Toyohara Kunichika was a Japanese woodblock print artist. Talented as a child, at about thirteen he became a student of Tokyo's then-leading print maker, Utagawa Kunisada, his deep appreciation and knowledge of kabuki drama led to his production of ukiyo-e actor-prints, which are woodblock prints of kabuki actors and scenes from popular plays of the time. An alcoholic and womanizer, Kunichika portrayed women deemed beautiful, contemporary social life, a few landscapes and historical scenes, he worked in the Edo period, carried those traditions into the Meiji period. To his contemporaries and now to some modern art historians, this has been seen as a significant achievement during a transitional period of great social and political change in Japan's history; the artist who became known as Toyohara Kunichika was born Ōshima Yasohachi on June 30, 1835, in the Kyōbashi district, a merchant and artisan area of Edo. His father, Ōshima Kyujū, was the proprietor of the Ōshūya. An indifferent family man, poor businessman, he lost the bathhouse sometime in Yasohachi's childhood.
The boy's mother, Arakawa Oyae, was the daughter of a teahouse proprietor. At that time, commoners of a certain social standing could ask permission to alter the family name. To distance themselves from the father's failure, the family took the mother's surname, the boy became Arakawa Yasohachi. Little is known about his childhood except that, as a youth, Yasohachi earned a reputation as a prankster and drew complaints from his neighbors, that at nine he was involved in a fight at the Sanno Festival in Asakusa. At age ten he was apprenticed to a yarn store. However, because he preferred painting and sketching to learning the dry goods trade, at eleven he moved to a shop near his father's bathhouse. There he helped in the design of Japanese lampshades called andon, consisting of a wooden frame with a paper cover; when he was twelve, his older brother, Chōkichi, opened a raised picture shop, Yasohachi drew illustrations for him. It is believed. At the same time he designed actor portraits for battledores sold by a shop called Meirindo.
His teacher gave him the name "Kazunobu". It may have been on the recommendation of Chikanobu that the boy was accepted the following year as an apprentice in the studio of Utagawa Kunisada, the leading and most prolific print maker of the mid-19th century. By 1854 the young artist had made his first confirmed signed print and had taken the name "Kunichika", a composite of the names of this two teachers and Chikanobu, his early work was derivative of the Utagawa style and some of his prints were outright copies. While working in Kunisada's studio Kunichika was assigned a commission to make a print illustrating a bird's-eye view of Tenjinbashi Avenue following the terrible earthquake of 1855 that destroyed most of the city; this assignment suggests. The "prankster" artist got into trouble in 1862 when, in response to a commission for a print illustrating a fight at a theater, he made a "parody print" which angered the students, involved in the fracas, they tried to enter Kunisada's studio by force.
His mentor revoked Kunichika's right to use the name he had been given but relented that year. Decades afterwards Kunichika described himself as "humbled" by the experience. Kunichika's status continued to rise and he was commissioned to create several portraits of his teacher; when Kunisada died in 1865, his student was commissioned to design two memorial portraits. The right panel of the portrait contains an obituary written by the writer, Kanagaki Robun, while the left contains memorial poems written by the three top students, including Kunichika. At the time Kunichika began his serious studies the late Edo period, an extension of traditions based on a feudal society, was about to end; the "modern" Meiji era, a time of rapid modernization, industrialization, extensive contact with the West, was in stark contrast to what had come before. Ukiyo-e artists had traditionally illustrated urban life and society – the theater, for which their prints served as advertising; the Meiji period brought competition from the new technologies of photography and photoengraving destroying the careers of most.
As Kunichika matured his reputation as a master of design and of drama grew steadily. In guides rating ukiyo-e artists his name appeared in the top ten in 1865, 1867, 1885, when he was in eighth and fourth place, respectively. In 1867, one year before the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate, he received an official commission by the government to contribute ten pictures to the 1867 World Exhibition in Paris, he had a print at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Kunichika portrayed beautiful women, but his finest works are considered to have been bust, half- and three-quarter length, close-up or "large-head" portraits of actors, triptychs that presented "wide-screen" views of plays and popular stories. Although Kunichika's Meiji-era works remained rooted in the traditions of his teachers, he made an effort to incorporate references to modern technology. In 1869 he did a series jointly with Yoshitoshi, a more "modern" artist in the sense that he depicted faces realistically. In addition, Kunichika experimented with "Western" vanishing point perspective.
