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Kuril Islands dispute

The Kuril Islands dispute known in Japan as the Northern Territories dispute, is a disagreement between Japan and Russia and some individuals of the Ainu people over sovereignty of the four southernmost Kuril Islands. The Kuril Islands is a chain of islands that stretch between the Japanese island of Hokkaido at the southern end and the Russian Kamchatka Peninsula at the northern end; the islands separate the Sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific Ocean. The four disputed islands, like other islands in the Kuril chain that are not in dispute, were annexed by the Soviet Union following the Kuril Islands landing operation at the end of World War II; the disputed islands are under Russian administration as the South Kuril District of the Sakhalin Oblast. They are claimed by Japan, which refers to them as its Northern Territories or Southern Chishima, considers them part of the Nemuro Subprefecture of Hokkaido Prefecture; the islands in dispute are: Iturup —Etorofu Island Kunashir —Kunashiri Island Shikotan —Shikotan Island Habomai Islands —Habomai Islands The San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed between the Allies and Japan in 1951, states that Japan must give up "all right and claim to the Kuril Islands", but it does not recognize the Soviet Union's sovereignty over them.

Japan claims that at least some of the disputed islands are not a part of the Kuril Islands, thus are not covered by the treaty. Russia maintains that the Soviet Union's sovereignty over the islands was recognized in post-war agreements. Japan and the Soviet Union ended their formal state of war with the Soviet–Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956, but did not resolve the territorial dispute. During talks leading to the joint declaration, the Soviet Union offered Japan the two smaller islands of Shikotan and the Habomai Islands in exchange for Japan renouncing all claims to the two bigger islands of Iturup and Kunashir, but Japan refused the offer after pressure from the US; the first Russo-Japanese agreement to deal with the status of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands was the 1855 Treaty of Shimoda, which first established official relations between Russia and Japan. Article 2 of the Treaty of Shimoda, which provided for an agreement on borders, states "Henceforth the borders between Russia and Japan will pass between the islands Iturup and Urup.

The whole island of Iturup belongs to Japan and the whole island Urup and the other Kuril Islands to the north constitute possessions of Russia". The islands of Kunashiri and the Habomai Islands, that all lie to the south of Iturup, are not explicitly mentioned in the treaty and were understood at the time to be a non-disputed part of Japan; the treaty specified that the island of Sakhalin/Karafuto would remain un-partitioned between Russia and Japan, as in the past. In the 1875 Treaty of Saint Petersburg Russia and Japan agreed that Japan would give up all rights to Sakhalin in exchange for Russia giving up all rights to the Kuril Islands in favor of Japan. However, a controversy remains as to what constitutes the Kuril islands, due to translation discrepancies of the French official text of that treaty; the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 was a military disaster for Russia. The 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth, concluded at the end of this war, gave the southern half of Sakhalin Island to Japan. Although Japan occupied parts of Russia's Far East during the Russian Civil War following the October Revolution, Japan did not formally annex any of these territories and they were vacated by Japan by the mid-1920s.

There was no hostile activity between the USSR and the Empire of Japan after the Battles of Khalkhin Gol ended the Japanese–Soviet Border War in 1939 and before the USSR declared war on Japan on August 8, 1945. The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact was signed in Moscow on April 13, 1941 and became effective on April 25, but was renounced by the Soviet Union on 5 April 1945, as in accordance with the Pact itself, it remains relevant for 5 years and automatically renews for the next 5 years if any of the countries does not renounce the Pact a year before the date of its expiry. So, the USSR renounced the Pact. On August 14, 1945, Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration and on the following day announced unconditional capitulation; the Soviet operation to occupy the Kuril Islands took place between August 18 and September 3. Japanese inhabitants were repatriated two years later; the United States had helped the preparation of the Soviet invasion through Project Hula, transferring naval vessels to the Soviet Union.

The modern Kuril Islands dispute arose in the aftermath of World War II and results from the ambiguities in and disagreements about the meaning of the Yalta agreement, the Potsdam Declaration and the Treaty of San Francisco. The Yalta Agreement, signed by the US, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, stated: The leaders of the three great powers – the Soviet Union, the United States of America and Great Britain – have agreed that in two or three months after Germany has surrendered and the war in Europe is terminated, the Soviet Union shall enter into war against Japan on the side of the Allies on condition that:... 2. The former rights of Russia violated by the treacherous attack of Japan in 1904 shall be restored, viz.: The southern part of Sakhalin as well as the islands adjacent to it shall be returned to the Soviet Union. 3. The Kurile Islands shall be handed over to the Soviet Union. Japan and the US claimed that the Yalta agreement did not


