Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park
Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park or local people known as TNBTS is a national park located in East Java, Indonesia, to the east of Malang, to the south of Pasuruan and Probolinggo, to the southeast of Surabaya, the capital of East Java. It is the only conservation area in Indonesia that has a sand sea, the Tengger Sand Sea, across, the caldera of an ancient volcano from which four new volcanic cones have emerged; this unique feature covers a total area of 5,250 hectares at an altitude of about 2,100 metres. The massif contains the highest mountain in Java, Mount Semeru, four lakes and 50 rivers, it is named after the Tengger Kingdom. The Tengger Sand Sea has been protected since 1919; the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park was declared a national park in 1982. The Tengger massif is a massif within the park; the area is an active volcanic complex surrounded by a plain of sand. The volcanic complex of Tengger forms a condition where a new caldera of volcano forms inside a larger and more ancient caldera.
There are five volcanoes inside the Tengger Caldera: Mount Bromo, Mount Batok, Mount Kursi, Mount Watangan, Mount Widodaren. Mount Batok is the only peak, no longer active, is covered in casuarina trees. Mount Widodaren, located beside Mount Batok, contains the cave Widodaren, considered sacred by local people; the five volcanoes within the caldera are surrounded by a vast area of sand called the Tengger Sand Sea, which in turn is surrounded by a steep crater wall of the larger Tengger Caldera with height differences of about 200–600 metres. Other mountains around the Tengger caldera are: Mount Pananjakan, Mount Cemorolawang, Mount Lingker, Mount Pundak Lembu, Mount Jantur, Mount Ider-ider and Mount Mungal; the peak of Mount Pananjakan is the most popular place to watch the entire volcanic complex of Tengger. Further south in the national park, there is another volcanic complex called the Semeru Group or Jambangan Group; this area contains the highest peak of Mount Semeru. Other mountains within this area are Mount Lanang, Mount Ayek-ayek, Mount Pangonan Cilik, Mount Keduwung, Mount Jambangan, Mount Gentong, Mount Kepolo, Mount Malang.
The Semeru forest area has many rivers. The Semeru group is considered to be productive, producing volcanic matters such as lava, volcanic ash, hot cloud and spreading it to the surrounding area; the lower area is surrounded with fertile rice fields. The climate in Bromo Tengger Semeru is cold winter in middle year during May until September; the summers in early and late year here have a heavy of rainfall, while the winters in middle year have little and in midnight until dawn, the temperature always below zero Celsius, it makes frost and snow. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as subtropical highland variety. According to height and temperature differences, the forests within the area can be classified into three zones: This zone is classified as a tropical rainforest, it can be found in the southern area of Semeru, East Semeru, West Semeru. This zone is dominated with plants of the families Fagaceae, Anacardiaceae and Rubiaceae. There are liana trees, such as a variety from the genus Calamus, Piper and Begonia, other plants from the family Araceae and Zingiberaceae.
There are 225 species of orchid in this area. Plant life is reduced in this area. Most of the species that grow in this area are pioneer species. There are some wooden plants such as cemara, mentinggi gunung, kemlandingan gunung, acacia bark and bottom plants such as Javanese edelweiss or senduro, Imperata cylindrica, Pteris sp. Themeda sp. and Centella asiatica. The Tengger Sand Sea in Tengger Caldera is a special ecosystem; the area is covered in volcanic sedimentation of sand from Mount Bromo activities. The resulting area is believed to be the only known desert-like area in Indonesia; the Tengger Sand Sea has been protected since 1919. The flora that cover this area are mentinggi cemara. Kemlandingan gunung and Javanese edelweiss can be found growing in this zone. On Mount Semeru, there is no plant life above the altitude of 3,100 m; this zone is covered in loose sandstones. Some endangered flora are protected in this park, such as Fagaceae, Sterculiaceae, Casuarina junghuhniana, Javanese edelweiss, about 200 species of endemic orchids.
