This presence in the popular consciousness is evidenced by its historical frequency in folk songs, folk tales and other folklore, and its modern trope status in literature and films. Although some folk heroes are historical figures, many are not. The lives of heroes are generally fictional, their characteristics. One major category of folk hero is the defender of the people against the oppression or corruption of the established power structure. Members of this category of folk hero often, but not necessarily, robbed dozens of banks, escaped from jail multiple times. Before being boiled in oil, he saved his infant son at the cost of his own life, jack Mary Ann – a folk hero from the Wrexham area of north Wales whose fictionalised exploits continue to circulate in local folklore. James Morrow Walsh - Canada, a mountie who turned Sitting Bull, burned as a heretic she became a martyr, folk hero, and eventually a saint. She is now one of the saints of France. Miyamoto Musashi – Japan, a swordsman, soldier and author Miloš Obilić – Serbia.
Redmond OHanlon – Irish, rapparee of the 17th century Pemulwuy - Australia, sarutobi Sasuke – Japan, incredibly acrobatic spy said to have been raised by monkeys and trained in the Ninja heartland of Iga and Koga provinces during the golden age of the Ninja. Preventing bloodshed between the First Nation peoples and the peoples of Canada. Cúchulainn - Ireland, folk legend and the pre-eminent hero of Ulaid in the Ulster Cycle Fionn mac Cumhaill - Ireland, primary figure in the Oisin cycle. Homer - Credited author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, el Santo - Real life Mexican wrestler, with heavy fictionalised adventures in movies and comic books Culture hero Seal, Graham
Mikhail Ivanovich Scotti or Michele Pietro Scotti was a Russian history and religious painter of Italian ancestry. He received his education at Saint Catherines catholic school. After his fathers death, he was adopted and raised by the artist, Alexei Yegorov and he audited classes at the Imperial Academy of Arts, and was awarded a silver medal for drawing from life. He graduated with a medal in 1835. For a time, he worked on the Shepelev estate, near Ardatov, giving drawing lessons and painting icons. Shortly after, he went to Italy, by way of Germany with Count Pavel Kutaisov, chairman of the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts and that year, he painted icons for the Russian Orthodox chapel at the embassy in Istanbul. In 1845, he created series of icons for Saviour Cathedral in Nizhny Novgorod. After 1849, he went to Moscow to replace Fyodor Zavyalov as a teacher and inspector at the Moscow School of Painting and his students there included Konstantin Makovsky, Nikolai Nevrev, Vasily Perov and Sergei Gribkov.
He continued to paint numerous religious works, notably at the Annunciation Church in Saint Petersburg, under the direction of its designer, in 1857, he began to travel, visiting Italy and France. He died in Paris after a brief, sudden illness and was buried at the Père Lachaise Cemetery, the painter Mikhail Scotti, by Lyudmila Markina @ Наше Наследие Flowers for the Madonna. On the bicentenary of Mikhail Scottis birth from the Tretyakov Gallery magazine
Ivan Yegorovich Zabelin was a Russian historian and archaeologist with a Slavophile bent who helped establish the National History Museum on Red Square and presided over this institution until 1906. He was the foremost authority on the history of the city of Moscow, Zabelin joined the Moscow Kremlin staff in 1837. Influenced by the early Muscovite antiquaries such as Ivan Snegirev and Pavel Stroyev, Zabelin was one of the first to investigate the history of Moscows suburbs, while working in the Armoury, Zabelin studied the history of metalworking and enamel work in medieval Russia. He was considered an expert on icon-painting and Muscovite architecture, in 1859 Count Sergei Stroganov invited Zabelin to excavate the Scythian tumulus graves in South Russia and the Crimea. He is credited with introducing stratigraphic methods in Russian field archaeology and it was he who excavated the Chertomlyk grave, one of the largest Scythian kurgans. His findings are now part of the Hermitage Museum collection, Zabelin joined forces with Count Aleksey Uvarov in establishing the Russian Archaeological Society.
