History of Asian art
The history of Asian art or Eastern art, includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. Developments in Asian art parallel those in Western art, in general a few centuries earlier. Chinese art, Indian art, Korean art, Japanese art, each had significant influence on Western art, vice versa. Near Eastern art had a significant influence on Western art. Excluding prehistoric art, the art of Mesopotamia represents the oldest forms of Asian art. Buddhist art originated in the Indian subcontinent in the centuries following the life of the historical Gautama Buddha in the 6th to 5th century BCE, before evolving through its contact with other cultures and its diffusion through the rest of Asia and the world. Buddhist art traveled with believers as the dharma spread and evolved in each new host country, it developed to the north through Central Asia and into Eastern Asia to form the Northern branch of Buddhist art, to the east as far as Southeast Asia to form the Southern branch of Buddhist art.
In India, Buddhist art flourished and influenced the development of Hindu art, until Buddhism nearly disappeared in India around the 10th century CE due in part to the vigorous expansion of Islam alongside Hinduism. A common visual device in Buddhist art is the mandala. From a viewer's perspective, it represents schematically the ideal universe. In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be employed for focusing attention of aspirants and adepts, a spiritual teaching tool, for establishing a sacred space and as an aid to meditation and trance induction, its symbolic nature can help one "to access progressively deeper levels of the unconscious assisting the meditator to experience a mystical sense of oneness with the ultimate unity from which the cosmos in all its manifold forms arises." The psychoanalyst Carl Jung saw the mandala as "a representation of the center of the unconscious self," and believed his paintings of mandalas enabled him to identify emotional disorders and work towards wholeness in personality.
Bhutanese art is similar to the art of Tibet. Both are based with its pantheon of divine beings; the major orders of Buddhism in Bhutan are Drukpa Nyingma. The former is a branch of the Kagyu School and is known for paintings documenting the lineage of Buddhist masters and the 70 Je Khenpo; the Nyingma order is known for images of Padmasambhava, credited with introducing Buddhism into Bhutan in the 7th century. According to legend, Padmasambhava hid sacred treasures for future Buddhist masters Pema Lingpa, to find; the treasure finders are frequent subjects of Nyingma art. Each divine being is assigned special shapes, and/or identifying objects, such as lotus, conch-shell and begging bowl. All sacred images are made to exact specifications that have remained remarkably unchanged for centuries. Bhutanese art is rich in bronzes of different kinds that are collectively known by the name Kham-so though they are made in Bhutan, because the technique of making them was imported from the eastern province of Tibet called Kham.
Wall paintings and sculptures, in these regions, are formulated on the principal ageless ideals of Buddhist art forms. Though their emphasis on detail is derived from Tibetan models, their origins can be discerned despite the profusely embroidered garments and glittering ornaments with which these figures are lavishly covered. In the grotesque world of demons, the artists had a greater freedom of action than when modeling images of divine beings; the arts and crafts of Bhutan that represents the exclusive “spirit and identity of the Himalayan kingdom’ is defined as the art of Zorig Chosum, which means the “thirteen arts and crafts of Bhutan”. The Institute of Zorig Chosum in Thimphu is the premier institution of traditional arts and crafts set up by the Government of Bhutan with the sole objective of preserving the rich culture and tradition of Bhutan and training students in all traditional art forms. Bhutanese rural life is displayed in the ‘Folk Heritage Museum’ in Thimphu. There is a ‘Voluntary Artists Studio’ in Thimphu to encourage and promote the art forms among the youth of Thimphu.
The thirteen arts and crafts of Bhutan and the institutions established in Thimphu to promote these art forms are: Cambodian art and the culture of Cambodia has had a rich and varied history dating back many centuries and has been influenced by India. In turn, Cambodia influenced Thailand and vice versa. Throughout Cambodia's long history, a major source of inspiration was from religion. Throughout nearly two millennium, a Cambodians developed a unique Khmer belief from the syncreticism of indigenous animistic beliefs and the Indian religions of Buddhism and Hinduism. Indian culture and civilization, including its language and arts reached mainland Southeast Asia around the 1st century CE, it is believed that seafaring merchants brought Indian customs and culture to ports along the gulf of Thailand and the Pacific while trading with China. The first state to benefit from this was Funan. At various times, Cambodia culture absorbed elements from Javanese, Chinese and Thai cultures; the history of Visual arts of Cambodia stretches back centuries to ancient crafts.