There is a small diversity of fauna in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. There are about 137 species of birds, 22 species of mammals and 4 species of reptiles protected in the national park. Examples are besra, green peafowl, Javan rusa, Sumatran dhole, crab-eating macaque, marbled cat and Javan leopard; the area in and around the park is inhabited by the Tengger people, one of the few significant Hindu communities remaining on the island of Java. Their population of 600,000 is centered in thirty villages in the isolated Tengger mountains including Mount Bromo and areas within the park; the local religion is a remnant from the Majapahit era and therefore quite similar to that on Bali but with more animist elements. The Tengger people are believed to be descendents of the Majapahit empire and were driven into the hills after mass arri
Thousand Islands (Indonesia)
The Thousand Islands are a chain of islands to the north of Jakarta's coast. It forms the only regency of the capital of Indonesia, it consists of a string of 342 islands stretching 45 km north into the Java Sea at West Jakarta Bay and in fact north of Banten Province. A decree states. Of these, only 13 islands are developed: 11 islands are homes to resorts and two islands are historic parks. 23 are owned and are not open to the public. The rest of the islands support a fishing village; the modern history of the Thousand Islands begins with its role in the defenses of the city of Batavia for the VOC and the Dutch colonial empire. Before the arrival of the Dutch, these islands had a Malay name. With the arrival of the Dutch, the islands received a second Dutch name; the Malay names are not forgotten, as both Malay and Dutch names of the islands are written side by side in some 18th-century Batavia map. Since the establishment of Batavia in 1610, Pulau Kapal named by the Dutch as Onrust island, has been a naval base.
After the VOC failed to obtain control of trade at Banten in 1610, the Dutch obtained permission from Prince Jayakarta to build a dock at one of the islands in Jakarta Bay as a place to repair and equip ships sailing to Asia South East Asia. The island Prince Jayakarta assigned to the VOC was Onrust Island, a 12-hectare island 14 km from Jakarta. In 1615 the VOC built a shipyard and a small storage house on the island, which Jan Pieterszoon Coen hoped would develop into a trade and defence base against threats from Banten and England; the VOC constructed a small rectangular fort with two bastions in 1656. The Dutch enlarged the fort in 1671 and gave it an asymmetrical pentagonal shape with a bastion in each corner; the whole structure was made of red bricks and coral. In 1674 additional storage buildings were built. In 1795, the position of the Dutch in Batavia became quite uncertain due to the war in Europe, the situation became worse with the appearance in 1800 of a British naval squadron under the command of Captain Henry Lidgbird Ball of HMS Daedalus.
Daedalus, HMS Sybille, HMS Centurion and HMS Braave entered the area, which they referred to as Batavia Roads. They destroyed 22 other vessels. Onrust island was under siege by the British and destroyed. After the British departed, the Dutch rebuilt the buildings and facilities, completing the work in 1806. However, a second British attack, led by Admiral Edward Pellew, again destroyed the fort; when the British occupied Batavia in 1810, they repaired the buildings in Onrust island until prior to their leaving Indonesia in 1816. Onrust island again received attention in 1827 during the period of Governor General G. A. Baron Van Der Capellen and activities in the island were normal again in 1848. In 1856 a floating shipyard was built. However, the construction of Tanjung Priok harbour in 1883 resulted in a decline in the role and significance of Onrust island. In 1911-1933, Onrust island became a quarantine station for pilgrims returning from the Hajj. A barrack was built in 1911. From 1933 until 1940, the Dutch used Onrust to hold the mutineers involved in the Incident of the Seven Ships.
In 1940, the Dutch used it to hold Germans, such as Steinfurt, the Chief Administrator of Onrust Island. After the Japanese invaded Indonesia in 1942, the role of Onrust island declined again and it became a prison for serious criminals. After Indonesia proclaimed her independence, the island became a leprosarium under the control of the Indonesia Ministry of Health, until 1960; the leprosarium relocated to Post VII at Tanjung Priok harbour. After a coup by General Suharto, Chris Soumokil, who had proclaimed a Republic of South Moluccas with himself as president, was arrested and held at Onrust. Soumuki was executed there on 21 April 1966 by order of Suharto, by President of Indonesia. In 1972 Ali Sadikin governor of Jakarta, declared Onrust Island a protected historical site. In 2002 the administration made Onrust and its three neighbors - the islands of Cipir and Bidadari - an archaeological park to protect the artifacts and ruins on the islands that date back to the time of the Dutch East India Company.
