Kykeon was an Ancient Greek drink of various descriptions. Some were made of water and occurring substances. Others were made with grated cheese, it is believed that kykeon refers to a psychoactive compounded brew, as in the case of the Eleusinian Mysteries. A kykeon was used at the climax of the Eleusinian Mysteries to break a sacred fast, but it is mentioned as a favourite drink of Greek peasants. Kykeon is mentioned in Homeric texts: the Iliad describes it as consisting of Pramnian wine and grated goat's cheese. In the Odyssey, Circe pours her magic potion into it. In The Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 210, the goddess refuses red wine but accepts kykeon made from water and pennyroyal, it was supposed to have digestive properties. Hermes recommends it in Aristophanes' Peace to the hero. Aristocrats shunned it as a peasant drink. Theophrastus depicts in his Characters a peasant. In an attempt to solve the mystery of how so many people over the span of two millennia could have experienced revelatory states during the culminating ceremony of the Eleusinian Mysteries, it has been posited that the barley used in the Eleusinian kykeon was parasitized by ergot, that the psychoactive properties of that fungus triggered the intense experiences alluded to by the participants at Eleusis.
For more on the possibilities of kykeon's psychoactive properties, see entheogenic theories of the mysteries. Ancient Greek cuisine The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries by R. Gordon Wasson, Dr. Albert Hofmann and Prof. Carl Ruck French Armand Delatte, Le Cycéon, breuvage rituel des mystères d'Éleusis, Belles Lettres, Paris, 1955 Has the mystery of the Eleusinian mysteries been solved
Maurice Pujo was a French journalist and co-founder of the nationalist and monarchist Action Française movement. He became the leader of the Camelots du Roi, the youth organization of the Action Française which took part in many right-wing demonstrations in the years before World War II. After World War II he was imprisoned for collaborationist activity. Maurice Pujo was born on 26 January 1872, his family was royalist. Pujo studied at the lycée in Orléans at the same time as Charles Péguy; when he was eighteen he won a prize for an essay on Spinoza's moral philosophy. He expected to make a career as a literary critic, he launched the journal La Revue jeune renamed L’Art et la Vie, which lasted for a few years. He was fluent in German interested in German culture and an ardent follower of Wagner. In 1894 he published his first book, Le règne de la grâce, an essay inspired by the philosophy of the German philosopher Novalis, praised by the Socialist leader Jean Jaurès, he visited Germany as a student in the 1890s.
The experience made him a French nationalist. In April 1898, at the height of the Dreyfus affair, the circle of leftist intellectuals to which Pujo belonged became supporters of Alfred Dreyfus. Maurice Pujo and Henri Vaugeois left this group. Late in 1898 Vaugeois, Pujo and a few other nationalists who met at the Café de Flore founded the Comité d'action française. Three of this group, Louis Dausset, Gabriel Syveton and Vaugeois, opposed to the League for the Rights of Man and Dreyfus, launched a petition that attacked Émile Zola and what many saw as an internationalist, pacifist left-wing conspiracy. In November 1898 their petition gained signatures in the Parisian schools, was soon circulated throughout political and artistic circles in Paris. On 19 December 1898 Pujo published an article that first used the term L’Action française in the daily paper L’Éclair in which he declared that the dispute over Dreyfus was damaging France's vital interests, called for maintenance of the traditions of the homeland.
He said the purpose of the Action française should be "to remake France and free, into a State as organized at home, as powerful abroad, as it was under the Ancien Régime." The decision to create the nationalist anti-Dreyfusard Ligue de la patrie française was made on 31 December 1898. The Comité d'action française was soon merged into the League, led by Jules Lemaître; the circle around Vaugeois seen became disillusioned with the League, which lacked any clear doctrine. Vaugeois disagreed with Lemaître's plan to participate in the next legislative elections; the Comité d'action française was recreated in April 1899, the foundational conference of the Action Française movement was held on 20 June 1899 in Paris. In his keynote speech at this meeting Vaugeois declared that the movement stood for "anti-Semitic, anti-Masonic, anti-parliamentary and anti-democratic" nationalism. Charles Maurras soon joined the Action Française. Maurras thought the Bourbon monarchy should be restored. Pujo came to agree with Maurras.