Traditional Cambodian arts and crafts include textiles, non-textile weaving, stone carving, ceramics, wat murals, kite-
Yoshio Taniguchi is a Japanese architect best known for his redesign of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, reopened November 20, 2004. Taniguchi is the son of architect Yoshirō Taniguchi, he studied engineering at Keio University, graduating in 1960, studied architecture at Harvard University's Graduate School of Design, graduating in 1964. He worked for architect Walter Gropius, who became an important influence. From 1964 to 1972, Taniguchi worked for the studio of architect Kenzo Tange, the most important Japanese modernist architect, at Tokyo University. While in the Tange office, Taniguchi worked on projects in Skopje and San Francisco, living on Telegraph Avenue in Berkeley while involved in the latter project. Important collaborators include Isamu Noguchi, American landscape architect Peter Walker, artist Genichiro Inokuma. Taniguchi is best known for designing a number of Japanese museums, including the Nagano Prefectural Museum, the Marugame Genichiro Inokuma Museum of Contemporary Art, the Toyota Municipal Museum of Art, the D.
T. Suzuki Museum in Kanazawa, the Gallery of the Hōryū-ji Treasures at the Tokyo National Museum. Taniguchi won a competition in 1997 to redesign the Museum of Modern Art, beating out nine other internationally renowned architects, including Rem Koolhaas, Bernard Tschumi, Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron; the MoMA commission was Taniguchi's first work outside Japan. Taniguchi has since won a commission to design the Asia Society Texas Center; this $40 million project is located in Houston's museum district and is Taniguchi's first free-standing new building in the United States. 2005: Praemium Imperiale Dana Buntrock. "Yoshio Taniguchi: master of minimalism." Architecture, October 1996. Media related to Yoshio Taniguchi at Wikimedia Commons Museum of Modern Art biography "Talking with Taniguchi". C. B. Liddell. 2008-02-13
Shichijō Station is a railway station located in the Higashiyama-ku, city of Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Keihan Electric Railway Keihan Main Line The underground station has two side platforms. Kyoto National Museum Sanjūsangen-dō Hōjūjidono Toyokuni Shrine Hōkō-ji Kyoto Station Suzin Conference
Kyushu National Museum
The Kyushu National Museum opened on October 16, 2005 in Dazaifu near Fukuoka—the first new national museum in Japan in over 100 years, the first to elevate the focus on history over art. The distinct modern impression created by the architectural facade is mirrored in the Museum's use of technological innovations which are put to good in making the museum's collections accessible to the public. For example, the museum's high resolution video system, with the latest image processing and color management software, serves both in documenting the objects in the museum's collection and in expanding access beyond the limits of a large, but finite exhibition space; the striking wood and glass building in the hills, it hosts important collections of Japanese artifacts ceramics, related to the history of Kyūshū. It hosts temporary exhibitions on the third floor, while the permanent collections are on the fourth floor; the collections cover the history of Kyūshū from prehistory to the Meiji era with particular emphasis on the rich history of cultural exchange between Kyūshū and neighboring China and Korea.
Unlike most museums in Japan, which contract out conservation work, the Kyushu National Museum has an extensive on-site suite of conservation labs and associated staff, serving as the major conservation center for all of western Japan. The museum was designed by Kiyonori Kikutake; the museum's special focus carries with it "a new perspective on Japanese cultural formation in the context of Asian history." The growth and development of today's museum has been an evolving process: 1994 -- Agency for Cultural Affairs creates "Committee to Investigate the Establishment of a New Type of Museum." 1995 -- Dazaifu is named as site of new "Kyushu National Museum." The site is next to the Dazaifu Tenman-gū. 1997 -- "Basic Statement of Policy for the Kyushu National Museum" is completed. 1998 -- "Basic Plan for the Kyushu National Museum" is completed. 1999 -- "Basic Construction Design" is completed. 1999 -- "Regular Exhibition Plan" is completed. 2000 -- "Design for Implementing Construction" is completed.
