Kuranda Scenic Railway
The Kuranda Scenic Railway is the name for the railway line that runs from the coastal city of Cairns, Australia, over the Great Dividing Range to the town of Kuranda on the Atherton Tableland. The tourist railway snakes its way up through the Macalister Range on the Cairns-to-Kuranda railway line, no longer used for regular commuter services, but instead operates as a tourist service, operating every day of the year, except Christmas Day, it passes through the suburbs of Stratford and Redlynch before reaching Kuranda. The line is used for other passenger services, such as The Savannahlander; the railway is 37 km in length. It takes about 55 minutes to climb one way including the stop off at the falls; the tropical gardens Kuranda rail station are a well-known attraction in the area. Downhill the line cuts through the Barron Gorge National Park; the tourist train stops with a sweeping view of Barron Falls. A number of smaller waterfalls are passed, including just metres from the train; the station is a short walk into town where there is a zoo, art galleries and ethnic Aboriginal crafts.
In the zoo, there is the option to hold feed kangaroos, a true Australian experience. At the bottom of the mountain, where many people pick up the train, Freshwater railway station has an information center, a gift shop, a cafe, inside of an old train carriage; as the train travels up and down, a detailed and informative commentary of the railway's construction is provided. Construction of the railway began in 1886; the railway was completed as far as Kuranda in 1891. Passenger services began operations on 25 June 1891. Many lives were lost as numerous bridges were built. 15 hand-made tunnels and 37 bridges were built to climb from sea level to 328 metres up the Macalister Range. Three million cubic metres of earth had to be excavated during construction; the first operation of a tourist train from Cairns to Kuranda was in 1936, using four longitudinal seating carriages. In 1995 major repairs had to be carried out after a severe rock fall damaged the track. On 26 March 2010 the train was derailed by a landslide injuring 5 of the 250 passengers on board.
The service was closed until 7 May 2010 while a geotechnical review of the track and risk assessments were completed. There are two gold class carriages where finger food are served on the journey. In the standard carriages there are two booths that face each other which create a section, there are five of these sections in each carriage; the carriages are rustic and have been restored to look like the original ones, the wood work is detailed and everything about the carriage is like being sent back in time. Although the red leather seats can become hot and the breeze in the train is minimal, the carriages are quite impressive. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Kuranda Scenic Railway was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "structure and engineering feat". Construction of Queensland railways Skyrail Rainforest Cableway Kuranda Scenic Railway Cairns museum Cairns-Kuranda Railway Construction Google Earth.kml that shows track of the skyrail as well as railway between Cairns and Kuranda
Herberton is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in Far North Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Herberton had a population of 855 people; the first European exploration of this area, part of the traditional land of the Dyirbal, was undertaken in 1875 by James Venture Mulligan. Mulligan instead found tin; the town of Herberton was established on 19 April 1880 by John Newell to exploit the tin find, mining began on 9 May. By the September of that year, Herberton had a population of 27 women. Herberton Post Office opened on 22 November 1880. In December 1881 a State School was established; the Herberton Public Library opened in 1995 with a major refurbishment in 2016. In the late 19th century the Mulligan Highway was carved through the hills from Herberton and passed through what is now Main Street, before continuing down to Port Douglas; this road was used by the coaches of Co to access Western Queensland. At its apogee, Herberton was the richest tin mining field in Australia, was home to 17 pubs, 2 local newspapers and a brewery.
Tin mining ceased in Herberton in 1985. At the 2006 census, Herberton had a population of 974. In the 2011 census, Herberton had a population of 934 people. Herberton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 38 Broadway Street: Holy Trinity Anglican Church Grace Street: Jack & Newell General Store 61 Grace Street: Herberton School of Arts off Jacks Road: Great Northern Mine 2-4 Lillian Street: Herberton Uniting Church Myers Street: Herberton War Memorial Herberton is situated 918 m high on the Great Dividing Range south-west of Atherton. Vegetation ranges from tropical rainforest to the east, wet schlerophyl forests to the north and east and open schleorphyl forests and woodlands to the north and west. Herberton is notably drier than the area around Atherton with average rainfall for Herberton of 1,155 mm. Herberton is the most northerly location in Australia to have recorded a temperature at or below −5 °C, the only location in Tropical North Queensland to have done so; the average minimum temperature ranges from 10 °C in winter to 18 °C in summer, while maximums range from 21 to 29 °C.