He wrote "Under the mortal blows of Charles Maurras, the republicanism of each of us succumbed one by one in this year, 1900, the year of the hegira for the Action Francaise."On 16 November 1908 Lucien Moreau and Maurice Pujo created the Camelots du Roi youth movement. Maxime Real del Sarte was a co-founder. In the autumn of 1908 Pujo led the Camelots in a series of nationalist demonstrations ostensibly against a Sorbonne student named Thalamas who had insulted Joan of Arc, he was director of the Camelots from 1908 to 1939. During World War I Pujo was served on the front. In 1920 Pujo said the Sorbonne was still dangerously infatuated with German culture, was infiltrated by "foreigners, spies and Bolsheviks." He called for dismissal of faculty members who he thought were pro-German such as Victor Basch, Charles Seignobos and Aulard. He continued to lead demonstrations by the Camelots du Roi into the 1930s, notably the demonstrations about the Stavisky Affair of January and February 1934. During World War II when the Germans occupied France Pujo stayed with Maurras in Lyon.
After Léon Daudet died in 1942 Pujo was made co-director of the daily Action Française. He was imprisoned by the Gestapo for three weeks in June 1944. In January 1945 Pujo and Maurras were tried for collaboration and Pujo was sentenced to five years in prison, he was released in October 1947. He became political director of Aspects de la France until his death on 6 September 1955. Pujo has been called "a kind of exalted flunky and right-hand man for Maurras."Pujo's son, Pierre Pujo led Action Française until his death on 10 November 2007. Weber, Eugen. Action Française: Royalism and Reaction in Twentieth Century France. Stanford University Press
Saalfelden am Steinernen Meer is a town in the district of Zell am See in the Austrian state of Salzburg. With 16,000 inhabitants, Saalfelden is the district's largest town and the third of the federal state after Salzburg and Hallein. Although the Saalfelden area has always been the most populous of the historic Pinzgau region, the seat of the district administration is situated in the neighbouring town of Zell am See. Saalfelden am Steinernen Meer lies at 744 m above sea level and its municipal area covers 118 km2; the largest proportion of the municipality is formed by the Saalfelden Basin situated between the Northern Limestone Alps ranges of: the Steinernes Meer high plateau to the north, forming the border with Germany the Leogang Mountains and the Biberg to the west the Hochkönig massif and the Salzburg Slate Alps to the east. To the south the basin is open, running into the Zell Basin with Lake Zell and the Salzach river – hence the term Zell-Saalfelden Basin Zeller-Saalfeldener Becken is used for the whole valley – and enables a view of the High Tauern the prominent Kitzsteinhorn and Wiesbachhorn peaks.
The two basins are separated by a discernible valley floor divide. This trough is one of the largest inner-Alpine basins; the main river in the basin is the Saalach. It rises in the upper Glemm Valley, empties into the basin south of Saalfelden and passes through it from south to north. A right tributary of the Saalach flowing through the borough of Saalfelden from east to west is the Urslau creek. A left tributary, the Leoganger Ache, empties into the Saalach from the west. In addition there are several smaller tributary streams. In the centre of the basin is the Kühbühel, a good 100 m; the only lake in the expansive basin is the man-made Ritzensee, excavated for leisure purposes. Other artificial ponds have been laid out for angling and tourism; the Saalfelden municipality comprises the cadastral communities of Bergham, Gerling, Hohlwegen, Lenzing and Saalfelden proper. Early archaeological findings in the Saalfelden Basin date back to the Neolithic Era. A continuous settlement is documented since the late Iron Age, when Celtic tribes moved into the region.
From the 7th century AD onwards, Bavarians settled the area from the north. About 100 years the estates of Salvet on the Saalach river were first mentioned in a register by the Bishops of Salzburg. While they became part of the Carolingian Empire, the lands were incorporated into the Frankish Pinzgau county; the Saalfelden estates were acquired by Archbishop Hartwig of Salzburg about 1000. Saalfelden was first mentioned as a market town in the mid 14th century, it remained part of the Salzburg prince-archbishopric until its secularisation in 1803. With the Salzburg lands, Saalfelden fell to the Austrian Empire in 1816, it achieved town status in 2000. The Ritzensee and the adjacent Kollingwald forest are the recreation areas for Saalfelden's townsfolk; the lake is used in summer in winter for ice skating. Footpaths and trails are used in winter as cross country skiing routes. In the village of Uttenhofen there several ski jumps including those of the Felix Gottwald Ski Jumping Stadium and a centre for Nordic combination.
