Dover is a major ferry port in Kent, South East England. It faces France across the Strait of Dover, the narrowest part of the English Channel, lies south-east of Canterbury and east of Maidstone; the town is the administrative centre of the Dover District and home of the Dover Calais ferry through the Port of Dover. The surrounding chalk cliffs are known as the White Cliffs of Dover. Archaeological finds have revealed that the area has always been a focus for peoples entering and leaving Britain; the name derives from the River Dour. The Port of Dover provides much of the town's employment. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters (dwfr in Middle Welsh; the same element is present in the town's French and Modern Welsh forms, as well as the name of the river Dour and is evident in other English towns such as Wendover. The current name was in use at least by the time of Shakespeare's King Lear, in which the town and its cliffs play a prominent role.
Archaeological finds have shown that there were Stone Age people in the area, that some Iron Age finds exist. During the Roman period, the area became part of the Roman communications network, it was connected by road to Canterbury and Watling Street and it became Portus Dubris, a fortified port. Dover has a preserved Roman lighthouse and the remains of a villa with the only preserved Roman wall painting outside Italy. Dover figured in the Domesday Book. Forts were built above the port and lighthouses were constructed to guide passing ships, it is one of the Cinque Ports. and has served as a bastion against various attackers: notably the French during the Napoleonic Wars and Germany during the Second World War. Dover is in the south-east corner of Britain. From South Foreland, the nearest point to the European mainland, Cap Gris Nez is 34 kilometres away across the Strait of Dover; the site of its original settlement lies in the valley of the River Dour, sheltering from the prevailing south-westerly winds.
This has led to the silting up of the river mouth by the action of longshore drift. The town has been forced into making artificial breakwaters to keep the port in being; these breakwaters have been extended and adapted so that the port lies entirely on reclaimed land. The higher land on either side of the valley – the Western Heights and the eastern high point on which Dover Castle stands – has been adapted to perform the function of protection against invaders; the town has extended up the river valley, encompassing several villages in doing so. Little growth is possible along the coast; the railway, being tunnelled and embanked, skirts the foot of the cliffs. Dover has an oceanic climate similar to the rest of the United Kingdom with mild temperatures year-round and a light amount of rainfall each month; the warmest recorded temperature was 31 °C and the coldest was −8 °C, but the temperature is between 3 °C and 21.1 °C. There is evidence. In 1800, the year before Britain's first national census, Edward Hasted reported that the town had a population of 10,000 people.
At the 2001 census, the town of Dover had 28,156 inhabitants, while the population of the whole urban area of Dover, as calculated by the Office for National Statistics, was 39,078 inhabitants. With the expansion of Dover, many of the outlying ancient villages have been incorporated into the town; the parishes of Dover St. Mary's and Dover St. James, since 1836 Buckland and Charlton have become part Dover, Maxton, Kearsney, Temple Ewell, Whitfield, all to the north of the town centre, are within its conurbation; the Dover Harbour Board is the responsible authority for the running of the Port of Dover. The English Channel, here at its narrowest point in the Straits of Dover, is the busiest shipping lane in the world. Ferries crossing between here and the Continent have to negotiate their way through the constant stream of shipping crossing their path; the Dover Strait Traffic Separation Scheme allots ships separate lanes when passing through the Strait. The Scheme is controlled by the Channel Navigation Information Service based at Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre Dover.
MRCC Dover is charged with co-ordination of civil maritime search and rescue within these waters. The Port of Dover is used by cruise ships; the old Dover Marine railway station building houses one passenger terminal, together with a car park. A second, purpose built, terminal is located further out along the pier; the ferry lines using the port are: to Calais: P&O Ferries, DFDS Seaways. to Dunkirk: DFDS Seaways. These services have been cut in recent years: P&O Ferries sailings to Boulogne were withdrawn in 1993 and Zeebrugge in 2002. SNCF withdrew their three train ferry sailings on the opening of the Channel Tunnel. Regie voor Maritiem Transport moved their Ostend service of three sailings daily to Ramsgate in 1994. Stena Line merged their 20 Calais sailings into the current P&O operation in 1998. Hoverspeed withdrew their 8 daily sailings. SpeedFerries withdrew their 5 daily sailings. LD Lines ceased the Dover-Dieppe service on
London Bridge station
London Bridge is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in Southwark, south-east London. It occupies a large area on three levels south-east of London Bridge, from which it takes its name; the main line station is the oldest railway station in London fare zone 1 and one of the oldest in the world having opened in 1836. It is one of two main line termini in London to the south of the River Thames and is the fourth-busiest station in London, handling over 50 million customers a year; the station was opened by the London and Greenwich Railway as a local service. It subsequently served the London and Croydon Railway, the London and Brighton Railway and the South Eastern Railway, thus becoming an important London terminus, it was rebuilt again in 1864 to provide more services and increase capacity. Local services from London Bridge began to be electrified at the turn of the 20th century, had spread to national routes by the 1930s; the station was extensively rebuilt by British Rail in the 1970s, along with a comprehensive re-signalling scheme and track alignment.