An area of 107,489 hectares of land and sea was declared by the Minister of Agriculture in 1982 and designated by a Forestry Ministerial Decree in 2002 as the Taman Nasional Laut Kepulauan Seribu. Public access is prohibited on two of the islands, Panjaliran Barat and Panjaliran Timur, where sea turtles are conserved; the Thousand Islands Marine National Park is located 45 km north of Jakarta. It is located on the Kecamatan of Kepulauan Seribu Utara, the northern part of the Thousand Islands; the complex contains 342 reef platforms, with 110 forming an island larger than half an acre. There may be as many as 700 individual reefs in the complex. In general, the plants that grow in the park are dominated by coastal species including coconut palm, cemara laut, butun, breadfruit and kecundang. Sea vegetation found in the park consists of seaweed divisions including Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta as well as classes of sea grasses such as Halimeda sp. Padina sp. Thalassia sp
The yellow-throated marten is an Asian marten species, listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List due to its wide distribution, evidently stable population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, lack of major threats. The yellow-throated marten is known as the kharza, is the largest marten in the Old World, with the tail making up more than half its length, its fur is brightly colored, consisting of a unique blend of black, golden-yellow and brown. It is an omnivore, whose sources of food range from nectar to small deer; the yellow-throated marten is a fearless animal with few natural predators, because of its powerful build, its bright coloration and unpleasant odor. It shows little fear of humans or dogs, is tamed. Although similar in several respects to the smaller beech marten, it is differentiated from other martens by its unique color and the structure of its baculum, it is the most ancient form of marten, having originated during the Pliocene, as indicated by its geographical distribution and its atypical coloration.
The first written description of the yellow-throated marten in the Western World is given by Thomas Pennant in his History of Quadrupeds, in which he named it "White-cheeked Weasel". Pieter Boddaert featured it in his Elenchus Animalium with the name Mustela flavigula. For a long period after the Elenchus' publication, the existence of the yellow-throated marten was considered doubtful by many zoologists, until a skin was presented to the Museum of the East India Company in 1824 by Thomas Hardwicke; the yellow-throated marten is a large, robust and flexible animal with an elongated thorax, a small pointed head, a long neck and a long tail, about 2/3 as long as its body. The tail is not as bushy as that of other martens, thus seems longer than it is; the limbs are short and strong, with broad feet. The ears are short with rounded tips; the soles of the feet are covered with coarse, flexible hairs, though the digital and foot pads are naked and the paws are weakly furred. The skull is much larger.
The baculum is S-shaped, with four blunt processes occurring on the tip. It is larger than other Old World martens. Males weigh 2.5 -- 5.7 kg. The anal glands sport two unusual protuberances, which can be used to secrete a strong smelling liquid for defensive purposes; the yellow-throated marten has short fur which lacks the fluffiness of the pine marten and beech marten. The winter fur differs from that of other martens by its relative shortness, its harshness and its luster, it is not as dense and compact as that of other martens. The hairs on the tail are short and of equal length over the whole tail; the summer fur is shorter, less compact and lustrous. The color of the pelage is unique among martens, being variegated; the top of the head is blackish brown with shiny brown highlights, while the cheeks are somewhat more reddish, with a mixture of white hair tips. The back of the ears are black; the fur is a shiny brownish-yellow color with a golden tone from the occiput along the surface of the back.
The color becomes browner on the hind quarters. The flanks and belly are bright yellowish in tone; the chest and lower part of the throat are a orange-golden color than the back and belly. The chin and lower lips are pure white; the front paws and lower forelimbs are pure black, while the upper parts of the limbs are the same color as the front of the back. The tail is of a shiny pure black color, though the tip has a violet wash; the base of the tail is greyish brown. The contrasting marks of the head and throat are recognition marks; the yellow-throated marten holds not permanent, home-ranges. It patrols its territory, having been known to cover over 10 to 20 km in a single day and night, it hunts on the ground, but can climb trees proficiently, being capable of making jumps up to 8 to 9 meters in distance between branches. After March snowfalls, the yellow-throated marten restricts its activities up treetops. Estrus occurs twice a year, from mid-February from late June to early August. During these periods, the males fight each other for access to females.
Litters consist of two or three kits and four. The yellow-throated marten is a diurnal hunter, which hunts in pairs, but may hunt in packs of three or more, it preys on rats, hares, lizards and ground nesting birds such as pheasants and francolins. It is reported to kill cats and poultry, it has been known to feed on human corpses, was once thought to be able to attack an unarmed man in groups of 3 to 4. The yellow-throated marten may prey on small ungulates. In the Himalayas and Burma, it is reported to kill muntjac fawns, while in Ussuriland the base of its diet consists of musk deer in winter; the young of larger ungulate species are taken, but within a weight range of 10 to 12 kg. In winter, the yellow-throated marten hunts musk deer by driving them onto ice. Two or three yellow-throated martens can consume a musk deer carcass in 2 to 3 days. Other ungulate species preyed upon by the yellow-throated marten include young wapiti, spotted deer, roe deer and goral. Wild boar piglets are taken on occasion.
