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Kuwaiti dinar

The Kuwaiti dinar is the currency of Kuwait. It is sub-divided into 1,000 fils; as of September 2019, the Kuwaiti dinar is the world's highest-valued currency unit per face value. The dinar was introduced in 1960 to replace the Gulf rupee, equal to the Indian rupee, it was equivalent to one pound sterling. As the rupee was fixed at 1 shilling 6 pence, that resulted in a conversion rate of ​13 1⁄3 rupees to the dinar; when Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, the Iraqi dinar replaced the Kuwaiti dinar as the currency and large quantities of banknotes were stolen by the invading forces. After liberation, the Kuwaiti dinar was restored as the country's currency and a new banknote series was introduced, allowing the previous notes, including those stolen, to be demonetized; the coins in the following table were introduced in 1961. The design of all coins has not changed since they were first minted. On the obverse is a boom ship, with year of minting in both Islamic and Common Era in Arabic; the reverse contains the value in Arabic within a central circle with إمَارَة الكُوَيت above and KUWAIT in English below.

Unlike many other Middle Eastern currencies, Kuwait has a coin worth 0.2 of its main currency unit rather than 0.25. The 1 fils coin was last minted in 1988. Six series of the Kuwaiti dinar banknote have been printed; the first series was issued following the pronouncement of the Kuwaiti Currency Law in 1960, which established the Kuwaiti Currency Board. This series was in circulation from 1 April 1961 to 1 February 1982 and consisted of denominations of ​1⁄4, ​1⁄2, 1, 5 and 10 dinars. After the creation of the Central Bank of Kuwait in 1969 as a replacement to the Kuwaiti Currency Board, new ​1⁄4, ​1⁄2 and 10 dinar notes were issued from 17 November 1970, followed by the new 1 and 5 dinar notes of the second series on 20 April 1971; this second series was withdrawn on 1 February 1982. The third series was issued on 20 February 1980, after the accession to the throne of late Emir Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah, in denominations of ​1⁄4, ​1⁄2, 1, 5 and 10 dinars. A 20 dinars banknote was introduced on 9 February 1986.

As a result of the state of emergency after the Invasion of Kuwait, this series was ruled invalid with effect from 30 September 1991. Significant quantities of these notes were stolen by Iraqi forces and some had appeared on the international numismatic market; the "Standard Catalog of World Paper Money" lists notes with the following serial number prefix denominators as being among those stolen: After the liberation, a fourth series was issued on 24 March 1991 with the aims of replacing the previous withdrawn series as as possible and guaranteeing the country's swift economic recovery. This fourth series was legal tender until 16 February 1995. Denominations were 1⁄2, 1, 5, 10 and 20 dinars; the fifth series of Kuwaiti banknotes were in use from 3 April 1994 and included high-tech security measures which have now become standard for banknotes. Denominations were as in the fourth series. Central Bank of Kuwait brought the sixth series of Kuwaiti banknotes into circulation on 29 June 2014; some of the bills are coarse so.

In both 1993 and 2001, the Central Bank of Kuwait issued commemorative 1-dinar polymer banknotes to celebrate its Liberation from Iraq. The first commemorative note, dated 26 February 1993, was issued to celebrate the second anniversary of its Liberation; the front features the map of the State of Kuwait, the emblem of Kuwait and on the left and right side of the note is the list of nations that assisted in its Liberation, in both English and Arabic. The second commemorative note, dated 26 February 2001, was issued to celebrate the tenth anniversary of its Liberation. One feature from the note is an optically variable device patch that shows a fingerprint, a reference to the victims of the invasion and occupation of Kuwait. Though they were denominated as 1 dinar, both of the commemorative notes state that they were not legal tender. From 18 March 1975 to 4 January 2003, the dinar was pegged to a weighted currency basket. From 5 January 2003 until 20 May 2007, the pegging was switched to 1 US dollar = 0.29963 dinar with margins of ±3.5%.

The central rate translates to 1 KWD = US$3.53 From 16 June 2007, the Kuwaiti dinar was re-pegged to a basket of currencies, was worth about $3.28 as of December 2016. It is the world's highest-valued currency unit. Economy of Kuwait Images and description of banknotes The banknotes of Kuwait

4 Reconnaissance Commando (South Africa)

The 4 Reconnaissance Commando is a defunct South African Special Forces unit of the South African Defence Force, formed in July 1978, specialising in amphibious operations. In 1976, during Operation Savannah, a need was identified for more operational special forces units and in particular units with more specialised skills. In March 1976, Major Malcolm Kinghorn formed a sub-unit specialising in amphibious operations for use in Angola during Operation Savannah, it was formed at Salisbury Island and consisted of a headquarters unit of Kinghorn and a NCO and two units of six men each and was called Charlie Group of 1 Reconnaissance Commando. On 1 May 1976, the Defence Minister approved the formation of 4 Reconnaissance Commando but it would take a further two years before it was formally established; the unit was formed on the 17 July 1978 as 4 Reconnaissance Commando at Langebaan with Major Kinghorn as the first commanding officer and the first RSM was Warrant Officer “Chili” du Plessis. It was made up of members of 1 Reconnaissance Commando.

