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Territorial dispute

A territorial dispute or boundary dispute is a disagreement over the possession or control of land between two or more territorial entities. Territorial disputes are related to the possession of natural resources such as rivers, fertile farmland, mineral or oil resources although the disputes can be driven by culture and ethnic nationalism. Territorial disputes result from vague and unclear language in a treaty that set up the original boundary. Territorial disputes are a major cause of wars and terrorism as states try to assert their sovereignty over a territory through invasion, non-state entities try to influence the actions of politicians through terrorism. International law does not support the use of force by one state to annex the territory of another state; the UN Charter says: "All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations."

In some cases, where the boundary is not demarcated, such as the Taiwan Strait, Kashmir, involved parties define a line of control that serves as the "de facto" international border. The term border dispute applies to cases where a limited territory is disputed by two or more states, each contending state would publish its own maps to include the same region which would invariably lie along or adjacent to the recognised borders of the competing states, such as the Abyei region, contested between Sudan and South Sudan. With border conflicts, the existence of the rival state is not being challenged, but each state will recognise the shape of the rival state as not containing the claimed territory - this in spite of who governs the land and how it is recognised in the international community. An occupied territory in general is a region distinct from the recognized territory of the sovereign states but which the occupying state controls with military forces. Sometimes, a long-term occupation is maintained as a means to act upon a territorial claim, but occupation may be strategic or a means of coercion.

The term irredentism applies not only to border disputes but wider territorial claims:In cases where a nation emerges when declaring independence from a larger state, its ultimate recognition may not always grant the new state control over the territory it proposed as part of the declaration. Those lands remain unredeemed territory in the eyes of nationalist movements from the state, but do not otherwise cause a problem between the governments on each side of the border. In cases where territory was achieved through historical conquests such as an Empire, traditionalists may view former colonies as unredeemed territory. Territorial disputes have significant meaning in the international society, both because it is related to the fundamental right of states and because it is important for international peace. International law has significant relations with territorial disputes because territorial disputes tackles the basis of international law. International law is based on the'persons' of international law, which requires a'defined territory' as mentioned in the Montevideo convention of 1933.

Article 1 of Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States declares that "a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: a permanent population. Sumner's article, "In international law and relations, ownership of territory is significant because sovereignty over land defines what constitutes a state." Therefore, the breach of a country's borders or territorial disputes pose a threat to a state's sovereignty and the right as a person of international law. In addition, territorial disputes are sometimes brought upon the International Court of Justice, as was the case in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Territorial disputes cannot be separated from international law, because its basis is on the law of state borders, because its potential settlement relies on the international law and court. List of territorial disputes List of border conflicts Fait accompli Frozen conflict Status quo ante bellum Thalweg Territorial disputes in the South China Sea Territorial disputes in the Persian Gulf Territorial disputes of Nicaragua Lectures by Malcolm Shaw entitled The International Legal Principles Relating to Territorial Disputes: The Acquisition of Title to Territory and Settling Territorial Disputes in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law WorldStatesman – click on any state for the listing of Territorial Disputes it is party to Territorial disputes in CIA World Factbook USState Department/ FloridaStateUniversity International Border Studies List of top 10 Territorial disputes

2022 UEFA European Under-17 Championship

The 2022 UEFA European Under-17 Championship will be the 21st edition of the UEFA European Under-17 Championship, the annual international youth football championship organised by UEFA for the men's under-17 national teams of Europe. Israel will host the tournament. A total of 16 teams will play in the tournament, with players born on or after 1 January 2005 eligible to participate; the timeline of host selection was as follows: 11 January 2019: bidding procedure launched 28 February 2019: deadline to express interest 27 March 2019: Announcement by UEFA that declaration of interest were received from 17 member associations to host one of the UEFA national team youth final tournaments in 2021 and 2022 28 June 2019: Submission of bid dossiers 24 September 2019: Selection of successful host associations by the UEFA Executive Committee at its meeting in LjubljanaFor the UEFA European Under-17 Championship final tournaments of 2021 and 2022, Cyprus and Israel were selected as hosts respectively.