It may prey on smaller marten species, such as sables. In areas where it is sympatric with tigers, the yellow-throated marten may trail them and feed on their kil
Borneo is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, east of Sumatra; the island is politically divided among three countries: Malaysia and Brunei in the north, Indonesia to the south. 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan is situated on a small island just off the coast of Borneo; the sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, comprises about 1% of Borneo's land area. A little more than half of the island is in the Northern Hemisphere including Brunei and the Malaysian portion, while the Indonesian portion spans both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Borneo is home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world; the island is known by many names. Internationally it is known as Borneo, after Brunei, derived from European contact with the kingdom in the 16th century during the Age of Exploration.
The name Brunei derives from the Sanskrit word váruṇa, meaning either "water" or Varuna, the Vedic god of rain. Indonesian natives called it Kalimantan, derived from the Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, meaning "burning weather island". In earlier times, the island was known by other names. In 977, Chinese records began to use the term Bo-ni to refer to Borneo. In 1225, it was mentioned by the Chinese official Chau Ju-Kua; the Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, which means the island of the Tanjungpura Kingdom. Borneo is surrounded by the South China Sea to the north and northwest, the Sulu Sea to the northeast, the Celebes Sea and the Makassar Strait to the east, the Java Sea and Karimata Strait to the south. To the west of Borneo are the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. To the south and east are islands of Indonesia: Java and Sulawesi, respectively. To the northeast are the Philippine Islands. With an area of 743,330 square kilometres, it is the third-largest island in the world, is the largest island of Asia.
Its highest point is Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, with an elevation of 4,095 m. Before sea levels rose at the end of the last Ice Age, Borneo was part of the mainland of Asia, with Java and Sumatra, the upland regions of a peninsula that extended east from present day Indochina; the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand now submerge the former low-lying areas of the peninsula. Deeper waters separating Borneo from neighbouring Sulawesi prevented a land connection to that island, creating the divide known as Wallace's Line between Asian and Australia-New Guinea biological regions; the largest river system is the Kapuas in West Kalimantan, with a length of 1,000 km. Other major rivers include the Mahakam in East Kalimantan, the Barito in South Kalimantan, Rajang in Sarawak and Kinabatangan in Sabah. Borneo has significant cave systems. In Sarawak, the Clearwater Cave has one of the world's longest underground rivers while Deer Cave is home to over three million bats, with guano accumulated to over 100 metres deep.
The Gomantong Caves in Sabah has been dubbed as the "Cockroach Cave" due to the presence of millions of cockroaches inside the cave. The Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak and Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst in East Kalimantan which a karst areas contains thousands of smaller caves; the Borneo rainforest is estimated to be around 140 million years old, making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world. It is the centre of the evolution and distribution of many endemic species of plants and animals, the rainforest is one of the few remaining natural habitats for the endangered Bornean orangutan, it is an important refuge for many endemic forest species, including the Borneo elephant, the eastern Sumatran rhinoceros, the Bornean clouded leopard, the hose's palm civet and the dayak fruit bat. Peat swamp forests occupy the entire coastline of Borneo; the soil of the peat swamp are comparatively infertile, while it is known to be the home of various bird species such as the hook-billed bulbul, helmeted hornbill and rhinoceros hornbill.
There are about 15,000 species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees, 221 species of terrestrial mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo. There are about 440 freshwater fish species in Borneo; the Borneo river shark is known only from the Kinabatangan River. In 2010, the World Wide Fund for Nature stated that 123 species have been discovered in Borneo since the "Heart of Borneo" agreement was signed in 2007; the WWF has classified the island into seven distinct ecoregions. Most are lowland regions: Borneo lowland rain forests cover most of the island, with an area of 427,500 square kilometres; the Borneo montane rain forests lie in the central highlands of the island, above the 1,000 metres elevation. The Tropical and subtropical grasslands and shrublands on South Kalimantan; the highest elevations of Mount Kinabalu are home to the Kinabalu mountain alpine meadow, an alpine shrubland notable for its numerous endemic species, including many orchids. The island had extensive rainforest cover, but the area w
The sambar is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, southern China, Southeast Asia, listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2008. Populations have declined due to severe hunting and industrial exploitation of habitat; the name "sambar" is sometimes used to refer to the Philippine deer, called the "Philippine sambar" and the Javan rusa, called the "Sunda sambar". The appearance and the size of sambar vary across their range, which has led to considerable taxonomic confusion in the past. In general, they attain a height of 102 to 160 cm at the shoulder and may weigh as much as 546 kg, though more 100 to 350 kg. Head and body length varies with a 22 to 35 cm tail. Individuals belonging to western subspecies tend to be larger than those from the east, females are smaller than males. Among all living cervid species, only the moose and the elk can attain larger sizes; the large, rugged antlers are rusine, the brow tines being simple and the beams forked at the tip, so they have only three tines.