It was further developed in the 2010s to better accommodate the Thameslink route which provides a connection to Gatwick Airport, Luton Airport and Crossrail. London Bridge is served by Southeastern services from Charing Cross and Cannon Street to destinations in southeast London and East Sussex and is a terminus for many Southern commuter and regional services to south London and numerous destinations in South East England. Thameslink services from Bedford and Peterborough to Brighton and other destinations in Sussex and Kent began serving the station in 2018; the main line station is one of 19 UK stations managed by Network Rail. It has a ticket hall and entrance area with its main frontage on Tooley Street, other entrances on Borough High Street and within the main line station concourse, it is one of two mainline London termini south of the River Thames, the other is Waterloo. The Underground station is on the Bank branch of the Northern line. Several London Buses routes, including 43 and RV1, pass the station.
River buses use the nearby London Bridge City Pier. London Bridge station was opened on 14 December 1836, making it the oldest London railway terminus, still running, it was not the earliest station in the London metropolitan area, as the London and Greenwich Railway had opened stations at Spa Road and Deptford on 8 February 1836. The completion of the line into London Bridge was postponed because of delays in constructing a bridge at Bermondsey Street. From 10 October 1836, trains were able to operate as far as the east end of this bridge, with passengers having to walk the last 300 yards; the station has had complete rebuilds since opening. The original station was 60 feet wide and 400 feet long, it was approached through a pair of iron gates. Three tracks led into two platforms as a stub end of a viaduct; the station was exposed to the weather until a tarred canvas roof was erected in 1840. Sixteen columns and fourteen beams from this structure were retrieved in 2013 and given to the Vale of Rheidol Railway in Aberystwyth, Wales for use in a planned railway museum.
Before completing the train shed, the London and Greenwich Railway entered into an agreement with the proposed London and Croydon Railway for the latter to use its tracks from Corbett's Lane, to share its station. However, the Greenwich railway had underestimated the cost of building the long viaduct leading to London Bridge and was not able to build a sufficiently large station for the traffic for both companies, so in July 1836 it sold some land adjacent to its station to the Croydon railway to build their own independent station; the London and Brighton Railway and the South Eastern Railway were planning routes from London to Brighton and Dover and the British Parliament decided that the London and Greenwich line should become the entry corridor into London from South East England. The two railways were therefore required to share the route of the London and Croydon Railway from near Norwood; as a result, in 1838 the London and Croydon Railway obtained powers to enlarge the station it was constructing at London Bridge, before it had opened for traffic.