The following teams qualified for the final tournament. Note: All appearance statistics include only U-17 era. To be confirmed. Official website

2012 Catalan regional election

The 2012 Catalan regional election was held on Sunday, 25 November 2012, to elect the 10th Parliament of the autonomous community of Catalonia. All 135 seats in the Parliament were up for election, it was a snap election, announced on 25 September by President Artur Mas following the pro-independence demonstration in Barcelona on 11 September—the National Day of Catalonia—and the failed talks between President Mas and Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy to give greater fiscal autonomy to Catalonia. Despite Artur Mas campaigning to win an absolute majority of seats and Union suffered an electoral setback which had went unnoticed by opinion polls; the Socialists' Party of Catalonia fared poorly, obtaining fewer seats than pro-independence Republican Left of Catalonia and ending up as the third parliamentary force overall. In turn, ERC regained much of the strength it had loss in the 2010 election and became the main parliamentary opposition party for the first time; the People's Party and Citizens benefitted from the electoral polarization between the pro-independence and anti-independence blocs, scoring their best results until with 19 and 9 seats, respectively.

The Popular Unity Candidacy entered the Parliament for the first time. The Parliament of Catalonia was the devolved, unicameral legislature of the autonomous community of Catalonia, having legislative power in regional matters as defined by the Spanish Constitution and the Catalan Statute of Autonomy, as well as the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a regional president; as a result of no regional electoral law having been approved since the re-establishment of Catalan autonomy, the electoral procedure came regulated under Transitory Provision Fourth of the 1979 Statute, supplemented by the provisions within the Organic Law of General Electoral Regime. Voting for the Parliament was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen, registered in Catalonia and in full enjoyment of their political rights. Amendments to the electoral law in 2011 required for Catalans abroad to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote.

The 135 members of the Parliament of Catalonia were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of three percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona, with each being allocated a fixed number of seats: 85 for Barcelona, 17 for Girona, 15 for Lleida and 18 for Tarragona; the use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude. The term of the Parliament of Catalonia expired four years after the date of its previous election, unless it was dissolved earlier; the regional president was required to call an election fifteen days prior to the date of expiry of parliament, with election day taking place within from forty to sixty days after the call. The previous election was held on 28 November 2010, which meant that the legislature's term would have expired on 28 November 2014.

The election was required to be called no than 13 November 2014, with it taking place up to the sixtieth day from the call, setting the latest possible election date for the Parliament on Monday, 12 January 2015. The president had the prerogative to dissolve the Parliament of Catalonia and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since a previous one under this procedure. In the event of an investiture process failing to elect a regional president within a two-month period from the first ballot, the Parliament was to be automatically dissolved and a fresh election called. In the 2010 election and Union was returned to power after 7 years in opposition, as a result of the electoral collapse of all three parties comprising the "Catalan tripartite" government (Socialists' Party of Catalonia, Republican Left of Catalonia and Initiative for Catalonia Greens. Newly-elected Catalan president Artur Mas was able to govern comfortably thanks to his party's large parliamentary representation allowing for punctual support of several parties on different issues, in what was known as a policy of "variable geometry".

In 2011, CiU signed several agreements with the People's Party in order to pass the 2011 and 2012 budgets, as well as for the approval of several spending cuts. In spite of this, the relationship between both parties deteriorated after the 2011 general election, as a result of Mas asking new Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy for greater fiscal autonomy for Catalonia. On 11 September 2012, a massive pro-independence demonstration marked the Catalan political agenda and re-opened the debate about the right to hold a referendum on the independence of Catalonia, as well as the debate about the feasibility of an independent Catalan state and its integration into the European Union. On 25 September 2012, President Artur Mas announced a snap regional election to be held on 25 November and argued, referring to the demonstration, that "this election will not be held to help a party to perpetuate itself in power, it will be held so that the whole of the Catalan population decides democratically and peacefully what will their future be as a nation."

