click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

LIGO

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory to detect cosmic gravitational waves and to develop gravitational-wave observations as an astronomical tool. Two large observatories were built in the United States with the aim of detecting gravitational waves by laser interferometry; these can detect a change in the 4 km mirror spacing of less than a ten-thousandth the charge diameter of a proton. The initial LIGO observatories were funded by the National Science Foundation and were conceived and are operated by Caltech and MIT, they collected data from 2002 to 2010 but no gravitational waves were detected. The Advanced LIGO Project to enhance the original LIGO detectors began in 2008 and continues to be supported by the NSF, with important contributions from the United Kingdom's Science and Technology Facilities Council, the Max Planck Society of Germany, the Australian Research Council; the improved detectors began operation in 2015.

The detection of gravitational waves was reported in 2016 by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration with the international participation of scientists from several universities and research institutions. Scientists involved in the project and the analysis of the data for gravitational-wave astronomy are organized by the LSC, which includes more than 1000 scientists worldwide, as well as 440,000 active Einstein@Home users as of December 2016. LIGO is the largest and most ambitious project funded by the NSF. In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne and Barry C. Barish "for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves."Observations are made in "runs". As of December 2019, LIGO has made 3 runs, made 50 detections of gravitational waves. Maintenance and upgrades of the detectors are made between runs; the first run, O1, which ran from 12 September 2015 to 19 January 2016, made the first 3 detections, all were black hole mergers.

The second run, O2, which ran from 30 November 2016 to 25 August 2017, made 8 detections, 7 black hole mergers, the first neutron star merger. The third run, O3 began on 1 April 2019, it has made 39 detections. The LIGO concept built upon early work by many scientists to test a component of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, the existence of gravitational waves. Starting in the 1960s, American scientists including Joseph Weber, as well as Soviet scientists Mikhail Gertsenshtein and Vladislav Pustovoit, conceived of basic ideas and prototypes of laser interferometry, in 1967 Rainer Weiss of MIT published an analysis of interferometer use and initiated the construction of a prototype with military funding, but it was terminated before it could become operational. Starting in 1968, Kip Thorne initiated theoretical efforts on gravitational waves and their sources at Caltech, was convinced that gravitational wave detection would succeed. Prototype interferometric gravitational wave detectors were built in the late 1960s by Robert L. Forward and colleagues at Hughes Research Laboratories, in the 1970s by Weiss at MIT, by Heinz Billing and colleagues in Garching Germany, by Ronald Drever, James Hough and colleagues in Glasgow, Scotland.

In 1980, the NSF funded the study of a large interferometer led by MIT, the following year, Caltech constructed a 40-meter prototype. The MIT study established the feasibility of interferometers at a 1-kilometer scale with adequate sensitivity. Under pressure from the NSF, MIT and Caltech were asked to join forces to lead a LIGO project based on the MIT study and on experimental work at Caltech, MIT, Garching. Drever and Weiss formed a LIGO steering committee, though they were turned down for funding in 1984 and 1985. By 1986, they were asked to disband the steering committee and a single director, Rochus E. Vogt, was appointed. In 1988, a research and development proposal achieved funding. From 1989 through 1994, LIGO failed to organizationally. Only political efforts continued to acquire funding. Ongoing funding was rejected until 1991, when the U. S. Congress agreed to fund LIGO for the first year for $23 million. However, requirements for receiving the funding were not met or approved, the NSF questioned the technological and organizational basis of the project.

By 1992, LIGO was restructured with Drever no longer a direct participant. Ongoing project management issues and technical concerns were revealed in NSF reviews of the project, resulting in the withholding of funds until they formally froze spending in 1993. In 1994, after consultation between relevant NSF personnel, LIGO's scientific leaders, the presidents of MIT and Caltech, Vogt stepped down and Barry Barish was appointed laboratory director, the NSF made clear that LIGO had one last chance for support. Barish's team created a new study and project plan with a budget exceeding the previous proposals by 40%. Barish proposed to the NSF and National Science Board to build LIGO as an evolutionary detector, where detection of gravitational waves with initial LIGO would be possible, with advanced LIGO would be probable; this new proposal received NSF funding, Barish was appointed Principal Investigator, the increase was approved. In 1994, with a budget of US$395 million, LIGO stood as the largest overall funded NSF project in history