The press affirmed that Kunichika's success continued into the Meiji
Katsushika Hokusai was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period. Born in Edo, Hokusai is best known as author of the woodblock print series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji which includes the internationally iconic print, The Great Wave off Kanagawa. Hokusai created the Thirty-Six Views both as a response to a domestic travel boom and as part of a personal obsession with Mount Fuji, it was this series The Great Wave print and Fine Wind, Clear Morning, that secured Hokusai’s fame both in Japan and overseas. As historian Richard Lane concludes, "Indeed, if there is one work that made Hokusai's name, both in Japan and abroad, it must be this monumental print-series". While Hokusai's work prior to this series is important, it was not until this series that he gained broad recognition. Hokusai's date of birth is unclear, but is stated as the 23rd day of the 9th month of the 10th year of the Hōreki era to an artisan family, in the Katsushika district of Edo, Japan, his childhood name was Tokitarō.
It is believed. His father never made Hokusai an heir, so it is possible that his mother was a concubine. Hokusai began painting around the age of six learning from his father, whose work on mirrors included a painting of designs around mirrors. Hokusai was known by at least thirty names during his lifetime. While the use of multiple names was a common practice of Japanese artists of the time, his number of pseudonyms exceeds that of any other major Japanese artist. Hokusai's name changes are so frequent, so related to changes in his artistic production and style, that they are used for breaking his life up into periods. At the age of 12, his father sent him to work in a bookshop and lending library, a popular institution in Japanese cities, where reading books made from wood-cut blocks was a popular entertainment of the middle and upper classes. At 14, he worked as an apprentice to a wood-carver, until the age of 18, when he entered the studio of Katsukawa Shunshō. Shunshō was an artist of ukiyo-e, a style of woodblock prints and paintings that Hokusai would master, head of the so-called Katsukawa school.
Ukiyo-e, as practised by artists like Shunshō, focused on images of the courtesans and Kabuki actors who were popular in Japan's cities at the time. After a year, Hokusai's name changed for the first time, it was under this name that he published his first prints, a series of pictures of Kabuki actors published in 1779. During the decade he worked in Shunshō's studio, Hokusai was married to his first wife, about whom little is known except that she died in the early 1790s, he married again in 1797, although this second wife died after a short time. He fathered two sons and three daughters with these two wives, his youngest daughter Ei known as Ōi became an artist. Upon the death of Shunshō in 1793, Hokusai began exploring other styles of art, including European styles he was exposed to through French and Dutch copper engravings he was able to acquire, he was soon expelled from the Katsukawa school by Shunkō, the chief disciple of Shunshō due to studies at the rival Kanō school. This event was, in his own words, inspirational: "What motivated the development of my artistic style was the embarrassment I suffered at Shunkō's hands."Hokusai changed the subjects of his works, moving away from the images of courtesans and actors that were the traditional subjects of ukiyo-e.
Instead, his work became focused on landscapes and images of the daily life of Japanese people from a variety of social levels. This change of subject was a breakthrough in Hokusai's career. Fireworks in the Cool of Evening at Ryogoku Bridge in Edo dates from this period of Hokusai's life; the next period saw Hokusai's association with the Tawaraya School and the adoption of the name "Tawaraya Sōri". He produced many brush paintings, called surimono, illustrations for kyōka ehon during this time. In 1798, Hokusai passed his name on to a pupil and set out as an independent artist, free from ties to a school for the first time, adopting the name Hokusai Tomisa. By 1800, Hokusai was further developing his use of ukiyo-e for purposes other than portraiture, he had adopted the name he would most be known by, Katsushika Hokusai, the former name referring to the part of Edo where he was born and the latter meaning,'north studio'. That year, he published two collections of landscapes, Famous Sights of the Eastern Capital and Eight Views of Edo.
He began to attract students of his own teaching 50 pupils over the course of his life. He became famous over the next decade, both due to his artwork and his talent for self-promotion. During a Tokyo festival in 1804, he created a portrait of the Buddhist priest Daruma said to be 600 feet long using a broom and buckets full of ink. Another story places him in the court of the Shōgun Ienari, invited there to compete with another artist who practised more traditional brush stroke painting. Hokusai's painting, created in front of the Shōgun, consisted of painting a blue curve on paper chasing across it a chicken whose feet had been dipped in red paint, he described the painting to the Shōgun as a landscape showing the Tatsuta River with red maple leaves floating in it, winning the competition.1807 saw Hokusai collaborate with the popular novelist Takizawa Bakin on a series of illustrated books. The two did not get along due to artistic differences, their collaboration ended during work on t
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
The Tale of Genji
The Tale of Genji is a classic work of Japanese literature written by the noblewoman and lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu in the early years of the 11th century. The original manuscript no longer exists, it was made in "concertina" or "orihon" style: several sheets of paper pasted together and folded alternately in one direction the other, around the peak of the Heian period. The work is a unique depiction of the lifestyles of high courtiers during the Heian period, written in archaic language and a poetic and confusing style that make it unreadable to the average Japanese without dedicated study, it was not until the early 20th century that Genji was translated into modern Japanese, by the poet Akiko Yosano. The first English translation was of poor quality and incomplete; the work recounts the life of Hikaru Genji, or "Shining Genji", the son of an ancient Japanese emperor, known to readers as Emperor Kiritsubo, a low-ranking concubine called Kiritsubo Consort. For political reasons, the emperor removes Genji from the line of succession, demoting him to a commoner by giving him the surname Minamoto, he pursues a career as an imperial officer.