President Mas signed the decree to call the Catalan election on 1 October. Mas' move was criticized as an attempt to try to funnel the popular support for independence seen in the September demonstration into an absolute major

Roxboro, Quebec

Roxboro was a town on the Island of Montreal. It was founded in 1914, ceased to exist on 1 January 2002 as a result of municipal reorganization in Quebec; the town was located along the Rivière des Prairies. At the time of the merger with Montreal, its population was 6,000; the area north of the train tracks was subject to many floods. In 1974 the town of Roxboro decided to purchase the island at the North end of 5th Avenue North and paid $46,130.36 to the former owner in a court expropriation decision. Archives de Montréal has an aerial photo of the island from the year 1947, it is one of islands in the Hochelaga Archipelago. The Federal and Provincial government named the island on 12 April 1991; the island has a bridge, lighting for garbage disposal. There is a section of land named "Boisé de Roxboro" designated 22 August 2001 as protected woodland; the Quebec and Federal governments do not protect the park and woods like Parc des Rapides-du-Cheval-Blanc and as a result the area of park land has shrunk and continues to shrink due to development.

The city of Montreal had been trying for many years to merge other municipalities. On January 1, 2002, the independent town was forcibly merged with Dollard-des-Ormeaux to become a borough in the new city of Montreal. A referendum was held on 20 June 2004 on demerging from Montreal. Residents of the former town voted to do so by 67%, with 1,497 Yes votes and 732 No votes from a total electorate of 4,487. However, because the province required 35% turnout for the result to be valid, the referendum did not carry and the town was merged. Residents of the former city of Pierrefonds, which adjoined the former town of Roxboro, voted to stay in the new city and joined with Roxboro to form the borough of Pierrefonds-Roxboro; the new borough was formally created on January 1, 2006. Roxboro's former borough partner, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, voted against the reorganization and de-merged at that time. Since the Town's founding in 1914, there have been six mayors. March 19, 1914 John Rowley March 5, 1936 Geo. H. Whitehead June 4, 1946 Roland Bigras July 11, 1958 René Labelle November 2, 1964 William G. Boll November 4, 1990 Ovide T. Baciu History of Roxboro, with an emphasis on the local Mary Queen of Peace church.

Note that the French version of this page contains more information than the English page. From collectionscanada.gc.ca Gordon & Gotch's 1924 Map of the Island of Montreal. Town of Roxboro is named on this map

The Beatles Anthology (TV series)

The Beatles Anthology is a documentary television series on the career of the Beatles. It was broadcast on UK television in six parts on ITV between 26 November and 31 December 1995, while in the United States it was seen as three feature-length episodes on ABC between 19 and 23 November 1995, it was released in expanded form as an eight-volume VHS set and an eight-disc Laserdisc set on 5 September 1996. The series was re-released on DVD with an 81-minute special-features disc. An official documentary on the Beatles career had been in the pipeline as early as 1970. Long-time friend and Apple Corps manager Neil Aspinall had compiled footage of concert and television appearances from various sources around the world. From this archival footage, he assembled a 90-minute feature film, tentatively titled The Long and Winding Road and was completed in 1971. At this point, none of the former members had any involvement with the project, plans for its release lay dormant until 1980, when John Lennon made a statement as part of a legal deposition against the producers of the musical Beatlemania.

"I and the other three former Beatles have plans to stage a reunion concert", he said, referring to an event, to be filmed as a finale of The Long and Winding Road. According to Yoko Ono, the concert would have been held in England: "Just days before his brutal death, John was making plans to go to England for a triumphant Beatles reunion, his greatest dream was to recreate the musical magic of the early years with Paul and Ringo … felt that they had traveled different paths for long enough. He felt they had grown up and were mature enough to try writing and recording new songs." The alleged plan for a reunion was abandoned. In 1992, the project was resurrected as a six-part documentary series; this time, the surviving members were directly involved, giving interviews on film with Jools Holland. Lennon's interviews were sourced from archived footage. Interviewed were insiders Neil Aspinall, the band's press agent Derek Taylor, their long-time producer George Martin; the title of the documentary was now changed to The Beatles Anthology, as George Harrison was against naming the entire Beatles career after a Paul McCartney song.

