Kyanite is a blue aluminosilicate mineral found in aluminium-rich metamorphic pegmatites and/or sedimentary rock. Kyanite in metamorphic rocks indicates pressures higher than four kilobars, it is found in quartz. Although stable at lower pressure and low temperature, the activity of water is high enough under such conditions that it is replaced by hydrous aluminosilicates such as muscovite, pyrophyllite, or kaolinite. Kyanite is known as disthene and cyanite. Kyanite is a member of the aluminosilicate series, which includes the polymorph andalusite and the polymorph sillimanite. Kyanite is anisotropic, in that its hardness varies depending on its crystallographic direction. In kyanite, this anisotropism can be considered an identifying characteristic. At temperatures above 1100 °C kyanite decomposes into mullite and vitreous silica via the following reaction: 3 → 3Al2O3·2SiO2 + SiO2; this transformation results in an expansion. Its name comes from the same origin as that of the color cyan, being derived from the Ancient Greek word κύανος.
This is rendered into English as kyanos or kuanos and means "dark blue". Kyanite is used in refractory and ceramic products, including porcelain plumbing and dishware, it is used in electronics, electrical insulators and abrasives. Kyanite has been used as a semiprecious gemstone, which may display cat's eye chatoyancy, though this use is limited by its anisotropism and perfect cleavage. Color varieties include discovered orange kyanite from Tanzania; the orange color is due to inclusion of small amounts of manganese in the structure. Kyanite is one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism. Kyanite's elongated, columnar crystals are a good first indication of the mineral, as well as its color. Associated minerals are useful as well the presence of the polymorphs of staurolite, which occur with kyanite. However, the most useful characteristic in identifying kyanite is its anisotropism. If one suspects a specimen to be kyanite, verifying that it has two distinctly different hardness values on perpendicular axes is a key to identification.
Kyanite occurs in gneiss, schist and quartz veins resulting from high pressure regional metamorphism of principally pelitic rocks. It occurs as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks, it occurs associated with staurolite, sillimanite, hornblende, gedrite and corundum. Kyanite occurs in Manhattan schist, formed under extreme pressure as a result of the two landmasses that formed supercontinent Pangaea. Specific citations General references "Cyanite". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Tabitha Denholm is a British director of music videos, documentary shorts and commercials. Denholm was a member of DJ duo Queens of Noize and became art director for Florence and the Machine, her work has been nominated for MTV Video Music Awards. She lives in Los Angeles. At age 14, Denholm signed with Storm Model Management; as a model, she appeared in videos by Ace of Base. Denholm got a degree in cultural studies from the University of North London. After meeting DJ Mairead Nash at a party, Denholm formed the DJ duo Queens of Noize and, with Nash, presented on MTV2 and BBC 6 Music and worked with The Libertines. After Queens of Noize disbanded, Mairead Nash became the manager for Florence and the Machine and Denholm became art director, after meeting vocalist Florence Welch and booking her for Queens of Noize's Christmas party. Denholm co-directed with Tom Beard several singles from Lungs including "Dog Days Are Over," "Rabbit Heart" and "You've Got the Love." These videos were nominated for several 2009 VMAs.
She has since directed videos for artists including Haim, Julia Michaels, Of Monsters and Men and Ladyhawke. In 2015, Denholm's video for Jennifer Hudson's "I Still Love You" was nominated for the Video with a Social Message VMA. In 2016, after watching a documentary about director and screenwriter Frances Marion, Denholm started the Women Under The Influence collective to support female directors. Denholm dated Pete Doherty during the Libertines' early years. "Dog Days Are Over" - Florence and the Machine "Rabbit Heart" - Florence and the Machine "You've Got the Love" - Florence and the Machine "Cosmic Love" - Florence and the Machine "Not Fade Away" - Florence and the Machine "Black White & Blue" - Ladyhawke "Breaking Down" - Florence and the Machine "Never Let Me Go" - Florence and the Machine "Solemn Skies" - Childhood "Falling" - Haim "From a Window Seat" - Dawes "Wild Child" - Juliet Simms "Masterpiece - Jessie J "Wasted" - Tiësto feat. Matthew Koma "Wasted Love - Matt McAndrew "Empire" - Of Monsters and Men "How Big, How Blue, How Beautiful" - Florence and the Machine "I Still Love You" - Jennifer Hudson "I Know A Place" - MUNA "Issues" - Julia Michaels "Wearing Nothing" - Dagny "Florence Welch: Letter from LA" "Haim: Desert Days" "Dickie Landry: New York Stories" "Camila Cabello: Made in Miami" Tabitha Denholm on Vimeo Tabitha Denholm on IMDb
The Okanagan Regional Library system serves the Okanagan region of the Canadian province of British Columbia. Its administrative headquarters are in Kelowna; the system covers 59,000 square kilometers of area, serves 360,000 people through 29 branches ORL was founded in 1936. In 2013, the library held 3.2 million physical items. The library is funded through tax revenues from four administrative areas, the Regional District of North Okanagan, the Regional District of Central Okanagan, the Columbia-Shuswap Regional District, the Regional District of Okanagan Similkameen, it receives funding from the provincial and federal governments. In 1935, residents of the Okanagan participated in a referendum to decide whether to start a library system in the valley. After a majority voted "yes", the first Kelowna library called the Okanagan Union Library, was constructed; the original collection was 18,000 items, served a population of about 25,000. A Short History of the Okanagan Regional Library, 1935-1984, William Peter Lofts Library Service in British Columbia: A Brief History of Its Development, Marjorie C. Holmes ORL website