Several crops are grown around Herberton, it is the location of Queensland's only tropical vineyard. Herberton is a mini salad bowl with crops including avocados, tomatoes and pumpkins. Poultry and beef industries are present. Herberton's public hospital and the private school, Mt Saint Bernard residential college, are other major employers in the town; the Herberton Mining Museum and Visitor Information Centre opened in 2005, houses mining and social history of the Herberton Mining field, archives for the local area and maintains a genealogy project recording the families of the district and their histories. A Heritage Walk for tourists that takes in some of the old buildings and historical features of the town is a popular attraction. Historic Village Herberton is a 16-acre representation of a mining town filled with streets of buildings of the time, each one a museum in its own right with exhibits such as vintage machinery and Australian antiques, it has more than 50 restored period buildings.
The Herberton Spy & Camera Museum houses antique spy cameras, a photographic gallery and photographic memorabilia with guided tours through the museum and a working photographer and photographic studio. Most a Railway Museum has been established by volunteers in the former Herberton Railway Station building; this is operated by volunteers and only open part-time. The Tepon Equestrian Grounds just out of Herberton have been upgraded with a large undercover pavilion for equestrian and other sporting events such as cycling and mountain biking. Local markets are held on the 3rd Sunday of every month at the Wondecla Oval. There are several caravan parks, motels and B&Bs located in the town; the Tablelands Regional Council operates a Herberton Public Library and Customer Service Centre at 61 Grace Street. The Herberton branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall at 14 William Street. Herberton State School opened on 12 December 1881. In 1912 the school had a secondary top added to the school.
Notable people associated with Herberton include: Bunny Adair, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Cook who attended Herberton State School. Alice Bonar. Founder of the Australian Red Cross in Herberton, now the oldest continuously operating branch in Australia. In 1914 reconvened the branch as a member of the Australian Red Cross. Eldest son David Welbourn Bonar a tunneller at Hill 60 and daughter May was a nurse in World War 1. Nancy Francis and poet known as'Black Bonnet'. Wrote extensively on life in the Daintree area including recording indigenous culture. Wrote poetry published in North queensland The Bulletin. James Douglas Henry Mining Engineer, served in 4th Queensland Imperial Bushmen contingent. Member of the Mining Corps Commanding Officer of 1st Australian Tunnellers involved in Hill 60. Retired to Tepon near Herberton and A. R. P. Warden for Wondecla area in World War 2. John Ledlie, one of the founders of North Queensland firm Armstrong and Stillman. Brought the first electric street lights outside his Herberton store.
Shire Chairman of Herberton Shire Council, member of Cairns Harbour Board and Cairns Regional Electricity Board. Teamed with Robert Ringrose to establish Herberton State High School in 1912. John Newell, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Woothakata, Chairman of Herberton Shire Council, Mayor of Herberton Municipality. One of the discoverers of payable tin and the establishment of Herberton Gold and Mineral Field. Founding member of the Tinaroo Division Board
Eric Georg Mjöberg was a Swedish zoologist and ethnographer who led the first Swedish scientific expeditions to Australia in the early 1900s, worked in Indonesia. The plant Vaccinium mjoebergii J. J. Sm. was named after him, as were Mjoberg's toadlet, the grasshopper Goniaea mjoebergi, the crab Uca mjoebergi, Mjöberg's forest dragon, the Atherton Tableland skink, Mjöberg's bush frog, Mjöberg's dwarf litter frog. Mjöberg was born in Halland County, Sweden, he gained a licentiate at the Stockholm University in 1908, his doctorate at Lund University in 1912. Mjöberg led expeditions to North West Australia in 1910/11, to Queensland in 1912/13, he worked for the Deli Experimental Station at Medan in Sumatra from 1919 to 1922, was curator of the Sarawak State Museum in Borneo from 1922 until 1924. He worked in various museums in Sweden, he was employed by the State Entomological Institution from 1903 to 1906 and at the National Museum at different times between 1903 and 1910 during which time he was a master at several higher schools in Stockholm from 1907 until 1909, travelled in Sweden for study purposes through 1902 to 1909 before he led expeditions to Australia.