This new title was to be a working one but it stayed, as it suited the parties concerned. A rough cut was completed in 1993, much more interview-based and focused on events, as opposed to the final cut, which included more concert and television performances; this early version of the series has since been released via bootleg. The documentary was broadcast on American television in three feature-length episodes comprising six abridged parts on Sunday 19 November, Wednesday 22 November, Thursday 23 November 1995, it aired from 9 pm to 11 pm on ABC. The documentary was released on Laserdisc the following year; the Anthology was first shown on American television on ABC. The documentary was met with positive reviews. Richard Buskin, author of The Complete Idiot's Guide to Beatles, commented that the retelling of the band's story was "extremely subjective" with the small lineup of only the four Beatles plus Martin and Taylor to voice their recollections. McCartney and Starr "provided insights into their legend from the mature perspective of men in their fifties", according to Buskin, while "Lennon's originated from when he was in his twenties or thirties."

When viewing the separate interviews, the three surviving Beatles did not always recall events the same way. Compromises had to be reached so that sensibilities were not offended, in particular with regard to events resulting in the 1970 breakup. Thus, Buskin stated, the end result was not a definitive story of the Beatles' history, but rather a diplomatic celebration; the plans for a concert were abandoned and replaced with the intention that the surviving three members would play some incidental music in between segments and interviews. It was put forward that the Beatles should write some new songs for the project. Both McCartney and Harrison wrote some material which became the song "All For Love", but it was suggested to ask Yoko Ono if Lennon had left any unfinished material that they could work with. Ono gave McCartney cassette tapes in 1994 after they appeared together on stage at Lennon's induction to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame; the tapes contained four song demos that Lennon had been working on: "Free as a Bird", "Real Love", "Now and Then" and "Grow Old With Me".

The last two were left unfinished by the group, but "Free as a Bird" and "Real Love" were completed with producer Jeff Lynne in 1994–95 and premiered during the Anthology's initial broadcast. Editor: Andy Matthews Production Manager: Bryony Cranstoun Line Producer: Stan Storc Archive Consultants: Julian Adamoli/Geraldine Royds Design/Art Direction: Richard Ward/The Team Cover Concept: Klaus Voormann Cover Painting: Klaus Voormann/Alfons Kiefer Picture Grading & Image Restoration: Ascent Media, London Picture Aspect: 4:3 Sound: LPCM Stereo, Dolby Digital 5.1 surround sound, DTS 5.1 surround sound All songs are written by Lennon–McCartney and performed by the Beatles, unless otherwise noted. Liverpool: The Childhood Years "In My Life" – Edited clip of Beatles footage throughout the years. Discovering Rock & Roll John, Paul & George – The Beginning of The Beatles First Recordings 1958–1960 Stuart Sutcliffe Early Tours Pete Best Hamburg "Roll Over Beethoven" Growing Pains Stuart Sutcliffe Leaves Excerpts of the following songs: "I'm Down" "F.

B. I."

Kira Golovko

Kira Golovko, née Ivanova was a Soviet and Russian theater and film actress, winner of the Stalin Prize and People's Artist of the RSFSR. Ivanova was born in the great-niece of the poet Vyacheslav Ivanov. In 1937, she entered the Moscow Institute of Philosophy and Art to study Russian literature. In 1938 she was accepted into the auxiliary of the troupe of the Gorky Moscow Art Theatre. In 1957 she returned to the Moscow Art Theater, where she served until 1985. From 1958 to 2007, she taught at the Moscow Art Theater School, her students included Natalia Yegorova, Boris Nevzorov, Nikolai Karachentsov. She died on August 16, 2017, age 98, she was the widow of Soviet Admiral Arseniy Golovko, who served as Soviet Commander of the Red Banner Northern Fleet during World War II. Kira Golovko on IMDb