was changed from commune to town in 2004. The city of Șomcuta Mare covers an area of 12,040 ha, of which: Agricultural land: 7,949 ha arable land: 2,799 ha pastures: 1,855 ha hay fields: 2.585 ha vineyards: 5 ha orchards: 705 haNon-agricultural land: 4.091 ha forests: 3.177 ha water: 107 ha roads: 201 ha buildings: 517 ha vacant land: 89 ha Following the 2002 population census, the cities population is of 7,708 people. Compared against the 1992 population census, the population declined from 8,079. Natural Reserve "Peștera Vălenii Șomcutei"

Nocturnal sleep-related eating disorder

Nocturnal sleep-related eating disorder is a combination of a parasomnia and an eating disorder. It is a NREM parasomnia, it is described as being in a specific category within somnambulism or a state of sleepwalking that includes behaviors connected to a person's conscious wishes or wants. Thus many times NSRED is a person's fulfilling of their conscious wants. NSRED is related to night eating syndrome except for the fact that those suffering from NES are awake and aware of their eating and bingeing at night while those suffering from NSRED are sleeping and unaware of what they are doing. NES is considered an eating disorder while NSRED is considered a parasomnia; some argue over whether NES and NSRED are the same or distinct disorders. Though there have been debates over these two disorders, specialists have examined them to try to determine the differences. Dr. J. Winkelman noted several features of the two disorders that were similar, but he gave one important factor that make these disorders different.

In his article "Sleep-Related Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: Sleep Disorders, Eating Disorders, Or both", Winkelman said, "Both involve nearly nightly binging at multiple nocturnal awakenings, defined as excess calorie intake or loss of control over consumption." He reported that both disorders have a common occurrence of one to five percent of adults, have been predominantly found in women, with a young adult onset, have a chronic course, have a primary morbidity of weight gain, sleep disruption, shame over loss of control over food intake, have familial bases, have been observed to have comorbid depression and daytime eating disorders. However, Winkelman said, "The most prominent cited distinction between NES and SRED is the level of consciousness during nighttime eating episodes." Therefore, these two disorders are similar with only one distinction between them. Doctors and psychologists have difficulty differentiating between NES and NSRED, but the distinction of a person's level of consciousness is what doctors chiefly rely on to make a diagnosis.

One mistake, made is the misdiagnosis of NSRED for NES. However though NSRED is not a known and diagnosed disease, many people suffer from it in differing ways while doctors work to find a treatment that works for everyone; these studies, in turn, provide the basic information on this disorder including the symptoms and possible treatments that doctors are using today. Over the past 30 years, several studies have found that those afflicted with NSRED all have different symptoms and behaviors specific to them, yet they all have similar characteristics that doctors and psychologists have identified to distinguish NSRED from other combinations of sleep and eating disorders such as night eating syndrome. Winkelman says that typical behaviors for patients with NSRED include: "Partial arousals from sleep within 2 to 3 hours of sleep onset, subsequent ingestion of food in a rapid or'out of control' manner." They will attempt to eat bizarre amalgamations of foods and potentially harmful substances such as glue, wood, or other toxic materials.

In addition and Mahowald noted that their patients ate sweets, both hot and cold meals, improper substances such as "raw, frozen, or spoiled foods. Some eat their food with their bare hands; this results in injuries to the person as well as other injuries. After completing their studies and Mahowald said, "Injuries resulted from the careless cutting of food or opening of cans. A few of the more notable symptoms of this disorder include large amounts of weight gain over short periods of time in women, it is distinguished from regular sleepwalking by the typical behavioral sequence consisting of "rapid,'automatic' arising from bed, immediate entry into the kitchen." In addition, throughout all of the studies done and psychiatrists discovered that these symptoms are invariant across weekdays and vacations as well as the eating excursions being erratically spread throughout a sleep cycle. Most people that suffer from this disease retain no control over when they arise and consume food in their sleep.

Although some have been able to restrain themselves from indulging in their unconscious appetites, some have not and must turn to alternative methods of stopping this disorder. It is important for trained physicians to recognize these symptoms in their patients as as possible, so those with NSRED may be treated before they injure themselves; the diagnostic criteria utilized by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition include some dysfunctional eating when the person wake up during the main sleep period, eating unusual or toxic food, negative health consequences. The patient could be injur