A lecture tour in the USA lasted from 1916 to 1917 after which he was Swedish consul in Sumatra in 1920 among other postings and a study period in the US from 1921 to 1925. In the early 1900s Mjöberg set off to the Kimberley region of Western Australia in an attempt to prove his Darwinian human evolution theory. What he did not know was that his expedition would have dire repercussions for years to follow for indigenous Australians, for himself. In Western Australia, Mjöberg became obsessed with the Aboriginal people, what started off as collecting native flora and fauna for research, soon led to the desecration of sacred burial grounds and the smuggling of human remains back to Sweden. Historians have described Mjöberg as aggressive and devious, a leader who made enemies with local Aboriginal people and his own scientific team. After 1911, he made a second expedition to Australia's east coast: Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, removing one set of remains from each; the 1915 publication of his diaries about the 1910 expedition exposed his unethical and illegal collection of material from Australia.
Most of the material kept in Sweden's Museum of Ethnography was brought there between 1910 and 1911. Swedish anthropologist Claes Hallgren of Dalarna University wrote the book Two Travellers – Two Pictures of Australia, examining Mjoberg's methods, prompting an ethical debate that led the Swedish Government to contact the Australian authorities. Ninety years after their removal, his great-niece Lotte Mjöberg, a journalist in Stockholm, initiated the return of skeletons to the Aboriginal people in September 2004. Aboriginal elders travelled to Stockholm to receive the remains and start the process of spiritual healing. Spokesman for the Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre, Neil Carter said: "The belief is that once a burial ground has been disturbed, the spirits and the country will not rest until the remains have been brought back." Aborigines believe that the spirit of the departed cannot go on into the afterlife if the bones are disturbed. Eighteen boxes containing bones, believed to include the skeletons of two small children, were sent to the National Museum of Australia for identification before being interred at their traditional lands.
Taking them without permission, Mjöberg passed them off as kangaroo bones to get them out of the country. His attitude was representative of the Social Darwinism of the times according to Dr Hallgren, who writes that the popular "Gothic Horror" presentation, demonising Aborigines was the context and "justification" for Mjöberg's hunting for skeletons, it was designed to impress his audience of his work as an adventurer. Mjöberg died in poverty in Stockholm after a long, undiagnosed illness during which he had constant nightmares reflecting his experiences in the Kimberleys, including a sense of being pursued by Aboriginal people and contact with the Wondjina – creation spirits of the Dreamtime. During this time he was forced to sell part of his collection. Despite his ill health he managed to write an account of this experience. In the Australian documentary Dark Science, an elder explains that the spirits give intruders a hard time, making them sick, but that Aboriginal people know ways to forestall these effects, that outsiders do not.