2000 -- "Basic Exhibition Design" is completed. 2001 -- "Construction Phase" is begun—1st part of a 3-year plan. 2002 -- "Implementation of Exhibition Design" is completed. 2003 -- "Construction Phase" is completed. 2003 -- "Exhibition Phase" is begun --. 2004—Work on the building is completed. 2005—Museum is opened as the "Kyushu National Museum" of the "Independent Administrative Institution National Museum". 2007—IAI National Museum is merged into Independent Administrative Institution National Institutes for Cultural Heritage, combining the four national museums with the former National Institutes for Cultural Preservation at Tokyo and Nara List of Independent Administrative Institutions List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan Masaoka, Masahiro Kawakita, Masayuki Sugawara, Masaru Kanazawa, Kenji ohzeki, Yuji Nojiri.. "Image Quality Management for the Super Hi-Vision System at the Kyushu National Museum", IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics and Computer Sciences.
E89-A: 2938-2944. Brochure of the Kyushu National Museum
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms, how they integrate with natural or man-made features. A landscape includes the physical elements of geophysically defined landforms such as mountains, water bodies such as rivers, lakes and the sea, living elements of land cover including indigenous vegetation, human elements including different forms of land use and structures, transitory elements such as lighting and weather conditions. Combining both their physical origins and the cultural overlay of human presence created over millennia, landscapes reflect a living synthesis of people and place, vital to local and national identity; the character of a landscape helps define the self-image of the people who inhabit it and a sense of place that differentiates one region from other regions. It is the dynamic backdrop to people's lives. Landscape can be as varied as a landscape park or wilderness; the Earth has a vast range of landscapes, including the icy landscapes of polar regions, mountainous landscapes, vast arid desert landscapes and coastal landscapes, densely forested or wooded landscapes including past boreal forests and tropical rainforests, agricultural landscapes of temperate and tropical regions.
The activity of modifying the visible features of an area of land is referred to as landscaping. There are several definitions of. In common usage however, a landscape refers either to all the visible features of an area of land considered in terms of aesthetic appeal, or to a pictorial representation of an area of countryside within the genre of landscape painting; when people deliberately improve the aesthetic appearance of a piece of land—by changing contours and vegetation, etc.—it is said to have been landscaped, though the result may not constitute a landscape according to some definitions. The word landscape arrived in England—and therefore into the English language—after the fifth century, following the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons; the term landscape emerged around the turn of the sixteenth century to denote a painting whose primary subject matter was natural scenery. Land may be taken in its sense of something; the suffix ‑scape is equivalent to the more common English suffix ‑ship. The roots of ‑ ship are etymologically akin to Old English scyppan, meaning to shape.
The suffix ‑schaft is related to the verb schaffen, so that ‑ship and shape are etymologically linked. The modern form of the word, with its connotations of scenery, appeared in the late sixteenth century when the term landschap was introduced by Dutch painters who used it to refer to paintings of inland natural or rural scenery; the word landscape, first recorded in 1598, was borrowed from a Dutch painters' term. The popular conception of the landscape, reflected in dictionaries conveys both a particular and a general meaning, the particular referring to an area of the Earth's surface and the general being that which can be seen by an observer. An example of this second usage can be found as early as 1662 in the Book of Common Prayer: Could we but climb where Moses stood, And view the landscape over.. There are several words that are associated with the word landscape: Scenery: The natural features of a landscape considered in terms of their appearance, esp. when picturesque: spectacular views of mountain scenery.
Setting: In works of narrative, it includes the historical moment in time and geographic location in which a story takes place, helps initiate the main backdrop and mood for a story. Picturesque: The word means "in the manner of a picture. Gilpin’s Essay on Prints defined picturesque as "a term expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty, agreeable in a picture". A view: "A sight or prospect of some landscape or extended scene. Wilderness: An uncultivated and inhospitable region. See Natural landscape. Cityscape: The urban equivalent of a landscape. In the visual arts a cityscape is an artistic representation, such as a painting, print or photograph, of the physical aspects of a city or urban area. Seascape: A photograph, painting, or other work of art which depicts the sea, in other words an example of marine art. Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical or chemical processes operating at or near Earth's surface.
Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphology is practiced within physical geography, geodesy, engineering geology and geotechnical engineering; this broad base of interests contributes to many research interests within the field. The surface of Earth is modified by a combination of surface processes that sculpt landscapes, geologic processes that cause tectonic uplift and subsidence, shape the coastal geography. Surface processes comprise the action of water, ice and living things on the surface of the Earth, along with chemical reactions that form soils and alter material properties
Imperial Household Agency
The Imperial Household Agency is an agency of the government of Japan in charge of state matters concerning the Imperial Family, keeping of the Privy Seal and State Seal of Japan. From around the 8th century AD up to the Second World War, it was named the Imperial Household Ministry; the agency is unique among conventional government agencies and ministries, in that it does not directly report to the Prime Minister at the cabinet level, nor is it affected by legislation that establishes it as an Independent Administrative Institution. The Agency is headed by the Grand Steward and he is assisted by the Vice-Grand Steward; the main elements of the organization are: the Grand Steward's Secretariat the Board of Chamberlains the Crown Prince's Household the Board of Ceremonies the Archives and Mausolea Department the Maintenance and Works Department the Kyoto OfficeThe current Grand Steward is Shin'ichirō Yamamoto. The Agency's headquarters is located within the grounds of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.
The Agency's duties and responsibilities encompass the daily activities, such as state visits, organising events, preservation of traditional culture, administrative functions, etc. the agency is responsible for the various imperial residences scattered throughout the country. Visitors who wish to tour the Tokyo Imperial Palace, the Kyoto Imperial Palace, the Katsura Detached Palace, other sites, should register for guided tours with the agency first; the Agency has responsibility for the health and travel arrangements of the Imperial family, including maintaining the Imperial line. The Board of the Chamberlains, headed by the Grand Chamberlain, manages the daily life of the Emperor and the Empress, it keeps the Privy Seal and State Seal of Japan. A "Grand Master of the Board of the Crown Prince's Household" helps manage the schedules, dining menus, household maintenance of the Crown Prince and his family; the Imperial Household Agency can trace its origins back to the institutions established by the Taihō Code promulgated in 701–702 AD.
The Ritsuryō system established the namesake Ministry of the Imperial Household, a precursor to the present agency. The old code gave rise to the Ministry of Ceremonial which has its legacy in the Board of Ceremonies under the current agency, the Ministry of Civil Administration which oversaw the Bureau of Music that would now correspond to the Agency's Music Department; the basic structures remained in place until the Meiji Restoration. The early Meiji government installed Imperial Household Ministry on 15 August 1869. However, there is a convoluted history of reorganization around how the government bodies that correspond to constituent subdivisions of the current Agency were formed or empowered during this period; the Department of Shinto Affairs and the Ministry of Shinto Affairs were in existence and placed in charge of, e.g. the Imperial mausolea under the Office of Imperial Mausolea, one of the tasks designated to the Agency today. Meanwhile, the Meiji government created the Board of Ceremonies in 1871, soon renamed Bureau of Ceremonies in 1872.
And by 1872 the Ministry of Shinto Affairs was abolished, with the bulk of duties moved to the Kyōbu shō and the administration of formal ceremonial functions transferred to the aforementioned Board/Bureau of the Ceremonies. The Bureau of the Ceremonies was under the sway of the Great Council of State but was transferred to the control of the Imperial Household Ministry in September 1877; the Bureau underwent yet another name change to Board of Ceremonies in October 1884. Since the name remained unchanged and is, headed by the Master of Ceremonies. An Imperial Order in 1908 confirmed that the Imperial Household Minister, as the chief official was called, was responsible for assisting the Emperor in all matters concerning the Imperial House; the ministry oversaw the official appointments of Imperial Household Artists and commissioned their work. The Imperial Household Office was a downgraded version of the ministry, created pursuant to Imperial Household Office Law Law No. 70 of 1947 during the American Occupation of Japan.
Its staff size was downscaled from 6,200 to less than 1,500, the Office was placed under the Prime Minister of Japan. In 1949, Imperial Household Office became the Imperial Household Agency, placed under the fold of the newly created Prime Minister's Office, as an external agency attached to it. In 2001, the Imperial Household Agency was organizationally re-positioned under the Cabinet Office; the Agency has been criticized for isolating members of the Imperial Family from the Japanese public, for insisting on hidebound customs rather than permitting a more approachable, populist monarchy. These criticisms have become more muted in recent years. Prince Naruhito, in May 2004, criticised the then-Grand Steward of the Imperial Household, Toshio Yuasa, for putting pressure on Princess Masako, Naruhito's wife, to bear a male child. At a press conference, Naruhito said that his wife had "completely exhausted herself" trying to adapt to the imperial family's life, added "there were developments that denied Masako's career as well as her personality."
It has been stat