The London and Croydon Railway opened its line and began using its station on 5 June 1839. It was soon found that the viaduct approaching London Bridge would be inadequate to deal with the traffic generated by four railways, so it was widened by the Greenwich Railway between 1840 and 1842, doubling the number of tracks to four; the new lines, intended for the Croydon and South Eastern trains, were situated on the south side of the existing Greenwich line, whereas their station was to the north of the London Bridge site, leading to an awkward and dangerous crossing of one another's lines. The directors of the companies involved decided to exchange sites. Plans for a large new station were drawn up, designed jointly by Lewis Cubitt, John Urpeth Rastrick and Henry Roberts. Drawings were published in the Illustrated London News and George Bradshaw's Guide to the London and Brighton
This article describes UK usage. United States usage may be different. A Dock shunter, or "Dock tank", is a locomotive used for shunting wagons in the vicinity of docks, it is of 0-4-0 or 0-6-0 wheel arrangement and has a short wheelbase and large buffers. These features make it suitable for negotiating sharp curves. GWR 1101 Class GWR 1361 Class GWR 1366 Class LSWR B4 Class LB&SCR E2 Class SR USA Class British Rail Class 07 LMS Fowler Dock Tank NLR Class 75 Bagnall 0-4-0ST "Alfred" and "Judy" LSWR G6 Class LNER J63 LNWR Dock Tank LNER Y9 Caledonian Railway 498 Class LNER J88 Switcher Wikipedia articles listed above
British Rail Class 07
The British Rail'Class 07 diesel locomotive is an off-centre cab 0-6-0 diesel-electric shunter class built by Ruston & Hornsby in 1962 for the Southern Region of British Railways. The 14 built were used at Southampton Docks; the 07 class was notorious for having the axleboxes run hot. This was encountered during delivery of the first locomotive, subsequent deliveries were made by road. A trial move of one Class 07 to Selhurst depot for tyre profiling resulted in overheating axlebox problems and all subsequent moves of any distance those to British Rail Engineering Limited workshops, were made by road; this is in contrast to other shunter classes that would have had their side-rods removed and traction motors isolated and would form part of a train heading in the appropriate direction. Class 08s were moved in this fashion at up to 35 mph – overnight wagon-load trains being utilised if possible. For operation at Southampton Docks the Class was based in the former steam shed in the Old Docks near the River Itchen, work being carried out there by a fitter sent from Eastleigh.
The members of the class that had TOPS numbering applied were equipped with high-level air brake pipes, allowing them to move Southern Region Electric Multiple Units, three locomotives were used at Bournemouth EMU depot for a period. This was not their principal work, but they were employed around their home depot on general shunting duties, they were fast for shunters and it was envisaged that they would be used to trip local traffic to/from Southampton docks. Accordingly, they were equipped, with mainline headcode marker lights. In practice they were used for this because of the hot axlebox problem, which affected the possibility of the class working away from either Southampton Docks or Eastleigh Works. Numbers 2988, 2992 and 2998 were withdrawn from BR service without bearing TOPS numbers, were cut up at Eastleigh Works. 2991, allocated the number 07007, was withdrawn from capital stock before bearing its TOPS number, but remained in use at Eastleigh Works. Of the locos to bear TOPS numbers, 07003 and 07009 were withdrawn in 1976, sold to P Wood of Queenborough, Kent.
07010 was sold directly into preservation, the remaining locos were sold for industrial use during 1976 and 1977: 07001 to Staveley Limeworks, Buxton. The locomotives were short-lived and this class had been withdrawn by British Rail by the end of 1977. Several have subsequently passed into preservation. One locomotive, no. 07001, is mainline is owned by Harry Needle Railroad Company. All surviving locomotives are listed below. 07001 - Formerly HNRC, now preserved by Heritage Shunters Trust at Peak Rail. Operational repainted into a blue livery with'wasp' ends but without numbering. 07005 - Preserved at the Great Central Railway 07007 - In use by Knights Rail Services at Eastleigh Works. Mainline registered in April 2008. Painted in Rail Blue livery. 07010 - Preserved on Avon Valley Railway in BR Blue livery. Awaiting repairs following electrical failure December 2014. Repainted into BR Blue September 2013. 07011 - Privately owned at St Leonards TMD. Rail Blue livery. 07012 - Formerly HNRC, now preserved at Barrow Hill.
07013 - Formerly HNRC, externally restored in Rail Blue livery Now at the East Lancashire Railway. Engine: Ruston/Paxman 6RPHL Mk. 3, 60° V6, 29.3 litre, 6 cylinder, indirect injection, 4-stroke Main Generator: AEI RTB6652 Traction motor: AEI RTA6652, spigot mounted on a double reduction, axle-hung, final drive gearboxLocomotive and train brakes were fitted from new. Air train braking was added in some cases with high-level air brake pipes for use with Southern Region electric multiple units; the class had radio communication sets fitted for use at Southampton Docks, the aerial located on the top right hand corner of the engine bonnet. These were removed; the builders classified these locomotives as LSSE and although other locomotives were built for industrial use to this specification, none had the same engine output, train brakes or other'mainline' features. An example of this class of diesel can be seen on the Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends TV Series, in the form of Salty the Dockyard Diesel who uses the BR number of the preserved D2991.