As well as numerous contributions to the scientific literature, he wrote: Bland vilda djur och folk i Australien, his travel account, Stockholm, 1915. Translated as Among Wild Animals and People in Australia by Margareta Luotsinen and Kim Akerman, Hesperland Press, 2012 ISBN 978-0-85905-507-9 Mjöberg, E. G.. Forest Life and Adventures in the Malay Archipelago. Allen & Unwin: London. Jeanette Greenfield, The Return of Cultural Treasures, Cambridge Press, London, 2007, p. 310
Barron Gorge National Park
Barron Gorge National Park is a protected area in the Cairns Region, Australia. It is predominantly within the locality of Barron Gorge; the park is 2 kilometres from Kuranda. Barron Gorge is part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Skyrail Rainforest Cableway is a 7.5 kilometre scenic cableway running above the Barron Gorge National Park in the Wet Tropics of Queensland's World Heritage Area north of Cairns which has won more than 25 awards. The Kuranda Scenic Railway line passes through the park with a station at Barron Falls. Two trains returns to Cairns daily; the original weir, constructed in 1934 at the top of the falls, is visible from the station lookout and Skyrail's Barron Falls Station lookouts. Barron Gorge formed where the Barron River passes over the eastern escarpment of the Atherton Tablelands. Barron Falls cascade 265 m to the gorge below. Two waterfalls—Stoney Creek Falls and Surprise Creek Falls exist on tributaries of the Barron River within the park. Slopes around the gorge are steep with some at a 45° angle.
This made construction of the railway hazardous. 23 lives were lost during its construction. The landscape of what is now Barron Gorge National Park was formed under the sea 400 million years ago when Australia was part of the super-continent, Gondwana. In 1885 the explorer Archibald Meston described the Barron Falls in flood where the raging waters "rush together like wild horses as they enter the straight in the dread finish of their last race... the currents of air created by the cataract waved the branches of the trees hundreds of feet overhead... the rock shook like a mighty steamer tumbling with the vibrations of the screw." In 1935, the waters of the Barron River were harnessed in the Barron Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station to generate Queensland's first hydroelectric power. Two hundred metres from the base of the Barron Falls an underground power station was carved into the cliff face. Water was delivered through pipes to drive two 1200 kW turbo-alternators; the substation and staff houses were built around the area now forming the Skyrail station.
Ownership of the park returned to its traditional owners on 17 December 2004. Visitors to the park have not faced any changes under the new owners but Aboriginals were able to hold traditional religious ceremonies. Bird's-nest fern and elkhorn ferns grow amongst Candlenut, Native olive and False Red Sandalwood trees at the bottom of the gorge; the park forms part of the Wooroonooran Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because it supports populations of a range of bird species endemic to Queensland's Wet Tropics. Noisy pittas and the orange-footed scrubfowl are two species of bird that may be seen; the southern cassowary is spotted in the southern section of the park. Nocturnal animals are common; these include a variety of possums and flying foxes as well as Lumholtz's tree-kangaroo and the northern quoll. Protected areas of Queensland Barron Gorge National Park Queensland Holidays Barron George National Park protectedplanet.net
Wet Tropics of Queensland
The Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Site consists of 8,940 km² of Australian wet tropical forests growing along the north-east Queensland portion of the Great Dividing Range. The Wet Tropics of Queensland meets all four of the criteria for natural heritage for selection as a World Heritage Site. World Heritage status was declared in 1988, on 21 May 2007 the Wet Tropics were added to the Australian National Heritage List; the tropical forests have the highest concentration of primitive flowering plant families in the world. Only Madagascar and New Caledonia, due to their historical isolation, have humid, tropical regions with a comparable level of endemism; the Wet Tropics rainforests are recognised internationally for their ancient ancestry and many unique plants and animals. Many plant and animal species in the Wet Tropics are found nowhere else in the world; the Wet Tropics has the oldest continuously surviving tropical rainforests on earth On 9 November 2012, the Australian Government acknowledged the Indigenous heritage of the area as being nationally significant.
The Aboriginal Rainforest People of the Wet Tropics of Queensland have lived continuously in the rainforest environment for at least 5000 years, this is the only place in Australia where Aboriginal people have permanently inhabited a tropical rainforest environment. The Wet Tropics of Queensland stretches in part from Townsville to Cooktown, running in close parallel to the Great Barrier Reef; the terrain is rugged. The Great Dividing Range and a number of small coastal ranges, tablelands, foothills and an escarpment dominate the landscape; the heritage site contains the northern section of the Queensland tropical rain forests including the Daintree Rainforest. 16 different structural types of rainforest have been identified. The World Heritage area includes Wallaman Falls. In total it spans 13 major river systems including the Annan, Daintree, Mulgrave, Johnstone, Herbert, Mitchell and Palmer River. Copperlode Falls Dam, Koombooloomba Dam and Paluma Dam are found within the World Heritage Area.