Biostratinomy is the study of the processes that take place after an organism dies but before its final burial. It is considered to be a subsection of the science of taphonomy, along with necrology and diagenesis; these processes are destructive, include physical and biological effects: Physical effects non-exhaustively include transport and exhumation. Chemical effects include early changes in oxidation. Biological effects include decay, bioturbation and boring. For the vast majority of organisms, biostratinomic destruction is total. However, if at least a few remnants of an organism make it to final burial, a fossil may be formed unless destruction is completed by diagenesis; as the processes of biostratinomy are dominated by sedimentological factors, analysis of the biostratinomy of a fossil can reveal important features about the physical environment it once lived in. The boundaries between the three disciplines within taphonomy are arbitrary. In particular, the role of microbes in sealing and preserving organisms, for example in a process called autolithification, is now recognised to be a important and early event in the preservation of many exceptional fossils taking place before burial.

Such mineralogical changes might be considered to be biostratinomic as diagenetic. A school of investigation called Aktuopaläontologie, subsisting in Germany, attempts to investigate biostratinomic effects by experimentation and observation on extant organisms. William Schäfer's book "Ecology and palaeoecology of marine environments" is a classic product of this sort of investigation. More D. E. G. Briggs and colleagues have made detailed studies of decay with the prime aim of understanding the profound halt to these processes, required by exceptional preservation in lagerstätten. Schäfer, W. 1972. Ecology and palaeoecology of marine environments. C. Y. Craig, Ed; the University of Chicago Press, 568 pp

B. Morris Young

Brigham Morris Young was one of the founders of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association, the predecessor to the Young Men program of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Young was one of his wives, Margaret Pierce. In 1875, Morris Young served a mission for the LDS Church in the Hawaiian Islands. Shortly after returning from this mission he was asked by his father to organize the YMMIA along with Junius F. Wells and Milton H. Hardy. In 1883 Young served another mission in the Hawaiian Islands, he married a daughter of Lorenzo Snow. Their son Lorenzo Snow Young was a prominent architect in Utah. In 1885 Young, his wife and their children returned from serving his second mission in the Hawaiian Islands. Shortly after returning to Utah, Young began publicly performing as a cross-dressing singer under the pseudonym Madam Pattirini. Young performed as central Utah venues from 1885 to the 1900s, he could produce a convincing falsetto, many in the audience did not realize that Pattirini was Young.

Descendants of Brigham Young Andrew Jenson. LDS Biographical Encyclopedia. Vol. 4, p. 251. Galen Snow Young. Brief History of Brigham Morris Young. P. 31. Dean C. Jessee. Letters from Brigham Young to His Sons. P. 243. B. Morris Young at Find a Grave Brief history of Brigham Morris Young, MSS SC 1999 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University

Jennings Ford Automobile Dealership

The Jennings Ford Automobile Dealership is a historic automobile dealership located at 431 South 4th Street in Springfield, Illinois. Ford dealer Frank Jennings built the dealership in 1919; the automobile became widespread in Springfield in the 1910s, Jennings Ford was one of several dealerships to open on South 4th Street, the city's automobile row. The three-story building integrated every major function of an auto dealership at the time. While Jennings Ford closed between 1927 and 1933, the building remained a car dealership through the 1950s, it is one of the few remaining dealership buildings in downtown Springfield and is the best-preserved of the survivors. Today, the building houses an operations center for Illinois National Bank; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 31, 2006

Craven Museum & Gallery

Craven Museum & Gallery is a museum located in the town of Skipton, North Yorkshire, England in the Skipton Town Hall and has a collection of local artefacts which depict life in Craven from the prehistoric times to the modern day. It is closed for refurbishment; the museum was found on 6 October 1928 by a group of enthusiasts who were members of local groups such as the Craven Naturalists and Scientific Association, Skipton Mechanics' Institute, Friends Adult School and the Workers' Educational Association, to house a number of existing collections including the finds from the Elbolton Cave excavations, the Craven Herbarium and Richard Tiddeman's reef knoll collection. It was opened by Sir Henry Alexander Miers, president of the museums association; the museum was located in a room in Skipton library and had its own committee and trustees, with some members being local figureheads such as Mr J Dufty, a master at the local Grammar school. In 1934 in order to ensure the survival of the museum and allow the museum to grow, responsibility of museum was given to Skipton Urban District Council.

The museum continued to gather more objects for its collection and increase in size and this was the status quo for over 30 years. On 21 April 1969 the Friends of the Craven Museum was established with Dr. Arthur Raistrick as its chair. Within a matter of months its membership had reached a hundred members; the friends were on the constant lookout for anything that could be added to the museum's collection. Volunteers played a vital part in the museum when it came to transporting heavier objects to the museum such as a Derbyshire ore crusher, moved over the moors to a van which took it to the museum where it was restored and unveiled to the public in 1970. Volunteers did other tasks such as labelling exhibits, carrying out research on the collection and cleaning displays; the friends funded excavations the most notable being a tilery kiln in nearby Rylstone. On 11 December 1973 the museum was moved across the road to its current location in Skipton Town Hall. In 2005 an exhibitions gallery was opened.