The tale concentrates on Genji's romantic life and describes the customs of the aristocratic society of the time. It is sometimes called the world's first novel, the first modern novel, the first psychological novel or the first novel still to be considered a classic. While regarded as a masterpiece, its precise classification and influence in both the Western and Eastern canons has been a matter of debate; the Tale of Genji may have been written chapter by chapter in installments, as Murasaki delivered the tale to aristocratic women. It has many elements found in a modern novel: a central character and a large number of major and minor characters, well-developed characterization of all the major players, a sequence of events covering the central character's lifetime and beyond; the work does not make use of a plot. One remarkable feature of the Genji, of Murasaki's skill, is its internal consistency, despite a dramatis personæ of some four hundred characters. For instance, all characters age in step and the family and feudal relationships maintain general consistency.
One complication for readers and translators of the Genji is that none of the characters in the original text is given an explicit name. The characters are instead referred to by their function or role, an honorific, or their relation to other characters, which changes as the novel progresses; this lack of names stems from Heian-era court manners that would have made it unacceptably familiar and blunt to mention a person's given name. Modern readers and translators have used various nicknames to keep track of the many characters; the Tale of Genji was written in an archaic court language, unreadable a century after it was written. Thus, the Japanese have been reading annotated and illustrated versions of the work since as early as the 12th century, it was not until the early 20th century that Genji was translated into modern Japanese, by the poet Akiko Yosano. The debate over how much of Genji was written by Murasaki Shikibu has gone on for centuries and is unlikely to be settled unless some major archival discovery is made.
It is accepted that the tale was finished in its present form by 1021, when the author of the Sarashina Nikki wrote a diary entry about her joy at acquiring a complete copy of the tale. She writes that there are over 50 chapters and mentions a character introduced at the end of the work, so if other authors besides Murasaki Shikibu did work on the tale, the work was done near to the time of her writing. Murasaki Shikibu's own diary includes a reference to the tale, indeed the application to herself of the name'Murasaki' in an allusion to the main female character; that entry confirms that some if not all of the diary was available in 1008 when internal evidence suggests convincingly that the entry was written. Lady Murasaki is said to have written the character of Genji based on the Minister on the Left at the time she was at court. Other translators, such as Tyler, believe the character Murasaki no Ue, whom Genji marries, is based on Murasaki Shikibu herself. Yosano Akiko, the first author to make a modern Japanese translation of Genji, believed that Murasaki Shikibu had only written chapters 1 to 33, that chapters 35 to 54 were written by her daughter Daini no Sanmi.
Other scholars have doubted the authorship of chapters 42 to 54. According to Royall Tyler's introduction to his English translation of the work, recent computer analysis has turned up "statistically significant" discrepancies of style between chapters 45–54 and the rest, among the early chapters; the work recounts the life of Hikaru Genji, or "Shining Genji", the son of an ancient Japanese emperor, known to readers as Emperor Kiritsubo, a low-ranking, but beloved concubine called Kiritsubo Consort. For political reasons, the emperor removes Genji from the line of succession, demoting him to a commoner by giving him the surname Minamoto, he pursues a career as an imperial officer; the tale concentrates on Genji's romantic life and describes the customs of the aristocratic society of the time. Genji's mother dies when he is three years old, the Emperor cannot forget her; the Emperor Kiritsubo hears of a woman a princess of the preceding emperor, who resembles his deceased concubine, she becomes one of his wives.