15% of the area is protected as national park. Among the national parks included within the Wet Tropics are: Barron Gorge National Park Black Mountain National Park Cedar Bay National Park Daintree National Park Edmund Kennedy National Park Girringun National Park Kirrama National Park Kuranda National Park Macalister Range National Park Wooroonooran National Parkand over 700 protected areas including owned land; the Wet Tropics Management Authority was established in 1983. The agency employed 20 staff in 2012 as a unit within the Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, it is headed by a board of directors responsible to the Wet Tropics Ministerial Council which contains both Queensland and Federal Government representatives. The site contains many unique features such as over 390 rare plant species, which includes 74 species that are threatened. There are at least 85 species that are endemic to the area, 13 different types of rainforest and 29 species of mangrove, more than anywhere else in the country.
Of the 19 families of primitive flowering plants worldwide, 12 are found in the Wet Tropics including two families found nowhere else. This includes at least 50 individual species which are endemic to the area.90 species of orchids have been noted. The large rare trees Stockwellia or Vic Stockwell's Puzzle Stockwellia quadrifida grow only in restricted areas of "well developed upland rain forest" in the Wet Tropics, they continue living today as descendants of, similar to, the ancient Gondwanan fossil species considered one of the Eucalypts' fossil ancestors, which diversified into so many different species forms of all the Eucalypt plants today. 65% of Australia's fern species are protected here, including all seven of the ancient fern species. 370 species of bird have been recorded in the area. 11 species of those are found nowhere else. The endangered southern cassowary and rare spotted-tailed quoll are some of the many threatened species, while the musky rat-kangaroo is one of 50 animal species that are unique to this area.
The musky rat-kangaroo is significant because it represents an early stage in the evolution of kangaroos. Other rare animals include brush-tailed bettong. 107 mammal species have been identified. Australia's rarest mammal, the tube nosed insectivorous murina florious bat, is found here. One quarter of Australia's rodent species are found within the Wet Tropics.113 species of reptiles including 24 endemic species are found in the area and there are 51 amphibian species, of which 22 are endemic. One reason for the high level of endemism is that the geomorphology is diverse, resulting in habitat islands where distinct subspecies have evolved; some species are endemic to groups of mountains. Rainfall in the area varies with elevation and orientation of the coastline being the major influences. Rainfall averages from 1,200 millimeters to over 8,000 mm annually; the highest mountains along the escarpment between Cairns and Tully receive the highest rainfall owing to orographic factors. Mount Bellenden Ker is the wettest recording station in the area with other high peaks and eastern slopes favouring high rainfall.
Most of the rainfall occurs from November to April. Tropical cyclones may impact the area; the expansion of the sugarcane industry in lowland plains poses a significant threat to some endangered ecosystems. Some are fragmented and their natural vegetation is degraded. Invasive pes
Kuranda National Park
Kuranda National Park is a national park in Far North Queensland, Australia. Like many national parks in the area it belongs to the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area; the park protects an important wildlife corridor in which rainforest and open eucalypt forest predominate. Walking, mountain biking and four-wheel driving are popular recreational activities. Kuranda National Park provides habitat for the endangered southern cassowary, the rare Lumholtz's tree-kangaroo and the Victoria's riflebird; the fungal disease Myrtle rust has been found in the park. The park covers 27,100 hectares of mountainous tropical forest north west of Cairns. To its north is Mowbray National Park, north east Macalister Range National Park, in the east is Smithfield Conservation Park, south is Barron Gorge National Park and in the west is Kuranda West Forest Reserve. Kuranda National Park occupies parts of Mount Molloy, Macalister Range and Kuranda; this includes the Mareeba Shire local government areas. It covers some of the most easterly parts of the Mitchell River water catchment, the Barron River catchment and several coastal creeks to the north of Cairns.