In 2015 the museum received initial support for a £2.1 million redevelopment project called “Stories and Treasures of street and dale” which aims to update the museum's facilities. The museum closed in September 2018 for refurbishment; the museum has a variety of objects from Prehistoric Craven to the modern day. Objects come from all over the world ranging from Italy to Egypt. Objects range from costumes, agricultural tools, naturalists collections and an oral history collection; the museum's biology collection consists of the collection of naturalists and enthusiast collectors. Collections include the Colonel Tottie 19th century bird egg collection, the entomology collection, the botany collection and the zoology collection; the Geology collection is made up of a variety of rocks and fossils, most of which were collected by local collector Welbury Wilkinson Holgate and Dr Arthur Raistrick. Many of the rocks and minerals are from the Craven area, like limestone and of fossils in the collection range from ammonites and bivalves to the vertebrae of an Ichthyosaurus.

The archaeology finds range from the Paleolithic to post medieval many of which have been found on local excavations. Collections include cave finds from nearby Elbolton and Victoria caves, a lithics collection, finds from Doggerbank, Roman finds from nearby Kirk Sink Villa and from the Sunderland collection, an Elizabethan coin hoard; the museum has a collection of artefacts associated with social history in Craven. The artefacts cover homelife with a display of domestic appliances, childhood with a collection of toys, working life with exhibits on agriculture and lead mining and notable people from Craven such as the Calendar girls, co-founder of Marks and Spencer, Thomas Spencer and Thomas Cresap, who became a pioneer in America. Over the last four decades, the museum has interviewed local people to find out more about the history of the Craven area. There are seventy tapes overall covering topics such as life during the World Wars, working on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal and farming. Museum has an eclectic collection of oil and watercolour paintings, prints and sculptures, many made by local artists such as Reginald Arthur Smith, Kenneth Holmes and William Shuttleworth.

The majority of the paintings feature local scenery or people such as Lady Anne Clifford of Skipton Castle. A large portion of the art collection is made up of the famous Roebuck collection belonging to art collector Clement Roebuck. There is a collection of costumes and accessories in the museum, many of which are on permanent display; these include dresses from the 18th century up to the contemporary pieces like 1940's evening dresses and uniforms from the Skipton Brass Band and the Home Guard and accessories include spectacles and Ladies handbags. An incomplete copy of Shakespeare's First Folio owned by a local businessman and donated by his daughter in the 1930s and was misidentified as a second folio until when it was identified by Dr. Anthony James West; the folio is one of only four on display in the world. An Iron Age Celtic sword, found on nearby Flasby moor and was owned by Captain Preston of Flasby hall and was donated to the museum; the sword was made around the end of the Iron Age, the sword is made of iron and the scabbard is made of copper and is lined with wood with typical Celtic decorations on it.

Because of how well it was preserved, it is believed that the sword was thrown into a pit as a ritual offering. A Frankish gold coin dating from made between 580AD and 630AD and was found in the 1970s in the Holy Trinity Church in Skipton during construction work. A sm

Pine Ridge, Oklahoma

Pine Ridge is an unincorporated community in Hale Township, Caddo County, United States. It is located 6 miles south of Fort Cobb at the junction of County Road 1380 and County Street 2550. During the community's heyday in the 1940s there was a hub of activity at the main junction of the Ozark Trail and the Fort Cobb road, with a grocery store and two churches, Hopewell Missionary Baptist Church and Pine Ridge Church of Christ. Today only the ruins of the Baptist Church building, the Pleasant Valley Cemetery, the Pine Ridge electrical substation remain. According to locals, the community got its name from the community of Pine Ridge, the setting of the radio show Lum and Abner which aired from 1934 to 1952. Legend says that the owner of the grocery store named it "Pine Ridge" after the radio show and over time the name was adopted as the name of the whole community. Pine Ridge is located at the junction of the blacktop road going directly south from Fort Cobb and the old Ozark Trail; the Pine Ridge Community consists of wheat and hay farming and cattle ranching.

There is a winery east of Pine Ridge on the Ozark Trail. Public school students in Pine Ridge attended school at Broxton until the school district was consolidated with Fort Cobb in the 1990s. Telephone numbers for the Pine Ridge area are split between the Fort Apache prefixes. Electric service is provided by CK Energy Electric Cooperative. Pine Ridge is in State House District 56 and in State Senate District 26