The antlers are up to 110 cm long in adult individuals. As with most deer, only the males have antlers; the shaggy coat can be from yellowish brown to dark grey in colour, while it is uniform in colour, some subspecies have chestnut marks on the rump and underparts. Sambar have a small but dense mane, which tends to be more prominent in males; the tail is long for deer, is black above with a whitish underside. Adult males and pregnant or lactating females possess an unusual hairless, blood-red spot located about halfway down the underside of their throats; this sometimes oozes a white liquid, is glandular in nature. The sambar is distributed in much of South Asia as far north as the south-facing slopes of the Himalayas in Nepal and India, in mainland Southeast Asia including Burma, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, South China including Hainan Island and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Borneo. In the Himalayan foothills and eastern Taiwan, it ranges up to 3,500 m, it inhabits tropical dry forests, tropical seasonal forests, subtropical mixed forests with stands of conifers, broadleaved deciduous and broadleaved evergreen trees, to tropical rainforests, moves far from water sources.
The sambar prefers the dense cover of deciduous shrubs and grasses, although the exact nature of this varies enormously with the environment, because of its wide Asian range. Home range sizes are equally variable, but have been recorded as 1,500 ha for males and 300 ha for females in India. Sambar are crepuscular; the males live alone for much of the year, the females live in small herds of up to 16 individuals. Indeed, in some areas, the average herd consists of only three or four individuals consisting of an adult female, her most recent young, a subordinate, immature female; this is an unusual pattern for deer, which more live in larger groups. They congregate near water, are good swimmers. Like most deer, sambar are quiet, although all adults can scream or make short, high-pitched sounds when alarmed. However, they more communicate by scent marking and foot stamping. Sambar feed on a wide variety of vegetation, including grasses, browse and water plants, depending on the local habitat, they consume a great variety of shrubs and trees.
Sambar have been seen congregating in large herds in protected areas such as national parks and reserves in India, Sri Lanka, Thailand. In Taiwan, sambar along with sika deer, have been raised on farms for their antlers, which they drop annually in April to May and are prized for use as knife handles and as grips for handguns. Stags wallow and dig their antlers in urine-soaked soil, rub against tree trunks. Sambar are capable of remarkable bipedalism for a deer species, stags stand and mark tree branches above them with their antlers. A stag marks himself by spraying urine on his own face with a mobile penis. Despite their lack of antlers, female sambar defend their young from most predators, unusual among deer; when confronted by pack-hunting dholes or domestic dogs, a sambar lowers its head with an erect mane and lashes at the dogs. Sambar prefer to attack predators in shallow water. Several sambar may form a defensive formation, vocalising loudly at the dogs; when sensing danger, a sambar stamps its feet and makes a ringing call known as "pooking" or "belling".
They are favourite prey of Asiatic lions. In India, the sambar can comprise up to nearly 60% of the prey selected by the Bengal tiger. Anecdotally, the tiger is said to mimic the call of the sambar to deceive it while hunting, they can be taken by crocodiles the sympatric mugger crocodiles and estuarine crocodiles. Leopards and dholes prey on only young or sickly deer, though they can attack healthy adults, as well. Though they mate and reproduce year-round, sambar calving peaks seasonally. Oestrus lasts around 18 days; the male establishes a territory from which he attracts nearby females, but he does not establish a harem. The male stomps the ground, creating a bare patch, wallows in the mud to accentuate the colour of his hair, darker than that of females. While they have been heard to make a loud, coarse bellow, rutting stags are not vocal. Large, dominant stags defend nonexclusive territories surrounded by several smaller males, with
The Buginese people are an ethnic group—the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, in the southwestern province of Sulawesi, third largest island of Indonesia. The Austronesian ancestors of the Buginese people settled on Sulawesi around 2500 B. C. E. There is "historical linguistic evidence of some late Holocene immigration of Austronesian speakers to South Sulawesi from Taiwan"—which means that the Buginese have "possible ultimate ancestry in South China", that as a result of this immigration, "there was an infusion of an exogenous population from China or Taiwan." Migration from South China by some of the paternal ancestors of the Buginese is supported by studies of Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. The Bugis in 1605 converted to Islam from Animism; some Buginese have retained their pre-Islamic belief called Tolotang, some Bugis converted to Christianity by means of marriage. Despite the population numbering only around 6 million, the Buginese are a powerful people and they have influenced the politics in the present day states of Malaysia and Singapore.