Class 07 is being made as a kit and a ready-to-run model in OO gauge by announced by Heljan in 2015/7. Image of 07011 at Eastleigh MPD Copy of a Drivers Repair Book from 07001 c.1972
The cylinder is the power-producing element of the steam engine powering a steam locomotive. The cylinder is made pressure-tight with a piston. Cylinders were cast in cast iron and in steel; the cylinder casting includes other features such as mounting feet. The last big American locomotives incorporated the cylinders as part of huge one-piece steel castings that were the main frame of the locomotive. Renewable wearing surfaces were provided by cast-iron bushings; the way the valve controlled the steam entering and leaving the cylinder was known as steam distribution and shown by the shape of the indicator diagram. What happened to the steam inside the cylinder was assessed separately from what happened in the boiler and how much friction the moving machinery had to cope with; this assessment was known as "engine performance" or "cylinder performance". The cylinder performance, together with the boiler and machinery performance, established the efficiency of the complete locomotive; the pressure of the steam in the cylinder was measured as the piston moved and the power moving the piston was calculated and known as cylinder power.
The forces produced in the cylinder moved the train but were damaging to the structure which held the cylinders in place. Bolted joints came loose, cylinder castings and frames cracked and reduced the availability of the locomotive. Cylinders may be arranged in several different ways. On early locomotives, such as Puffing Billy, the cylinders were set vertically and the motion was transmitted through beams, as in a beam engine; the next stage, for example Stephenson's Rocket, was to drive the wheels directly from steeply inclined cylinders placed at the back of the locomotive. Direct drive became the standard arrangement, but the cylinders were moved to the front and placed either horizontal or nearly horizontal; the front-mounted cylinders could be placed either outside. Examples: Inside cylinders, Planet locomotive Outside cylinders, GNR Stirling 4-2-2In the 19th and early 20th centuries, inside cylinders were used in the UK, but outside cylinders were more common in Continental Europe and the United States.
The reason for this difference is unclear. From about 1920, outside cylinders became more common in the UK but many inside-cylinder engines continued to be built. Inside cylinders give a more stable ride with less yaw or "nosing" but access for maintenance is more difficult; some designers used inside cylinders for aesthetic reasons. The demand for more power led to the development of engines with four cylinders. Examples: Three cylinders, SR Class V, LNER Class A4, Merchant Navy class Four Cylinders, LMS Princess Royal Class, LMS Coronation Class, GWR Castle Class On a two-cylinder engine the cranks, whether inside or outside, are set at 90 degrees; as the cylinders are double-acting this gives four impulses per revolution and ensures that there are no dead centres. On a three-cylinder engine, two arrangements are possible: cranks set to give six spaced impulses per revolution – the usual arrangement. If the three cylinder axes are parallel, the cranks will be 120 degrees apart, but if the centre cylinder does not drive the leading driving axle, it will be inclined, the inside crank will be correspondingly shifted from 120 degrees.
For a given tractive effort and adhesion factor, a three-cylinder locomotive of this design will be less prone to wheelslip when starting than a 2-cylinder locomotive. Outside cranks set at 90 degrees, inside crank set at 135 degrees, giving six unequally spaced impulses per revolution; this arrangement was sometimes used on three-cylinder compound locomotives which used the outside cylinders for starting. This will give evenly spaced exhausts. Two arrangements are possible on a four-cylinder engine: all four cranks set at 90 degrees. With this arrangement the cylinders act in pairs, so there are four impulses per revolution, as with a two-cylinder engine. Most four-cylinder engines are of this type, it is cheaper and simpler to use only one set of valve gear on each side of the locomotive and to operate the second cylinder on that side by means of a rocking shaft from the first cylinder's valve spindle since the required valve events at the second cylinder are a mirror image of the first cylinder.