Access to the park is provided by Black Mountain Road. The road closes after periods of heavy rain. There is one long distance walking track in the park; the Twin Bridges track is 18 km in one way. Protected areas of Queensland Official website
Shire of Mareeba
The Shire of Mareeba is a local government area at the base of Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, inland from Cairns. The shire, administered from the town of Mareeba, covered an area of 53,610.8 square kilometres, existed as a local government entity from 1879 until 2008, when it amalgamated with several councils in the Atherton Tableland area to become the Tablelands Region. On 20 March 2013, Mareeba residents voted in favour of a proposal to reverse the amalgamation and to re-establish Mareeba Shire; the new Mareeba Shire was re-established on 1 January 2014. The Woothakata Division, based in the mining town of Thornborough on the Hodgkinson goldfield, was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 with a population of 1836. Woothakata is a Wakaman and Kuku Djungan Aboriginal word which describes the way they travelled to Ngarrabullgan/Mount Mulligan, an important meeting place; the name Woothakata lives on as the name of a property at Chillagoe.
On 3 September 1881, the Tinaroo Division was created under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 out of parts of the Cairns and Woothakata Divisions. On 18 May 1889, the tin-mining area at Stannary Hills and Irvinebank and its hinterland in and around the Walsh River were severed from Woothakata Division to create Walsh Division. On 20 December 1890, part of the Tinaroo Division was excised to create the new Barron Division, closer to Cairns. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, the Divisions of Woothakata and Barron became Shires of Woothaka and Barron on 31 March 1903. On 16 December 1908, a small part of Shire of Woothakata was transferred to the Shire of Walsh, split with one part being proclaimed the new Shire of Chillagoe, based at Chillagoe. In 1919, Woothakata's seat of administration moved to Mareeba. Thornborough had declined in importance, having a population of 58 in 1921 and 29 in 1933; the same year, on 20 December, the Shire of Barron was abolished, with its area being split between the Shire of Mulgrave and Shire of Woothakata.
On 25 June 1932, the Shires of Walsh and Chillagoe merged into the Shire of Woothakata, organised into six divisions, of which the former Shires of Chillagoe and Walsh formed the greater part of the sixth division. Division 3 had 2 representatives and all the other divisions had only one representative. On 20 December 1947, the Shire of Woothakata was renamed the Shire of Mareeba. A new Mareeba Shire Hall was built in Mareeba in 1961. On 22 March 1995, parts of the Shires of Mareeba and Douglas and the whole of the abolished Shire of Mulgrave were added to the City of Cairns. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Mareeba merged with the Shires of Atherton and Herberton to form the Tablelands Region. In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Mareeba from the Tablelands Region. On 9 March 2013, the citizens of the former Mareeba shire voted in a referendum to de-amalgamate; the shire was re-established on 1 January 2014.
The Shire of Mareeba includes the following settlements: Note: Prior to 1996, the Shire of Mareeba included the localities of Barron Gorge, Lamb Range and Redlynch to the west of Cairns. These were incorporated into the City of Cairns. Mareeba Shire Council operate public libraries at Chillagoe, Dimbulah and Mareeba. In early years the elected councillors chose one among them to the chairman on an annual basis; the following are the chairmen of the Woothakata Division and Shire of Woothakata: 1890—1907: George Jonathan Evenden 1920: James HarrisFrom 1921, chairmen of shires were elected by the voters for a period of 3 years. August 1921—: Ernest Albert Atherton 1927, 1929, 1931: George Henry O'DonnellThe following are the chairmen in the first incarnation of Shire of Mareeba: 1933—1935, —December 1939: William Gardner December 1939—: J. M. Brown 1950: J. M. Brown: 1950 1973—1976: Martin Tenni, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Barron RiverThe following are the mayors in the current incarnation of Shire of Mareeba: Tom Gilmore: 2014— "Woothakata Shire".
Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland. "Mareeba Shire". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland