Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. As of 2016, it is the countrys largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament and state assemblies. The BJP is a party, with close ideological and organisational links to the Hindu nationalist Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The BJPs origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, formed in 1951 by Syama Prasad Mookerjee, after the State of Emergency in 1977, the Jana Sangh merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party, it defeated the incumbent Congress party in the 1977 general election. After three years in power, the Janata party dissolved in 1980 with the members of the erstwhile Jana Sangh reconvening to form the BJP. Although initially unsuccessful, winning two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. After the 1998 general election, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance formed a government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee for a year.
Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vajpayee, lasted for a term in office. In the 2004 general election, the NDA suffered an unexpected defeat, long time Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi led it to a landslide victory in the 2014 general election. Since that election, Modi leads the NDA government as Prime Minister and as of March 2017, the official ideology of the BJP is integral humanism, first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya in 1965. The party expresses a commitment to Hindutva, and its policy has historically reflected Hindu nationalist positions, the BJP advocates social conservatism and a foreign policy centred on nationalist principles. Its key issues have included the abrogation of the status to Jammu and Kashmir, the building of a Ram temple in Ayodhya. However, the 1998–2004 NDA government did not pursue any of these controversial issues and it instead focused on a largely neoliberal economic policy prioritising globalisation and economic growth over social welfare.
The BJPs origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, popularly known as the Jana Sangh and it was founded in collaboration with the Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, and was widely regarded as the political arm of the RSS. The RSS loaned several of its leading pracharaks, or full-time workers, prominent among these was Deendayal Upadhyaya, who was appointed General Secretary. The Jana Sangh won only three Lok Sabha seats in the first general elections in 1952 and it maintained a minor presence in parliament until 1967. The Jana Sanghs first major campaign, begun in early 1953, centred on a demand for the integration of Jammu. Mookerjee was arrested in May 1953 for violating orders from the state government restraining him from entering Kashmir and he died of a heart attack the following month, while still in jail
Vikramashila was one of the two most important centres of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala Empire, along with Nalanda. Vikramashila was established by King Dharmapala in response to a decline in the quality of scholarship at Nalanda. Atisha, the renowned pandita, is listed as a notable abbot. It was destroyed by the forces of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji around 1200, Vikramashila is located at about 50 km east of Bhagalpur and about 13 km north-east of Kahalgaon, a railway station on Bhagalpur-Sahebganj section of Eastern Railway. It is approachable through 11 km long motorable road diverting from NH-80 at Anadipur about 2 km from Kahalgaon, a number of monasteries grew up during the Pāla period in ancient Bengal and Magadha. According to Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas stood out, the university of the era, past its prime but still illustrious, Odantapura. The five monasteries formed a network, all of them were under state supervision, Vikramashila was founded by Pāla king Dharmapala in the late 8th or early 9th century.
It prospered for about four centuries before it was destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji along with the major centres of Buddhism in India around 1200. Vikramashila is known to us mainly through Tibetan sources, especially the writings of Tāranātha, Vikramashila was one of the largest Buddhist universities, with more than one hundred teachers and about one thousand students. It produced eminent scholars who were invited by foreign countries to spread Buddhist learning, culture. The most distinguished and eminent among all was Atiśha Dipankara, a founder of the Sarma traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, subjects like philosophy, metaphysics, Indian logic etc. were taught here, but the most important branch of learning was tantrism. If this is correct, it must have been toward the end of Chanakas reign given the generally accepted dates for Naropa, vikramaśīlā was a centre for Vajrayana and employed Tantric preceptors. The first was Buddhajñānapāda, followed by Dīpaṁkarabhadra and Jayabadhra, the first two were active during Dharmapālas reign, the third in the early to mid portion of the 9th century.
Jayabadhra was the first prominent commentator on the Cakrasamvara tantra, Śrīdhara was the next preceptor, followed by Bhavabhaṭṭa. The latter, a prominent commentator on Chakrasamvara, may have been the mahāsiddha Bhadrapāda and he in turn was succeed by three more prominent Chakrasamvara commentators, Bhavyakīrti and Tathāgatarakṣita. Meticulous excavation at the site was conducted initially by B. P. Sinha of Patna University and it has revealed a huge square monastery with a cruciform stupa in its centre, a library building and cluster of votive stupas. To the north of monastery a number of scattered structures including a Tibetan, the entire spread is over an area of more than one hundred acres. A few brick arched underground chambers beneath some of the cells have been noticed which were meant for confined meditation by the monks
The spiritual capital of India, it is the holiest of the seven sacred cities in Hinduism and Jainism, and played an important role in the development of Buddhism. Varanasi lies along National Highway 2, which connects it to Kolkata, Kanpur and Delhi, Varanasi is one of 72 districts in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. At the time of the 2011 census, there were a total 8 blocks and 1329 villages in this district, Varanasi grew as an important industrial centre, famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, ivory works, and sculpture. Buddha is believed to have founded Buddhism here around 528 BC when he gave his first sermon, The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma, at nearby Sarnath. The citys religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, Tulsidas wrote his epic poem on Ramas life called Ram Charit Manas in Varanasi. Several other major figures of the Bhakti movement were born in Varanasi, including Kabir, Guru Nanak Dev visited Varanasi for Shivratri in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism.
The kingdom of Benares was given official status by the Mughals in 1737, silk weaving and crafts and tourism employ a significant number of the local population, as do the Diesel Locomotive Works and Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Varanasi Hospital was established in 1964, Varanasi has been a cultural centre of North India for several thousand years, and is closely associated with the Ganges. Hindus believe that death in the city will bring salvation, making it a centre for pilgrimage. The city is known worldwide for its ghats, embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. Of particular note are the Dashashwamedh Ghat, the Panchganga Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat and the Harishchandra Ghat, the last two being where Hindus cremate their dead. The Ramnagar Fort, near the bank of the Ganges, was built in the 18th century in the Mughal style of architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards. Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi are Kashi Vishwanath Temple of Shiva, the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple, the Kashi Naresh is the chief cultural patron of Varanasi, and an essential part of all religious celebrations.
One of Asias largest residential universities is Banaras Hindu University, the Hindi-language nationalist newspaper, Aj, was first published in 1920. The old city is located on the shores of the Ganges, bounded by Varuna. The name was used by pilgrims dating from Buddhas days. Hindu religious texts use many epithets to refer to Varanasi, such as Kāśikā, Avimukta, Ānandavana, according to legend, Varanasi was founded by the god Shiva. It is regarded as one of seven cities which can provide Moksha, Ayodhyā, Mathurā, Gayā, Kāśi, Kañchi, Avantikā
These caves are situated in the twin hills of Barabar and Nagarjuni – caves of the 1.6 km distant Nagarjuni Hill sometimes are singled out as Nagarjuni Caves. These rock-cut chambers date back to the 3rd century BCE, Maurya period, of Ashoka, though Buddhists themselves, they allowed various Jain sects to flourish under a policy of religious tolerance. Also present at the site are several rock-cut Buddhist and Hindu sculptures, most caves at Barabar consist of two chambers, carved entirely out of granite, with a highly polished internal surface and exciting echo effect. The caves were featured – located in a fictitious Marabar – in the book A Passage to India by English author E. M. Forster and these were shown in the book The Mahabharata Secret by Indian author Christopher C. Barabar Hill contains four caves, Karan Chaupar, Lomas Rishi, Barabar caves have magnanimous arches which are few in ancient history. Lomas Rishi cave, The arch-like shape facade of Lomas Rishi Caves, on the doorway, a row of elephants proceed towards stupa emblems, along the curved architrave.
Sudama cave, This cave was dedicated by Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka in 261 BCE, the arches of Sudama cave are of bow shape. The caves consist of a vaulted chamber with a rectangular mandapa. Karan Chaupar, Consists of single room with polished surfaces. Visva Zopri, Reachable by Ashoka steps hewn in cliff, consists of two rectangular rooms, nearby caves of Nagarjuna are smaller and younger than Barabar caves The three caves are, According to inscription, devoted by the king Dasharatha to Ajivika followers circa 232 BCE. Vapiya-ka-Kubha cave, Also devoted to Ajivika followers by Dasharatha, Cambridge University Press,1995, ISBN 0-521-37695-5. Page 247 Introduction The Cambridge Companion to E. M. Forster, by David Bradshaw, Contributor David Bradshaw, Cambridge University Press,2007, series of images of Barabar Caves Detailed notes on The Barabar Caves and its use as Marabar Caves in E. M. Fosters Passage to India Barabar Caves and Nagarjuni Caves, description by Wondermondo Barabar Caves Travel Guide
Uttar Pradesh, abbreviated as UP, is the most populous state in the Republic of India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. The state, located in the region of the Indian subcontinent, has over 200 million inhabitants. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces during British rule, Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh. Ghaziabad, Bhadohi, Moradabad, Aligarh, Sonbhadra, on 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the Himalayan hill region of Uttar Pradesh. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7. 33% of the area of India. Hindi is the official and most widely spoken language in its 75 districts, Uttar Pradesh is the third largest Indian state by economy, with a GDP of ₹9,763 billion. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the states economy, the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of ancient and medieval India, the two major rivers of the state, the Ganges and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganges further east.
Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago, the kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture, most of the invaders of south India passed through the Gangetic plains of what is today Uttar Pradesh. Control over this region was of importance to the power and stability of all of Indias major empires, including the Maurya, Gupta. Following the Huns invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj, during the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith. It spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and it included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain.
Many communities in parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, in the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Babur and Humayun ruled from Delhi, in 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior, after the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and the western parts of Bengal
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate, known as a number plate or a license plate, is metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. The registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the owner within the issuing regions database. The first two letters indicate the state to which the vehicle is registered, the next two digit numbers are the sequential number of a district. Due to heavy volume of vehicle registration, the numbers were given to the RTO offices of registration as well, the third part indicates the year of registration of the vehicle and is a 4 digit number unique to each plate. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates.
Alternately, the government will merely assign plate numbers, and it is the owners responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime. If the vehicle is destroyed or exported to a different country. Other jurisdictions follow a policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they already hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyers name, a person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them. Some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with personal plates, in some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement, often associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration. Plates are usually fixed directly to a vehicle or to a frame that is fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames, in some jurisdictions licence plate frames are illegal
Kosambi was an important city in ancient India. It was located on the Yamuna about 56 kilometres southwest of Prayaga, renamed Ilahabad, Kosambi was one of the greatest cities in India from the late Vedic period until the end of Maurya Empire with occupation continuing until the Gupta Empire. As a small town, it was established in the late Vedic period, during the Shunga Empire, Kosambi was the capital of Vatsa, a vassal state of the Shungas. After their decline, Vatsa became an independent kingdom, ) one of the Mahajanapadas, Kosambi was a very prosperous city by the time of Gautama Buddha, where a large number of wealthy merchants resided. It was an important entrepôt of goods and passengers from north-west and it figures very prominently in the accounts of the life of Buddha. The excavations of the site of Kosambi was done by G. R. Sharma of Allahabad University in 1949. Carbon dating of charcoal and Northern Black Polished Ware have historically dated its continued occupation from 390 BC to 600 A. D.
Kosambi was a town with an irregular oblong plan. Excavations of the ruins revealed the existence of gates on three sides-east and north, the location of the southern gate can not be precisely determined due to water erosion. Besides the bastions and sub-gates, the city was encircled on three sides by a moat, though filled up at places, it still discernible on the northern side, at some points, there is evidence of more than one moat. The city extended to an area of approximately 6.5 km, the city shows a large extent of brickworks indicating the density of structures in the city. The Buddhist commentarial scriptures give two reasons for the name Kausambi/Kosambī, the more favoured is that the city was so called because it was founded in or near the site of the hermitage once occupied by the sage Kusumba. Another explanation is that large and stately neem trees or Kosammarukkhā grew in numbers in. In the time of the Buddha its king was Parantapa, Kosambī was evidently a city of great importance at the time of the Buddha for we find Ananda mentioning it as one of the places suitable for the Buddhas Parinibbāna.