Serra do Divisor National Park

The Serra do Divisor National Park is a 8,463 km2 national park on the westernmost point of Brazil, in the state of Acre, near the Peruvian border. It has the highest point in that state, reaching 609 meters above sea level, it has been nominated by the Brazilian government as a Tentative World Heritage Site since 1998. The Serra do Divisor National Park is divided between the municipalities of Rodrigues Alves, Porto Walter, Marechal Thaumaturgo, Mâncio Lima and Cruzeiro do Sul in the state of Acre, it has an area of 846,633 hectares. The park is bounded to the west by the border with Peru, which runs along the Serra Divisor mountain range, it adjoins the Alto Juruá Extractive Reserve along its southeast border. The Juruá River defines the eastern boundary of the southern section of the park; the Azul River defines the eastern boundary of the northern section. The conservation unit would be included in the proposed Western Amazon Ecological Corridor. Main access is on the Moa or Jurua rivers, from the City of Cruzeiro do Sul.

It has no tourism infrastructure. The Serra do Divisor National Park was created by decree 97.839 on 16 June 1989 to protect and preserve sample of ecosystems, ensure preservation of its natural resources, allow controlled use by the public and scientific research. The consultative council was created on 5 July 2002; the management plan was approved on 24 December 2002. In 2013, Rainforest Trust launched a campaign to fund the establishment of another national park in the same area on the Peruvian side of the border; the conservation unit is supported by the Amazon Region Protected Areas Program. The park is in the Southwest Amazon moist forests ecoregion; the climate is humid tropical, with one to two month dry season. The average temperature in a year is over 24 °C. Annual rainfall is 1,750 to 2,000 millimetres. Altitudes range from 200 to 600 metres. Hilly and mountainous with large alluvial plains and some low tabular plateaus. Separating the two basins of Rio Ucayali and Juruá, the Park shelters main sources of Jurua's left margin affluent.

It is structured in four main hill massifs, separated by flat plains and valleys of the corresponding affluent of the Juruá basin. Margins of the lower section of the Juruá and Moa rivers are to permanently inundated, having many lakes, igapós and igarapés. Higher up, are found some tabular well-drained areas. Higher still, the landscape is made of hills of up to 300 m with poorly marked valleys; the four sierras culminate up with asymmetric limestone crests dividing the basins. Vegetation: Rapid ecological assessment survey in 1991 characterised 10 forest types within the Park and recorded biodiversity. Most of the area is covered by open rainforest with palm trees or bamboos and open sub-mountain rainforests, dense and open alluvial rainforests. All forest types show quite differentiated structure and tree species dominance. Open forest grows on poorly wet or inundated soils. Palm-trees become more frequent on wetter soils. On dryer soils grow the dense lowland rainforests Open sub-mountain forests grow on the lower hillsides.

Dense sub-mountain forests appear on the higher slopes. On the tops grows a " Low forest" with typical and rare sub-Andean species. Open alluvial forests grow on river margins inundated by muddy waters. Dense alluvial forests appear in less inundated areas. Fauna: Rapid Ecological Assessment allowed to count in one month: 43 large mammal species, more than 100 amphibian and 30 reptile species, 485 bird species, 6 families, 33 genres and 55 species of bats, 21 genres and 64 species of Hymenopteres, finally: 29 spider families. Of these, 17 mammals, 4 reptiles and 20 birds are considered to be rare species. Two new bird species were discovered. Local Population 1.200 families. Amazonian population live within or just at the margin of the Park's limits, most of whom have been collecting rubber for several generations. Low rubber prices induced these populations to start new and unsustainable activities, like cow ranching, timber cutting, commercial hunting and fishing and animal capturing, as well as fossils and stones trade.