He summed up his findings in The Antiquities of Herodotuss Scythia, in 1873 Zabelin quit archaeological pursuites and devoted himself to the study of Pre-Petrine, late medieval Muscovy. He headed the Moscow Society of History and Archaeology between 1872 and 1888 and was revered by the Romantic Nationalist artists such as Andrei Ryabushkin, Sergei Milyutin, in 1894 Zabelin was elected into the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Zabelin believed that the soul of the people manifests itself not so much in the institutions and political history but in the quotidian particulars of domestic life. He elaborated his views in the series of monographs detailing the life of Russian people in the 16th and 17th centuries. Zabelins great trilogy The Domestic Life of the Russian Tsars, The Domestic Life of Russian Tsarinas and his magnum opus The History of the Russian Mode of Life from the Earliest Times was left unfinished. Works by or about Ivan Zabelin at Internet Archive
Nizhny Novgorod, colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and Volga Federal District in Russia. From 1932 to 1990, it was known as Gorky, after the writer Maxim Gorky, the city is an important economic, scientific and cultural center in Russia and the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, and is the main center of river tourism in Russia. In the historical part of the city there are a number of universities, museums. Nizhny Novgorod is located about 400 km east of Moscow, where the Oka empties into the Volga, the city was founded in 1221 by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir. In 1612 Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky organized an army for the liberation of Moscow from the Poles, in 1817 Nizhny Novgorod became a great trade center of the Russian Empire. In 1896 at a fair, an All-Russia Exhibition was organized, during the Soviet period, the city turned into an important industrial center. In particular, the Gorky Automobile Plant was constructed in this period, the city was given the nickname Russian Detroit.
During the World War II Gorky became the biggest provider of equipment to the front. Due to this, the Luftwaffe constantly bombed the city from the air, the majority of the German bombs fell in the area of the Gorky Automobile Plant. Although almost all the sites of plant were completely destroyed. After the war, Gorky became a city and remained one until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990. At that time the city was renamed Nizhny Novgorod once again, in 1985 the metro was opened. In 2016 Vladimir Putin opened the new 70th Anniversary of Victory Plant which is part of the Almaz-Antey Air, the Kremlin – the main center of the city – contains the main government agencies of the city and the Volga Federal District. Originally the name was just Novgorod, but to distinguish it from the other and well-known Novgorod to the west and this land was named lower because it is situated downstream, especially from the point of view of other Russian cities such as Moscow and Murom. Later it was transformed into the name of the city that literally means Lower Newtown.
Later a major stronghold for border protection, Nizhny Novgorod fortress took advantage of a moat formed by the two rivers. With the agreement of the Mongol Khan, Nizhny Novgorod was incorporated into the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality in 1264, after 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in 1350. Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow, he built a stone citadel, the earliest extant manuscript of the Russian Primary Chronicle, the Laurentian Codex, was written for him by the local monk Laurentius in 1377
It was founded in 1474 as Sol-na-Gorodtse. After the Khan of Kazan razed it to the ground in 1536, for the following three centuries, Balakhna prospered as a center of saltworks and grain trade. By the Time of Troubles, it was the twelfth largest city in Russia, adam Olearius visited and described the town in 1636. That year several shipwrights from Holstein built the first Russian ships here, the people of Balakhna were reputed for their skills in knitting and making colored tiles, which were used for decoration of the Savior Church and other local temples. Balakhna is one of the few Russian cities shown on the 1689 Amsterdam World Map, the northwestern part of Balakhna is known as Pravdinsk. It used to be a separate urban-type settlement before it was merged into Balakhna in 1993, the settlement was named after the Moscow Pravda newspaper, which at some point may have been the largest consumer of newsprint produced at the local paper mill. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Balakhna serves as the center of Balakhninsky District.
As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Balakhninsky District as the town of significance of Balakhna. As a municipal division, the town of significance of Balakhna is incorporated within Balakhninsky Municipal District as Balakhna Urban Settlement. The oldest structure in the city is the church of St. Nicholas. Of all the churches built in brick, this is the nearest approach to their wooden prototypes. Another church, dating from the 17th century, houses a municipal museum, the Nativity church represents an archaic monumental type of monastery cathedral. Nearby is a statue of Kuzma Minin, who was born in Balakhna and it has a youth bandy team called FOK Olimpiyskiy. Приказ №3-од от27 января2016 г, «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных образований, городских и сельских населённых пунктов Нижегородской области». Опубликован, Нижегородская правда, №27 и №30,19 и26 марта2016 г, Закон №107-З от28 сентября2006 г. «Об утверждении границ, состава территории Балахнинского муниципального района и состава территорий муниципальных образований, входящих в состав Балахнинского муниципального района», Закона №13-З от6 февраля2013 г. Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Нижегородские новости, №184,7 октября2006 г
Yaroslavl State University
The Yaroslavl Demidov State University is an institution of higher education in Yaroslavl, Russia. In 1918, Yaroslavl Demidov State University became a university to the Demidov Lyceum. Pavel Grigoryevich Demidov established the Demidov Law School by private means in 1803, on June 18,1803, Alexander the First, signed an Edict to the Senate about opening a higher educational institution in Yaroslavl. In 1819 modern French and German were added to the syllabus, anyone who presented a certificate of general education or passed the schools entrance examination could be educated at their own expense. In the decrees of Alexander I, it was emphasised that diplomas received from the School of Higher Sciences were equal to university degrees. In 1804, the first five students from the University of Moscow were sent to Yaroslavl to be educated, the schools fortunes waned and by the mid-19th century the institution seemed to be in decline. This gained assent from Alexander II, after its transformation into a Juridical Lyceum with higher educational and publishing status, Demidovs school in Yaroslavl enrolled over 900 students.