It was the most important halt for traffic coming to Kosala and Magadha from the south, the city was thirty leagues by river from Benares. The usual route from Rājagaha to Kosambī was up the river, though seems to have been a land route passing through Anupiya. Near Kosambī, by the river, was Udayana/Udenas park, the Udakavana, the Buddha is mentioned as having once stayed in the Simsapāvana in Kosambī. Mahā Kaccāna lived in a woodland near Kosambī after the holding of the First Buddhist Council, already in the Buddhas time there were four establishments of the Order in Kosambī - the Kukkutārāma, the Ghositārāma, the Pāvārika-ambavana, and the Badarikārāma. The Buddha visited Kosambī on several occasions, stopping at one or other of these residences, the circumstances are narrated in connection with the Māgandiya Sutta
Kusha and his twin brother Lava were the children of Rama and his wife Sita, whose story is recounted in the Hindu epic Ramayana. He was the ruler of the kingdom centered at Kasur in ancient times and his brother Lava is purported to be the founder of Lahore. The imperial line that ruled Varanasi and the Maurya Empire, which ruled the Indian subcontinent from 320-185 BCE, Kusha is said to be an Ikshvaku. According to Ramayana, pregnant Sita was banished from the kingdom of Ayodhya by Rama due to the gossip and she took refuge in the ashram of the sage Valmiki located on the banks of the Tamsa River. In some versions Sita gave birth to twin sons, when Rama performed the Ashvamedha Yagya, which the sage Valmiki, with Lava and Kusha, attended and Kusha sung the Ramayana in the presence of Rama and his vast audience. When Lava and Kusha recited about Sitas exile, Rama became grief-stricken, Sita called upon the earth, her mother, to receive her and as the ground opened, she vanished into it. Rama learnt that Lava and Kusha were his children, in some versions, Lava-Kusha catch the horse of the sacrifice and defeat Ramas brothers and army and when Rama came to fight with them Sita intervenes and unites father and sons.
Lava and Kusha became rulers after their father Rama and founded the cities of Lavapuri, Kushavati was a city in Kosala Kingdom as per epic Ramayana. The king of Kosala, Raghava Rama, installed his son Lava at Sravasti, the city is now identified to be Kushinagar, a town near Gorakhpur
Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. The city of Rajgir was the first capital of the kingdom of Magadha and its date of origin is unknown, although ceramics dating to about 1000 BC have been found in the city. This area is notable in Jainism and Buddhism as one of the favorite places for Lord Mahavira and Gautama Buddha. Rajgir is connected to Patna via Bakhtiarpur by rail and road, Bakhtiarpur lies midway between Patna and Mokameh. Road access is by NH 30A to Bakhtiarpur and NH31 towards south to reach Bihar Sharif, from Mokameh NH31 to Bihar Sharif. From there, NH82 will leads to Rajgir, Rajgir is around 100 KM from both Patna and Mokameh. It is located in a valley surrounded by rocky hills. A daily Indian Railways train Shramjeevi Express connects Rajgir with the Indian capital New Delhi, the name Rajgir came from Rājagṛiha house of the king or royal house, or the word rajgir might have its origin in its plain literal meaning, royal mountain.
It was the ancient capital city of the Magadha kings until the 5th century BC when Udayin, son of Ajatshatru, in those days, it was called Rajgrih, which translates as the home of Royalty. Shishunaga founded Shishunaga dynasty in 413 BCE with Rajgir as its initial capital before it was moved to Pataliputra, Rajgir is famous for its association with Mauryan dynasty Kings Bimbisara and Ajatashatru. Ajatashatru kept his father Bimbsara in captivity here, the sources do not agree which of the Buddhas royal contemporaries and Ajatashatru, was responsible for its construction. Ajatashatru is credited with moving the capital to Pataliputra, the epic Mahabharata calls it Girivraja and recount the story of its king and his battle with the Pandava brothers and their allies Krishna. Jarasandha who hailed from this place, had defeated by Krishna 17 times. The 18th time Krishna left the battlefield without fighting, because of this Krishna is called ranachorh. Mahabharata recounts a wrestling match between Bhima and Jarasandha, the king of Magadha.