These activities are still incipient. It is planned to remove most of the population towards other, more favourable areas; the remaining population, having deep knowledge of the area, may be involved in the Park's surveillance and tourism activities

Paws (film)

Paws is an independent 1997 Australian family comedy film, released on 25 September 1997 in Australia and filmed in Sydney, New South Wales. The film stars 15-year-old guitarist Nathan Cavaleri who has adventures with PC – a talking Jack Russell Terrier; the dog is computer literate– skills acquired from his former master allowing him to create a computer program that translates his words into English, with Zac subsequently designing a portable version that can be'concealed' in a bow tie – and the pair must a stop a valuable disk from falling into the wrong hands. Alex, a computer programmer from a cold place far away, receives a visit from an intruder named Anja but before she breaks in he writes an important message to a colleague, at a greyhound racetrack, named Susie, transfers it to a floppy disk and gives it to his dog PC, warning him that he should give it only to Susie and trust no one, he hides PC just before Anja threatens him for money. He tells her the money, but she finds that the money is missing and sees the initials SA on the file name which she discovers, in the nearby address book, to stand for Susie Arkwright and starts spying on Susie.

PC reaches Susie's neighbourhood but gets hit by a car and is taken in by the family of 14 year old Zac who had moved to Sydney from Melbourne with his mother Amy, step-father Stephen and his younger sister Binky. Zac keeps it. Zac is introduced to his new neighbour Susie, who grew up in Sydney, her daughter Samantha who moved from London and live next door and they recognise PC, they learn of Alex's death and PC continues to stay with Zac's family. PC uses Zac's computer to make a translation programme that could translate any language or sound into plain English his barking, he demonstrates it to Zac who gives him a new voice with a Scottish accent and installs the software onto a palmtop computer with a microphone in a bow tie so he can talk away from the desktop. Zac's relationship with PC is strained and after a spate of incidents involving Anja and Sibelius, the dog decides to tell him the truth. PC was from Iceland where Alex wrote computer programmes and he was married to Anja, his assistant but she never loved him.

Anja made at least a million dollars from them. Alex got heartbroken when he found the money which he withdrew and fled to Australia with PC to escape from her but Anja found him somehow. Zac finds the floppy disk. Zac goes with PC and Sammy to Alex's flat and completes the crossword puzzle on the computer to see a video of Alex saying "A note to follow so" followed by a picture of a pea-like object. After singing Do-Re-Mi they figure that the password is LAP they see another video of Alex this time saying "Well done; the rest is under your nose. Bonne Chance". Anja arrives and threatens them with a dagger so Zac deletes the file to stop her but she kidnaps PC. Back home Stephen, who Zac had seen taking a loan from Anja, agrees to help them and they go to the greyhound track where Alex and Susie worked. PC tricks Sibelius into letting him out of the cage but when Zac comes to help him he lets out Anja's dog who chases after them. Sammy deciphers the clue but takes "LAP in" to be the French word for rabbit and tells PC, catapulted into the commentator's box where he announces that the money is in the rabbit.

Anja takes this to mean the mechanical rabbit on the track and starts tearing it apart but gets stuck and is dragged around the track not finding any money. Binky find's Sammy's Hollywood pin badge, which Alex gave her, asks "What's a Hollywood?" and Sammy explains that it is a place in L. A. they realise that the clue means L. A. pin and they find jewelry inside it. The film ends with PC making out with Sammy's dog Cordelia; the film was released theatrically on 25 September 1997 in Australia and on 15 February 1998 in the United Kingdom where it was rated PG uncut but in its VHS release in the UK that year, the film was re-rated U with nine seconds of cuts removing the instances of "bum" and "crappy" to tone down the language. However, the uncut version has since been released on digital distribution in the UK given the legislation covering BBFC certificates on physical home video formats does not apply to online video services. Nathan Cavaleri — Zac, Amy's son, Binky's brother Freyja Meere — Binky, Zac's sister, Stephen's and Amy's daughter Rachael Blake — Amy, Stephen's wife, Zac's and Binky's mother good, beautiful, wonderful, bewitching and nice woman, mother and neighbour with red hair Nick White — Zac's father, Amy's 1st husband good, beautiful, wonderful and nice man and husband with beautiful and snow-white smile (he and Zac so miss each other.