The opening of the Demidov Juridical Lyceum took place on September 11,1870, twenty scholarships which afforded government maintenance funds to their holders were prepared and awarded each year. After the first students graduated, the judicial lyceum’s interim statute was made permanent, in 1905 important changes were also made to the organisation structure of the judicial lyceum, and resultantly, for the first time ever, the Lyceum’s Council elected the schools director. The possibility of transforming the Demidov judicial lyceum into a university began to be discussed in 1906 and this initiative came from the Lyceum’s Council and was supported by the larger community of Yaroslavl, the towns authorities and the Ministry of Public Education. The Yaroslavl town council states that it was prepared to make a gift of 16 hectares of land, on August 7,1918, Vladimir Lenin signed a decree to change the Demidov Juridical Lyceum into a University. The university had 29 departments, including Agronomic, Pedagogical and Law faculties, in 1924, after the death of Vladimir Lenin, the university was closed.
In accordance with the decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars of January 21,1919, signed by Lenin, the university also had faculties for the social sciences, agronomy and technical education. The universitys rectors, during its existence, were Valerian Nikolaevich Shiryaev, in 1924, the State University of Yaroslavl was closed due to reorganisation of the new-born USSRs education system, all of which was caused by financial difficulties in the country. The main building of the Lyceum was set alight and burned on the night of 7 July 1918 during the Yaroslavl Uprising and was demolished in 1929. In 1931, the Demidov pillar was dismantled, on September 1,1970, the university was reopened and enrolled 300 students. Since the university has gone from strength to strength and is now considered to be one of Russias premier universities. The university takes place in a number of programs with universities
A butcher is a person who may slaughter animals, dress their flesh, sell their meat or do any combination of these three tasks. They may prepare standard cuts of meat and poultry for sale in retail or wholesale food establishments, a butcher may be employed by supermarkets, grocery stores, butcher shops and fish markets, slaughter house, or may be self-employed. An ancient trade, whose duties may date back to the domestication of livestock, many jurisdictions offer trade certifications for butchers. Some areas expect a three-year apprenticeship followed by the option of becoming a master butcher, butchery is a traditional line of work. In the industrialized world, slaughterhouses use butchers to slaughter the animals, the steps include stunning, skinning or scalding and dehairing and splitting. Secondary butchery involves boning and trimming primal cuts in preparation for sale, historically and secondary butchery were performed in the same establishment, but the advent of methods of preservation and low cost transportation has largely separated them.
In parts of the world, it is common for butchers to perform many or all of the butchers duties, where refrigeration is less common, these skills are required to sell the meat of slaughtered animals. Some butchers sell their goods in specialized stores, commonly termed a butcher shop, butchers at a butcher shop may perform primary butchery, but will typically perform secondary butchery to prepare fresh cuts of meat for sale. These shops may sell related products, such as food supplies, baked goods. Butcher shops can have a variety of animal types, meat cuts. Additionally, butcher shops may focus on a culture, or nationality. Some butcher shops, termed meat delis, may include a delicatessen. In the United States and Canada, butcher shops are becoming common because of the increasing popularity of supermarkets. A primal cut is a piece of meat initially separated from the carcass during butchering, different countries and cultures make these cuts in different ways, and primal cuts differ between type of carcass.
The British and French primal cuts all differ in some respects, a notable example is fatback, which in Europe is an important primal cut of pork, but in North America is regarded as trimmings to be used in sausage or rendered into lard. The primal cuts may be complete or cut further. See Butcher In various periods and cultures, the butcher has been applied to people who act cruelly to other human beings or slaughter them
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, primarily known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. He was a nominee for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Around fifteen years before success as a writer, he changed jobs and roamed across the Russian Empire. Gorkys most famous works were The Lower Depths, Twenty-six Men and he had an association with fellow Russian writers Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov, Gorky would mention them in his memoirs. Gorky was active with the emerging Marxist social-democratic movement and he publicly opposed the Tsarist regime, and for a time closely associated himself with Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanovs Bolshevik wing of the party. For a significant part of his life, he was exiled from Russia, in 1932, he returned to Russia on Joseph Stalins personal invitation and died there in June 1936. Born as Alexei Maximovich Peshkov on 28 March 1868, in Nizhny Novgorod and he was brought up by his grandmother and ran away from home at the age of twelve in 1880.