The sixth Prime Minister of Malaysia, Najib Razak and the current Vice President of Indonesia, Jusuf Kalla are both Buginese. Although many Buginese people live in the large port cities of Makassar and Parepare, the majority are farmers who grow wet rice on the lowland plains to the north and west of the town of Maros; the name Bugis is an exonym. The Buginese people speak a distinct regional language in addition to Indonesian, called Basa Ugi, Bugis or Buginese. In reality, there are several dialects, some of which are sufficiently different from others to be considered separate languages. Buginese language belongs to the South Sulawesi language group; the homeland of the Buginese is the area around Lake Tempe and Lake Sidenreng in the Walannae Depression in the southwest peninsula of Sulawesi. It was here that the ancestors of the present-day Bugis settled in the mid- to late second millennium BC; the area is rich in fish and wildlife and the annual fluctuation of Lake Tempe allows speculative planting of wet rice, while the hills can be farmed by swidden or shifting cultivation, wet rice and hunting.
Around AD 1200 the availability of prestigious imported goods including Chinese and Southeast Asian ceramics and Gujerati print-block textiles, coupled with newly discovered sources of iron ore in Luwu stimulated an agrarian revolution which expanded from the great lakes region into the lowland plains to the east and west of the Walennae depression. This led over the next 400 years to the development of the major kingdoms of South Sulawesi, the social transformation of chiefly societies into hierarchical proto-states; the conclusion in 1669 of a protracted civil war led to a diaspora of Bugis and their entry into the politics of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. The Bugis played an important role in defeating Jambi and had a huge influence in Sultanate of Johor. Apart from the Malays, another influential faction in Johor at that time was the Minangkabau. Both the Buginese and the Minangkabau realised how the death of Sultan Mahmud II had provided them with the chance to exert power in Johor.
Under the leadership of Daeng Parani, the descendants of two families settled on the Linggi and Selangor rivers and became the power behind the Johor throne, with the creation of the office of the Yang Dipertuan Muda, or Bugis underking. Long before European colonialists extended their influence into these waters, the Makassarese, the Bajau, the Buginese built elegant, ocean-going schooners in which they plied the trade routes. Intrepid and doughty, they travelled as far east as the Aru Islands, off New Guinea, where they traded in the skins of birds of paradise and medicinal masoya bark, to northern Australia, where they exchanged shells, birds'-nests and mother-of-pearl for knives and salt with Aboriginal tribes; the Buginese sailors left their mark and culture on an area of the northern Australian coast which stretches over two thousand kilometres from the Kimberley to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Throughout these parts of northern Australia, there is much evidence of a significant Bugis presence.
Each year, the Bugis sailors would sail down on the northwestern monsoon in their wooden pinisi. They would stay in Australian waters for several months to trade and take trepang before returning to Makassar on the dry season off shore winds; as Thomas Forrest wrote in A Voyage from Calcutta to the Mergui Archipelago, S.78 ff. “The Buggesses in general are a high-spirited people. They deserve the character given of Malays in general, by Monsieur Poivre, in his Travels of a Philosopher,'fond of adventures and capable of undertaking the most dangerous enterprizes'.” Most present-day Buginese now earn their living as traders or fishermen. Women help with the agricultural work in the homes. Most Buginese people live in stilted houses, sometimes three meters or more off the ground, with plank walls and floors. Many of the marriages are still arranged by parents and ideally take place between cousins. A newlywed couple lives with the wife's family for the first few years of their marriage; the Buginese' diet consists of rice, fish, vegetables and coffee.