On 1 January 1979, Major Kinghorn was given a temporary rank of Commandant. During the 1981 reorganisation, 4 Reconnaissance Commando was renamed 4 Reconnaissance Regiment; the unit was said to be small with white soldiers who operated in Angola and Mozambique In 1978, 4 Reconnaissance Commando was structured into three groups: Alpha Group – amphibious operations training, Bravo Group – operational, Charlie Group – diving,but when 4 Reconnaissance Commando was renamed 4 Reconnaissance Regiment in 1981 it was structured as: 4.1 Commando – operational component with five teams: Diving Team – offensive operational attack divers Boat Team – maintain and operate the teams boats and work with the naval vessels crews Offensive Team – carried out the special forces tasks Small Teams – carry out reconnaissance and lead the offensive teams to the targets Reconnaissance Team – handle intelligence gathering operations in larger teams4.2 Commando – training element called Special Forces Amphibious and Urban School The next reorganisation occurred in 1992 when the Special Forces HQ was disbanded and renamed the Directorate Reconnaissance Forces and 4 RR remained but 2RR, the citizen force unit, was disbanded.

In 1993, a further reorganisation occurred when the Directorate Reconnaissance Forces was renamed as the 45 Para Brigade and 4 Reconnaissance Commando was renamed the 453 Para Battalion. The last change occurred in 1995, 45 Para Brigade became the Special Forces Brigade and subsequently 453 Para Battalion is now called 4 Special Forces Regiment. Officers commanding were: 1978–1982: Cmdt. M. Kinghorn 1982–1994: Col. J. Venter 1994–n.d.: Col. K. Nel Steyn, Douw. Iron Fist From The Sea: South Africa's Seaborne Raiders 1978-1988. Solihull, West Midlands: Helion & Company. ISBN 978-1909982284. Http://www.recce.co.za/cold-war-africa/

Architecture parlante

Architecture parlante is architecture that explains its own function or identity. The phrase was associated with Claude Nicolas Ledoux, was extended to other Paris-trained architects of the Revolutionary period, Étienne-Louis Boullée, Jean-Jacques Lequeu. Emil Kaufmann traced its first use to an anonymous critical essay with Ledoux's work as the subject, written for Magasin pittoresque in 1852, entitled "Etudes d'architecture en France". Within more practical applications, nonce orders, invented under the impetus of Neoclassicism, have served as examples of architecture parlante. Several orders simply based upon the Composite order and only varying in the design of the capitals, have been invented under the inspiration of specific occasions, but have not been used again. Thus, they may be termed "nonce orders" on the analogy of nonce words. In 1762, James Adam invented a British order featuring the heraldic unicorn. In 1789, George Dance invented the Ammonite order, a variant of Ionic substituting volutes in the form of fossil ammonites for Boydell Shakespeare Gallery in Pall Mall, London.

In the United States, Benjamin Latrobe, the architect of the Capitol Building in Washington DC, designed a series of American orders. Most famous is the order substituting corncobs and their husks, executed by Giuseppe Franzoni and installed in a vestibule of the Capitol Building; the same concept, in the somewhat more restrained form of allegorical sculpture and inscriptions, became one of the hallmarks of Beaux-Arts structures, thereby filtered through to American civic architecture. One fine example is the 1901 New York Yacht Club building on 44th Street in Manhattan, designed by the team of Warren and Wetmore, its three front windows are patterned on the sterns of early Dutch ships, the façade drips with nautical-themed applied sculpture. The same team designed the 1912 Grand Central Terminal, which contains self-explaining architectural elements in the form of the oversized allegorical sculpture group, in the ingenious way that the shapes, steps, arches and passageways inherent in the structure constitute a language that helps visitors orient themselves and find their way through the building.

The same year, McKim, Mead & White designed the nearby Farley Post Office Building with its famous inscription adapted from Herodotus: "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds." The civic architecture of Washington DC provides some of the most poetic and most verbose inscriptions. Beaux-Arts architect Daniel Burnham is responsible for the Washington Union Station, with its inscription program developed by Harvard president Charles William Eliot, it includes over the main entrance this paean: "Fire: greatest of discoveries, enabling man to live in various climates, use many foods, compel the forces of nature to do his work. Electricity: carrier of light and power, devourer of time and space, bearer of human speech over land and sea, greatest servant of man, itself unknown. Thou hast put all things under his feet." The 1932 Commerce Department Building, part of the capital's neo-Classical building boom in the 1930s, has this extreme example: "The inspiration that guided our forefathers led them to secure above all things the unity of our country.

We rest upon government by consent of the governed and the political order of the United States as the expression of a patriotic ideal which welds together all the elements of our national energy promoting the organization that fosters individual initiative. Within this edifice are established agencies that have been created to buttress the life of the people, to clarify their problems and coordinate their resources, seeking to lighten burdens without lessening the responsibility of the citizen. In serving one and all they are dedicated to the purpose of the founders and to the highest hopes of the future with their local administration given to the integrity and welfare of the nation." Beyond such inscriptions, in the United States the concept of architecture parlante reached its zenith in the Nebraska State Capitol and the Los Angeles Public Library, both by architect Bertram Goodhue and both containing inscriptions by iconographer Hartley Burr Alexander. With their extensive architectural sculpture programs, tile murals, painted murals, ornamental fixtures and inscriptions, both of these buildings seem eager to communicate a set of social values.

With the advent of Modernism, its formal rigor and its distaste for ornament of any kind, by 1940 or so architectural parlante was eliminated from the serious architectural vocabulary and found only in commercial and vernacular oddities such as The Brown Derby. Postmodernism has seen a revival of these ideas. Terry Farrell's eggcup-surmounted headquarters for TV-am in London and the book-shaped towers of the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris, can be seen as examples. Michael Graves's unbuilt project, Fargo-Moorhead Cultural Center is a revivalistic example of Ledoux's Inspector's House of Chaux