After an attempt at suicide in December 1887, he travelled on foot across the Russian Empire for five years, changing jobs, as a journalist working for provincial newspapers, he wrote under the pseudonym Иегудиил Хламида. He began using the pseudonym Gorky in 1892, while working in Tiflis for the newspaper Кавказ, the name reflected his simmering anger about life in Russia and a determination to speak the bitter truth. Gorkys first book Очерки и рассказы in 1898 enjoyed a sensational success, Gorky wrote incessantly, viewing literature less as an aesthetic practice than as a moral and political act that could change the world. He described the lives of people in the lowest strata and on the margins of society, revealing their hardships and brutalisation, but their inward spark of humanity. Gorkys reputation grew as a literary voice from the bottom strata of society and as a fervent advocate of Russias social, political. By 1899, he was associating with the emerging Marxist social-democratic movement.
At the heart of all his work was a belief in the inherent worth, in his writing, he counterposed individuals, aware of their natural dignity, and inspired by energy and will, with people who succumb to the degrading conditions of life around them. But if thou art for thyself alone, wherefore art thou and he publicly opposed the Tsarist regime and was arrested many times. Gorky befriended many revolutionaries and became a friend of Vladimir Lenin after they met in 1902. He exposed governmental control of the press, in 1902, Gorky was elected an honorary Academician of Literature, but Tsar Nicholas II ordered this annulled. In protest, Anton Chekhov and Vladimir Korolenko left the Academy, from 1900 to 1905, Gorkys writings became more optimistic
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias. Published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia, the GSE claimed to be the first Marxist-Leninist general-purpose encyclopedia. The idea of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia emerged in 1923 on the initiative of Otto Schmidt, involved was Anatoly Lunacharsky, Commissar of Enlightenment, who had previously been involved with a proposal by Alexander Bogdanov and Maxim Gorky to produce a Workers Encyclopedia. The first edition of 65 volumes was published during 1926–1947, the editor being Otto Schmidt. The second edition of 50 volumes was published in 1950–1958, chief editors, Sergei Vavilov and Boris Vvedensky, the third edition of 1969–1978 contains 30 volumes. Volume 24 is in two books, one being a book about the USSR, all with about 21 million words. In the third edition, much attention was paid to the problems of natural sciences and chemical sciences. From 1957 to 1990, the Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia was released annually with up-to-date articles about the Soviet Union, the first online edition, an exact replica of text and graphics of the third edition, was published by Rubricon. com in 2000.
With exhaustive completeness it must show the superiority of socialist culture over the culture of the capitalist world, operating on Marxist-Leninist theory, the encyclopedia should give a party criticism of contemporary bourgeois tendencies in various provinces of science and technics. The third edition of the GSE subsequently expanded on the role of education, Education is essential to preparing for life and it is the basic means by which people come to know and acquire culture, and it is the foundation of cultures development. A. Vvedensky stating their compliance with the 1949 decree of the Council of Ministers and they are working under a government directive that orders them to orient their encyclopedia as sharply as a political tract. The encyclopedia was planned to provide the intellectual underpinning for the Soviet world offensive in the duel for mens minds. The Soviet government ordered it as a propaganda weapon. And the government attaches such importance to its political role that its board of editors is chosen by and is only to the high Council of Ministers itself.
The third edition was translated and published into English in 31 volumes between 1974 and 1983 by Macmillan Publishers, not all entries were translated into English, these are indicated in the index. Articles from the English edition are available online by TheFreeDictionary. com. The third edition was translated into Greek and published in 34 volumes between 1977 and 1983, all articles that were related to Greece or Greek history and society were expanded and hundreds of new ones were written especially for the Greek edition. Thus the encyclopedia contains, for example, both the Russian entry on Greece as well as a larger one prepared by Greek contributors
Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky, a Rurikid prince, led Russian forces against Polish invaders in 1611-1612 towards the end of the Time of Troubles. He obtained from Mikhail I of Russia the unprecedented title Saviour of the Motherland, Pozharsky was descended from a dynasty of sovereign princes which ruled the town of Starodub-on-the-Klyazma near Suzdal. At one point in the 15th century their family patrimony burned to the ground, the family was never particularly prominent, and Pozharskys early career was not documented until he took part in the Zemsky sobor which elected Boris Godunov to the throne in 1598. Four years later, he was attested as a stolnik, when the Time of Troubles broke out upon Godunovs death, he was present at the defense of Kolomna and helped Vasily IV during the Siege of Moscow in 1609. Later that year, he routed the Bolotnikov Cossacks at the Pekhorka River, by that time, the popular indignation against abuses of the Polish aggressors had gained momentum. After Prokopy Lyapunov rallied the first Volunteer Army in Ryazan, Pozharsky promptly joined the cause of rebels, the prince agreed on condition that he would be assisted by Kuzma Minin, a representative of the Nizhegorod merchants.