Saalfelden earned fame in the langlauf and biathlon sports through its top athletes: Felix Gottwald, Simon Eder, Julian Eberhard and Tobias Eberhard. Since 2006 an international triathlon competition has taken place annually in Saalfelden in August, the Tri Motion Austria. Laura Feiersinger, football player Wolfgang Feiersinger football player, national football team Gerhard Fellner, football player and coach Thomas Hörl, ski jumper William Rea, long jumper Rosl Schwaiger, operatic coloratura soprano Stefan Schwab, football player Reinhard Schwarzenberger ski jumper Franz Zorn speedway rider Media related to Saalfelden at Wikimedia Commons Saalfelden official site
Australian Road Research Board is an Australian not-for-profit company that provides independent, applied research and consulting services for Australian and New Zealand state road agencies and communities. ARRB provides consultancy services in areas such as road safety, pavement engineering, climate change adaptations, road network management, future transport technology. ARRB carries out road condition surveys for Australian and New Zealand road owners such as State Roads' Agencies and local councils at traffic speed using specially equipped vehicles. ARRB was founded in 1960, with the purpose to serve the research needs of its members, on a cost recovery basis, it is a not-for-profit company that carries out paid consultancies. True research activities have diminished substantially. ARRB put its historic Vermont South headquarters on the market in 2017, its home since the early 1970's; the sale of this land was expected to generate significant revenue with estimates ranging from $18 million to $25 million.
The new head office is located in the former General Motors site at Fisherman's Bend in Melbourne. In 2017, ARRB sold off its equipment manufacturing and international operations divisions; this new business is ARRB Systems Pty Ltd. The Australian Road Research Board is governed by a Board of Directors, all with backgrounds or positions in major transport organisations; the Board Chairman position is held by Peter Duncan, the position of Chief Executive Officer by Michael Caltabiano. Caltabiano said he would lead the group towards a focus on innovation, industry collaboration and the next-generation of road and transport solutions. ARRB is in-part supported by its member organisations, who provide leadership and competitive funding. Member organisations include federal and local government bodies responsible for managing the nation’s transport and road networks. ARRB operates with these same organisations under the collective banner of Austroads. In July 2015, the first trials of automated cars in the southern hemisphere were launched in Adelaide by a consortium, consisting of ARRB, Flinders University, Carnegie Mellon University, the RAA, Cohda Wireless and Bosch.
Premier Jay Weatherill announced the trials, stating "Driverless cars have the ability to revolutionise transport in this country and we want to be at the forefront of that paradigm shift." ARRB, along with partners including VicRoads, Keolis Downer, La Trobe University, RACV, launched an autonomous bus trial at La Trobe University's Bundoora campus in late 2017. The electric bus will begin taking passengers in 2018, as a proof of concept of a'last-mile' solution to mobility
The November 2012 nor'easter was a powerful nor'easter that brought significant early season snow to the Northeastern United States. Many of the areas hit by the storm had been affected by Hurricane Sandy days before, which further complicated recovery efforts. A mid-level shortwave over the Midwestern United States was moving eastward on November 6, just four days after Hurricane Sandy dissipated, toward a trough over the Southeastern United States, into an area with abundant moisture and favorable conditions from the jet stream; the combination was favorable for a nor'easter to form, on November 7, a strong low pressure area developed along the coast of North Carolina. At the time, there was an area of cold air inland the Mid-Atlantic States and New England that would allow the precipitation to fall as snow. By November 8, the system drifting to the northeast, located about 90 mi south-southeast of Boston, with a front extending northeastward to Nova Scotia, its large circulation dropped snow across the northeastern United States.
Some areas within NYC, got close to a foot of snow across Western Long Island, including Eastern Queens County in a narrow snow band that set up because of the coastal front. Before the nor'easter struck, officials recommended residents in low-lying areas of New York City to evacuate, portions of Islip, New York were under a mandatory evacuation. There were voluntary evacuations in Milford, Connecticut. A portion of the Long Island Expressway was closed during the storm, the Long Island Rail Road shut down. Airlines canceled over 1,300 flights out of New York airports. Parks in New York City were closed, construction was halted. In Nassau County, New York, more than 140 trucks put salt on roads. Schools were closed in Connecticut. Due to sufficiently cool air and steady snowfall, the National Weather Service issued a winter storm warning. Across New Jersey and New York, the storm dropped rain and snow in areas that sustained significant damage from Hurricane Sandy about ten days prior. Snowfall spread from New Jersey to Maine, peaking at 13.5 in in Clintonville and the highest associated rainfall total was 2.28 in near Kingston, Massachusetts.