On festive occasions, goat is served as a special dish. The Buginese people recognise five separate genders; these are makkunrai and oroané, which are similar to cisgender male and f
The smooth-coated otter is an otter species occurring in most of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, with a disjunct population in Iraq. As its name indicates, the fur of this species is smoother and shorter than that of other otter species; the smooth-coated otter is a large otter, from 7 to 11 kg in weight and 59 to 64 cm in head-body length, with a tail 37 to 43 cm long. It is distinguished from other otter species by its more rounded head and a hairless nose in the shape of a distorted diamond, its tail is flattened, in contrast to the more rounded tails of other otters. Its legs are strong, with large webbed feet bearing strong claws; as its name suggests, it has sleek fur. Females have two pairs of teats; the smooth-coated otter has been recorded in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, southwest China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesian islands of Borneo and Java, Brunei. An isolated population is found in the marshes of Iraq, it occurs in areas where fresh water is plentiful — wetlands and seasonal swamps, rivers and rice paddies.
Where it is the only occurring otter species, it lives in any suitable habitat. But where it is sympatric with other otter species, it avoids smaller streams and canals in favour of larger water bodies. Although it is found in saltwater near the coast on smaller islands, it requires a nearby source of fresh water; the smooth-coated otter is the only living species in the genus Lutrogale. Three subspecies are recognised: L. p. perspicillata – occurs in most of India, southwestern Yunnan, most of Southeast Asia, Java L. p. maxwelli – occurs in Iraq L. p. sindica – occurs in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sind, PakistanFossils belonging to the genus Lutrogale are known from the early Pleistocene in Java. Two fossil species, an earlier form, L. robusta, the more recent L. palaeoleptonyx, are known. They fed on shellfish, rather than on fish as the current species does. Smooth-coated otters are hunt in groups, they are diurnal, have a short lull in activity during midday. They spend the night in dens dug under tree roots, or among boulders.
They use scent to communicate both within the otter species, with other animals. Each otter possesses a pair of scent glands at the base of the tail which are used to mark land or objects, such as rocks or vegetation, near feeding areas in a behavior called sprainting, they communicate through vocalisations such as whistles and wails. Some may construct permanent holts near water, in a layout similar to that of a beaver dam, with an underwater entrance and a tunnel that leads to a nest above the water. Fish comprise over 70% of their diet, but they eat reptiles, insects and small mammals. In areas where other species of otter are found, they prefer larger fish between 5 and 30 cm in length, they sometimes hunt in groups of up to 11 individuals. In the Kuala Selangor Nature Park, an otter group was observed hunting, they formed an undulating V-shaped line, pointing in the direction of movement and nearly as wide as the creek. The largest individuals occupied the middle section. In this formation, they undulated wildly through the creek, causing panic‑stricken fish to jump out of the water a few metres ahead.
They dived and grasped the fish with their snouts. They moved ashore, tossed the fish up a little on the muddy part of the bank, swallowed it head‑first in one piece. A group of otters can have a feeding range of 7 to 12 km2. A single adult consumes about 1 kg of food per day in captivity. Smooth-coated otters form small family groups of a mated pair with up to four offspring from previous seasons. Copulation lasts less than one minute. So long as the food supply is sufficient, they breed throughout the year, but where otters are dependent on monsoons for precipitation, breeding occurs between October and February. A litter of up to five pups is born after a gestation period of 60 to 63 days. However, on 14 June 2014, a smooth-coated otter called Ping at Wingham Wildlife Park in the UK gave birth to a litter of seven young; the mothers raise their young in a burrow near water. They may either construct such a burrow themselves. At birth, the pups are blind and helpless, but after 10 days, their eyes open, they are weaned at about three to five months.
They reach adult size at about a year of age, sexual maturity at two or three years. In Singapore, it was discovered that female Asian small-clawed otters interbred with male smooth-coated otters, resulting in the first documented case of hybridization between otter species in the wild; the resulting offspring and their descendants bred back into the smooth-coated otter population, but maintained many of the genes found in their small-clawed otter ancestors. Today, a population of at least 60 of these hybrid otters exists in Singapore, but the question remains as to how widespread the hybridization is between these two species is, the resulting effects it has. Major threats to Asian otter population are loss of wetland habitats due to construction of large-scale hydroelectric projects, reclamation of wetlands for settlements and agriculture, reduction in prey biomass and contamination of waterways by pesticides. In most Asian countries, increased human population during the last century and ineffective rural development programmes have not been able to address the