Although the volunteer corps aimed at clearing the Polish invaders out of Moscow, there they resided for half a year, vacillating until the opportunity for rapid action was gone. A man of devout disposition, Pozharsky fervently prayed before Our Lady of Kazan, one of the holiest Russian icons, the very next day Pozharsky advanced to the Arbat Gate of the city and two days he engaged with Chodkiewiczs contingent in a four-day battle. The outcome was in no small part due to actions of Pozharskys assistant, Prince Dmitry Trubetskoy. As a result, a famine broke out among the Poles and they had to surrender to Pozharsky and Trubetskoy in October, after being guaranteed safe passage, most of the Poles were slaughtered upon exiting the Kremlin and few survived captivity. The Time of Troubles was now over, but minor risings couldnt be subdued for a period of time. He governed Novgorod in 1628-30 and fortified Moscow against an attack of the Crimean Tatars in 1637. Pozharskys last taste of battle came during the ill-fated Smolensk campaign, as soon as peace had been restored, Pozharsky was given some enviable posts in the Muscovite administration.
Among other positions, he managed the Prikaz of Transport in 1619, the Prikaz of Police in 1621–28 and he was summoned by the tsar to confer with the English ambassadors in 1617 and with the Polish ones in 1635. One such tent-like church survives in his estate of Medvedkovo. Another was the Kazan Cathedral in Moscow, adjoining Red Square from north-east, Pozharskys family became extinct in 1672, upon the death of his granddaughter, who was married to Prince Yury Dolgorukov, the most famous Russian commander of the time. Yet his memory would be cherished by the Romanov dynasty which to a great extent owned the crown due to his prowess, when patriotic feelings were on the rise during the Napoleonic wars, a bronze Monument to Minin and Pozharsky was erected on Red Square. The day when Pozharsky and Minin entered the Moscow Kremlin as liberators was declared a holiday in 2005
The Poles are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland who share a common ancestry, culture and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of a population of 38,538,000. Polands population inhabits several historic regions, including Greater Poland, Lesser Poland, Silesia, Kuyavia, Masuria, a wide-ranging Polish diaspora exists throughout Europe, the Americas and in Australasia. Today the largest urban concentration of Poles is the Katowice urban agglomeration of 2.7 million inhabitants, Poland was for centuries a refuge for many Jews from all over Europe, a large number emigrated in the twentieth century to Israel. Several prominent Israeli statesmen were born in Poland, including Israels founder David Ben-Gurion, former President of Israel Shimon Peres, the Slavic people have been in the territory of modern Poland for over 1500 years. In the 9th and 10th centuries the tribes gave rise to developed regions along the upper Vistula, the last tribal undertaking resulted in the 10th century in a lasting political structure and state, one of the West Slavic nations.
After 1945 the so-called autochthonous or aboriginal school of Polish prehistory received official backing in Poland, Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union. Estimates vary depending on source, though available data suggest a number of around 60 million people worldwide. There are almost 38 million Poles in Poland alone, there are Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including Germany, and indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic, Lithuania and Belarus. There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova, the term Polonia is usually used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders, officially estimated at around 10 to 20 million. There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States, France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a relatively large Polish-descendant population. Poles have lived in France since the 18th century, in the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France, mostly during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation or Soviet rule.
In the United States, a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Detroit, New York City, Pittsburgh, the highest concentration of Polish Americans in a single New England municipality is in New Britain, Connecticut. The majority of Polish Canadians have arrived in Canada since World War II, the number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 and 1970, and again after the end of Communism in Poland in 1989. In Brazil the majority of Polish immigrants settled in Paraná State, but significant numbers settled in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo and São Paulo. The city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world and Polish music, dishes and it is estimated that over half a million Polish people have come to work in the United Kingdom from Poland. Since 2011, Poles have been able to work throughout the EU and not just in the United Kingdom, Ireland. The Polish community in Norway has increased substantially and has grown to a number of 120,000