Jarasandha was invincible as his body could rejoin any dismembered limbs, according to the legend, Bhim split Jarasandha into two and threw the two halves facing opposite to each other so that they could not join. There is a famous Jarasandhas Akhara and it is mentioned in Jain and Buddhist scriptures, which give a series of place-names, but without geographical context. The attempt to locate these places is based largely on reference to them and to locations in the works of Chinese Buddhist pilgrims, particularly Faxian
Nalanda was an acclaimed Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery in the ancient kingdom of Magadha in India. The site is located about 95 kilometres southeast of Patna near the town of Bihar Sharif and it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site According to Xuansang and Yijing Nalanda was built in honor of the Lotus Sutra - and various Lotus Sutra symbolism can be found in the Nalanda Museum. Nalanda flourished under the patronage of the Gupta Empire in the 5th and 6th centuries and under Harsha, the liberal cultural traditions inherited from the Gupta age resulted in a period of growth and prosperity until the ninth century. The subsequent centuries were a time of decline, a period during which the tantric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in eastern India under the Pala Empire. At its peak, the school attracted scholars and students from near and far with some travelling all the way from Tibet, Korea, Archaeological evidence notes contact with the Shailendra dynasty of Indonesia, one of whose kings built a monastery in the complex.
Much of our knowledge of Nalanda comes from the writings of pilgrim monks from East Asia such as Xuanzang and Yijing who travelled to the Mahavihara in the 7th century, vincent Smith remarked that a detailed history of Nalanda would be a history of Mahayanist Buddhism. Many of the listed by Xuanzang in his travelogue as products of Nalanda are the names of those who developed the philosophy of Mahayana. All students at Nalanda studied Mahayana as well as the texts of the eighteen sects of Buddhism and their curriculum included other subjects such as the Vedas, Sanskrit grammar and Samkhya. Nalanda was very likely ransacked and destroyed by an army of the Mamluk Dynasty of the Muslim Delhi Sultanate under Bakhtiyar Khilji in c. 1200 CE, systematic excavations commenced in 1915 which unearthed eleven monasteries and six brick temples neatly arranged on grounds 12 hectares in area. A trove of sculptures, coins and inscriptions have discovered in the ruins many of which are on display in the Nalanda Archaeological Museum situated nearby.
Nalanda is now a notable tourist destination and a part of the Buddhist tourism circuit, a number of theories exist about the etymology of the name, Nālandā. According to the Tang Dynasty Chinese pilgrim, Xuanzang, it comes from Na al, another Chinese traveller, derives it from Nāga Nanda referring to the name of a snake in the local tank. Nalanda was initially a village by a major trade route that ran through the nearby city of Rajagriha which was the capital of Magadha. It is said that the Jain thirthankara, spent 14 rainy seasons at Nalanda. Gautama Buddha too is said to have delivered lectures in a mango grove named Pavarika. This traditional association with Mahavira and Buddha tenuously dates the existence of the village to at least the 5th–6th century BCE, not much is known of Nalanda in the centuries hence. Taranatha, the 17th-century Tibetan Lama, states that the 3rd-century BCE Mauryan and Buddhist emperor, Ashoka and he places 3rd-century CE luminaries such as the Mahayana philosopher and his disciple, Aryadeva, at Nalanda with the former heading the institution.
Taranatha mentions a contemporary of Nagarjuna named Suvishnu building 108 temples at the location, while this could imply that there was a flourishing centre for Buddhism at Nalanda before the 3rd century, no archaeological evidence has been unearthed to support the assertion