Snowfall in Central Park reached 4.7 in, which broke the daily record and the record for the earliest date of more than 4 in at the location. Daily snowfall records were broken in Newark, New Jersey and Bridgeport, Connecticut with totals of 2 in and 3.5 in, respectively. The nor'easter produced strong winds that peaked at 65 mph in Fairhaven, Massachusetts. High winds downed trees. About 50,000 people lost power in the two states who had lost power after the hurricane. Along the coast, the storm produced 8 ft waves, coastal roads were flooded. There were two traffic deaths in Connecticut. On November 8 as of 9 a.m. EST, around 715,000 eastern U. S. homes and businesses were without power. This is an increase of nearly 43,000 from 12 hours earlier, due the effects of the storm. There were 167,000 power outages in New Jersey alone, at least 50,000 on Long Island. At 6 a.m. EST on November 9, about 265,000 New Jersey homes and businesses were without power because of Sandy and the nor'easter; the Weather Channel dubbed this storm as "Winter Storm Athena," but this name was rejected by the National Weather Service.
In response to the naming system, the National Weather Service announced on November 7, 2012 that it would not recognize the Weather Channel's names for winter storms, stating in a press release that "it does not use the name of winter storms in its products." Hurricane Sandy February 2013 nor'easter March 2013 nor'easter
Hugh of Saint-Cher, O. P. was a French Dominican friar who noted biblical commentator. Hugh was born at a suburb of Vienne, Dauphiné, around the beginning of the 13th century. After completing his early studies at a local monastery near his home, at about the age of fourteen, he went to the University of Paris to study philosophy and jurisprudence, which latter subject he taught in the same city. In 1225, he entered the Dominican priory there and took the religious habit of the founded Order. Soon after his admission, he was appointed as Prior Provincial of the Order for France. In 1230 he was elected prior of the Paris monastery. During those years, he contributed to the Order's success, won the confidence of Pope Gregory IX, who sent him as a papal legate to Constantinople in 1233. Pope Innocent IV made Hugh a Cardinal Priest in 1244, with his titular church being Santa Sabina, the mother church of the Dominican Order, he played an important part in the First Council of Lyons, which took place the following year.
He contributed to the institution of the Feast of Corpus Christi on the General Roman Calendar. In 1247, upon instructions of Pope Innocent, Hugh revised the Carmelite Rule of St. Albert, which the Saint Albert Avogadro, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, had given the first Carmelite friars on Mount Carmel; the Holy See felt it necessary to mitigate some of the Rule's more demanding elements to make it more compatible with conditions in Europe. The same pope approved these changes, this revision remains the Rule for the Carmelite Order. After the death in 1250 of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Pope Innocent sent Hugh to Germany as his legate for the election of a successor. Under the authority of Pope Alexander IV, in 1255 Hugh supervised the commission that condemned the Introductorius in Evangelium aeternum of Gherardino da Borgo San Donnino, which promoted the teachings of Abbot Joachim of Fiore; these teachings worried the bishops as they had become widespread among the "Spiritual" wing of the Franciscan friars, to which Gherardino belonged.
He supervised the condemnation of William of St Amour's De periculis novissimorum temporum. This work was an expression of the attack on the mendicant Orders, who were becoming so successful in the lives of the universities, by the secular clergy who had had unchallenged authority there. Hugh served as Major Penitentiary of the Catholic Church from 1256 to 1262, he was named Cardinal Bishop of Ostia in December 1261, but resigned a few months and returned to his title of Santa Sabina. Hugh was in residence in Orvieto, with Pope Urban IV, who had established a long-term residence there, when he died on 19 March 1263. Hugh of St-Cher was the first to compile a so-called "correctorium", a collection of variant readings of the Bible, his work, entitled "Correctio Biblie", survives in more than a dozen manuscripts. In the preface to the "Correctio Biblie", Hugh writes that he has collated various Latin versions, biblical commentaries and as well as the Hebrew manuscripts. For his approach to the text of the Bible, he was criciticsed by William de la Mare, author of another correctorium.
His commentary on Peter Lombard's Book of Sentences exercised significant influence over subsequent generations of theologians. He wrote the Postillae in sacram scripturam juxta quadruplicem sensum, allegoricum, anagogicum et moralem, published in the 15th and 16th centuries, his Sermones de tempore et sanctis are only extracts. His exegetical works were published at Venice in 1754 in eight volumes; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Hugh of St-Cher". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Quétif-Échard, Scriptores ordinis praedicatorum Heinrich Seuse Denifle, in Archiv für Literatur und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters, i.49, ii.171, iv.263 and 471 L'Année dominicaine, iii.509 and 883 Chartularium universitatis Parisiensis, i.158. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Hugh of St Cher". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 858–859. Lewis E 46 Biblical commentary on the Old Testament--I Kings - Esther at OPenn