Genji loves her first as a stepmother, but as a woman, th
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Utagawa Sadahide known as Gountei Sadahide, was a Japanese artist best known for his prints in the ukiyo-e style as a member of the Utagawa school. His prints covered a wide variety of genres, he was a member of the Tokugawa shogunate's delegation to the International Exposition of 1867 in Paris. Sadahide was born Hashimoto Kenjirō in 1807 in Fusa Province in Shimōsa, he joined Utagawa school master Kunisada's studio in the 1820s and become one of the master's most prominent students. As a member of the school, he took on Utagawa as a surname, used the surname Gountei as an art name, used his birth surname as an art name late in his career. Sadahide's earliest known works are the illustrations for a book Misaogata Tsuge no Ogushi, the first of many books he was to illustrate throughout his career. Most of his early works were bijin-ga portraits of beauties. In the 1830s and 1840s he broadened his output to musha-e warrior prints. In the 1850s Sadahide began to become known for his prints of exotic locales.
In c. 1850 he produced the five-volume Kaigai Shinwa about the First Opium War in China, in 1855 he produced the four-volume Kita Ezo zusetsu, which depicted the Ainu people in Ezo, the name at the time for the northernmost parts of Japan. This interest expanded to maps: he produces prints of maps of Edo, Yokohama and the world—this last quite accurate and modeled after a Dutch example, his largest map was a nine-sheet panorama of Yokohama with a breadth of two metres. In the 1859 to 1862 Sadahide produced a large number of Yokohama-e prints of foreigners and the goods they broguht to Japan after the country ended its self-imposed isolation in 1854. Among these prints was the series Edo meisho kenbutsu ijin. While there is scant evidence of the reception of these works, the number of extant copies suggests they were popular, they appear to depict foreigners in a positive light. Several prints depict pleasant interactions between foreigner and Japanese figures, such as dining together or playing badminton.
This in contrast to the philosophy of sonnō jōi that had gained currency since the Convention of Kanagawa of 1854. Sadahide produced guidebooks to Yokohama, include one of five volumes in 1862–66 called Yokohama kaikō kenbun-shi, he details the eating habits and technology of Yokohama's foreign residents, suggests the Japanese would do well to learn from the West with such statements as: "We are by nature emotional and want a quick profit, but nowadays the Japanese merchants in Yokohama are trying hard to follow the Western model of remaining calm." While these works emphasize contrasts between the Japanese and foreigners, they dispel myths: Sadahide notes that not all foreigners are tall or have long noses, despite the stereotypes. The artist continued to make prints after moving to Nagasaki. There Sadahide made a panorama, 10 metres long and produced books on the history and geography of Western lands, he joined ten other artists as part of a delegation the Tokugawa shogunate sent to the International Exposition of 1867 in Paris, where ten of his Edo views were exhibited.
The following year, it was reported. Sadahide died in 1878 or 1879, shortly after producing a print of Yokohama the size of a tatami mat in 1871 entitled "Yokohama yokuran no shinkei"; the first exhibition dedicated to Sadahide's work was held in 1997, subtitled The ukiyo-e artist who flies in the sky. Prints by Utagawa Sadahide Media related to Utagawa Sadahide at Wikimedia Commons Sadahide prints at ukiyo-e.org
Utagawa Kunisada II
Utagawa Kunisada II was a Japanese ukiyo-e print designer, one of three to take the name "Utagawa Kunisada". He headed the Utagawa school. Little is known of Kunisada II's early life. A pupil of Utagawa Kunisada I, he signed much of his early work "Kunimasa III", his earliest known prints date to 1844. Kunisada I adopted him in 1846, he took the name Kunsada II c. 1850–51, about the time he inherited the house of Kunisada I. He changed his name once more following his master's death, to Toyokuni III. However, since there were three artists called Toyokuni before him, Kunisada II is now known as Toyokuni IV. Kunisada II never achieved the same level of success, his prints include over 40 series of actors, as well portraits of beauties, illustrations of scenes from literature and other subjects. He illustrated nearly 200 books. One of his most celebrated actor series, “The Tale of the Eight Dog Heroes”, dating from 1852, is drawn from Kyokutei Bakin’s epic novel, “The Satomi Clan and the Eight Dogs”, written from 1814-1842 and published in 106 volumes.
Kunisada II's popularity waned in the Meiji period, he appears to have stopped making prints after 1874. He was buried at Banshōin Kōunji, his Buddhist posthumous name is Sankōin Hōkokujutei Shinji. Students of his include Kunisada III. Kunisada II signed prints either 国貞画 or 国貞筆, he did not sign prints “Kunisada II”. His signature may be distinguished from that of Kunisada I in that the sada kanji is straight in the signature of Kunisada I, but angular in the signature of Kunisada II. Works by Kunisada II Utagawa Kunisada III