Pairs of cranks set at 90 degrees with the inside pair set at 45 degrees to the outside pair. This gives eight impulses per revolution, it increases weight and complexity, by requiring four sets of valve gear, but gives smoother torque and reduces the risk of slipping. This was unusual in British practice but was used on the SR Lord Nelson class; such locomotives are distinguished by their exhaust beats, which occur at twice the frequency of a normal 2- or 4-cylinder engine. The valve chests or steam chests which contain the slide valves or piston valves may be located in various positions. If the cylinders are small, the valve chests may be located between the cylinders. For larger cylinders the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in early locomotives, they were sometimes underneath the cylinders; the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in older locomotives, the valve chests were sometimes located alongside the cylinders and inserted through slots in the frames. This meant that, while the cylinders were outside, the valves were inside a
Herne Hill is a district in south London, England four miles from Charing Cross and bordered by Brixton, Denmark Hill, Dulwich Village, Loughborough Junction and Tulse Hill. It overlaps the boundary between the boroughs of Southwark. There is a road of the same name in the area. In Rocque's 1746 map, the area is shown as "Island Green" reflecting the presence of the River Effra and smaller tributaries. Early references to the area use the form "Ireland Green"; the earliest documented reference to "Herne Hill" is in two fire insurance policies issued by the Sun Insurance Company in 1792. The area now known as Herne Hill was part of the Manor of Milkwell, which existed from at least 1291, was a mixture of farms and woodland until the late 18th century, it was divided between the ancient parishes of Lambeth. In 1783, Samuel Sanders bought the land now occupied by Herne Hill from the Manor. By the mid-19th century, the road from the modern Herne Hill Junction to Denmark Hill was lined with large residential estates and the area had become an upper-class suburb.
Herne Hill was transformed by the arrival of the London, Chatham & Dover Railway in 1862. Cheap and convenient access to London Victoria, the City of London and south-west London created demand for middle-class housing. A letter reporting a Herne Hill sighting of Victorian folklore demon Spring-heeled Jack, "that malapropre fellow of the ghost", was published in the Camberwell and Peckham Times on 9 November 1872; the incident was recorded as taking place where the footpath on Herne Hill ran past St. Paul's Church into Half Moon Lane; the Half Moon is a Grade II* listed public house in Half Moon Lane. Herne Hill escaped from V-weapons attacks during World War II, with five V-1 flying bombs and six deaths recorded. During the early morning of 7 August 2013, an 88‑year‑old 0.9 m diameter water main on Half Moon Lane burst, flooding Herne Hill, Dulwich Road and Norwood Road along with 36 properties to create a scene described as "biblical" by local residents. Thames Water estimated the total cost of the damage to be around £ 4 million.
The Half Moon reopened in March 2017. Herne Hill is situated between Dulwich Village and Camberwell, it straddles two boroughs, is a community of around 15,000 people, with a range of independent shops, art galleries and restaurants. The Southwark half of Herne Hill is part of what is now called the'North Dulwich Triangle' by estate agents. Famous Herne Hill residents from history include John Ruskin and the Lupino family, actor Roddy McDowall was born there; the area is home to the 50.8 ha Brockwell Park. Near a hilltop in Brockwell Park stands the Grade II* listed Brockwell Hall, built in 1831; the hall and the land surrounding it were opened to the public in 1891 after being purchased by London County Council. Brockwell Park hosts the annual Lambeth Country Show and was the site of London's Gay Pride festival for several years in the 1990s; the park houses Brockwell Lido, a 1937 open-air swimming-pool that faces on to Dulwich Road. Herne Hill railway station on Railton Road was opened by the London and Dover Railway in 1862.
The associated railway viaduct and bridges are noteworthy. The Herne Hill Velodrome, situated in a park off Burbage Road, was built in 1891 and hosted the track cycling events in the 1948 Summer Olympics. Unlike most modern, steeply-banked velodromes, it is a shallow concrete bowl; the same park has a football pitch and was the home of Crystal Palace F. C. from 1915 until 1918. A Blue Plaque at 84 Burbage Road marks the former home of the athletics coach Sam Mussabini. Mussabini was immortalised in the film Chariots of Fire, in which he was played by actor Ian Holm. In 1894, Mussabini was appointed coach to the Dunlop cycling team which trained at the Herne Hill Velodrome. In 1913, Mussabini was appointed coach to the Polytechnic Harriers at the Herne Hill athletics track, which ran round the inside of the Velodrome cycle track. Here he trained athletes, including the fourteen-year-old Harold Abrahams. In recognition of the historical importance and specialist character of the area within its urban context, Stradella Road was designated as a Conservation Area, by Southwark Council in 2000, under the Civic Amenities Act of 1967.
The Conservation Area consists principally of properties in Stradella and Winterbrook Roads, includes bordering properties in Burbage Road and Half Moon Lane. The Half Moon Public House on Half Moon Lane was built in 1896 and was Grade II* listed in 1998; the pub hosted a boxing gym for more than 50 years. The Commercial on Railton Road was rebuilt in 1938, is locally listed by Lambeth Council as an inter-war pub of architectural and historic interest; the Church of St Paul on