Roberto Laserna

Roberto Laserna is a Bolivian and Spanish writer and economist who earned a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in regional planning. He won the Literary National Prize Franz Tamayo in 1976 before becoming a scientist, his book 20 conceptions on coca and cocaine addresses drug policy and development problems, La democracia en el ch`enko explains one of the most neglected causes of economic stagnation: economic heterogeneity. In his book "La Trampa del Rentismo" Laserna presents his theory on the Rent-seeking trap, explores the influence of the abundance of natural resources in shaping the political institutions and economic culture that drives underdevelopment in Bolivia, he has researched social conflicts, drug trafficking and urbanization. He was a Professor at Universidad Mayor de San Simon, has been at Princeton University, he is a researcher at CERES, a private research center in Cochabamba and President of Fundacion Milenio, a think tank in La Paz. 2011 El fracaso del prohibicionismo.

Fundación Vicente Pazos Kanki, La Paz. 2008 La riqueza nacional para la gente. La Paz, Fundación Milenio. 2005 Ciudades y pobreza. Cochabamba, UMSS. ISBN 978-99905-63-70-2 2004 La democracia en el ch´enko. La Paz, Fundación Milenio. 2001 Conflictos sociales y movimientos políticos. El año 2000 en Bolivia. Documentos de Trabajo. Cochabamba, Ceres-Dfid. 1997 20 conceptions on coca and cocaine. La Paz, Plural Publishers. 1996 20 Juicios y Prejuicios sobre coca-cocaína. La Paz, Ed. Clave-Plataforma de contrapartes Novib. 1994a Las Drogas y el Ajuste en Bolivia. Economía clandestina y políticas públicas. La Paz, Ed. CEDLA. 1994b La Masacre del Valle. El desencuentro militar campesino. Cochabamba, Ed. CERES. 1992 Productores de Democracia. Acción social y procesos políticos en Bolivia. Cochabamba, Ed. FACES/CERES. 1984 Espacio y sociedad regional. Cochabamba, Ed. CERES. 2008 Conflicto social y crecimiento económico en Bolivia. With José Luis Evia and Stergios Skaperdas. La Paz, Instituto para la Democracia and Cosude. 2008 Roberto Laserna.

38 años de conflictos sociales en Bolivia: enero de 1970-enero de 2008: descripción general y por periodos gubernamentales. CERES, Centro de Estudios de la Realidad Económica y Social. 2007 Constitución y poder político. Con Luis Verdesoto, Henry Oporto y Maria Teresa Zegada. Ed. Plural. La Paz. 2006 La trampa del rentismo. La Paz, Fundación Milenio, with Jose M. Gordillo and Jorge Komadina. 2004 Derechos humanos en Bolivia. Proceso y desafìos. La Paz, Defensor del Pueblo. 2002 Actuar en proyectos, pensar en procesos. De Río a Johannesburgo: experiencias latinoamericanas hacia el desarrollo sostenible. Coordinator and writer in the production of this book from the Red Humana Agenda 21-América Latina. Serie Approaches to Regional Study. New York, Capacity 21, PNUD. 1999 Empujando la concertación. Marchas campesinas, opinión pública y coca. With Natalia Camacho and Eduardo Córdova. La Paz, Ed. Pieb-Ceres. 1998 El Desarrollo Humano en Bolivia 1998. Co-author, responsible of the section "Reducir las Brechas y Construir la Equidad".

La Paz, PNUD. 1997c La Seguridad Humana en Bolivia. Co-author, responsible of "Seguridad Económica". La Paz, Ed. PNUD-ILDIS. 1997a La Fuerza de la Equidad. El desarrollo Humano en Bolivia. With Fernando Calderón G. La Paz, Ed. Los Amigos del Libro. 1996b El Circuito coca cocaína y sus implicaciones. With Alain Touraine and Gustavo Fernández. La Paz, Ed. Ildis. 1995a Sostenibilidad y Desarrollo Humano. Calidad de Vida en Cochabamba. In collaboration with Jorge Cortés, Carmen Ledo, Alejandra Ramírez and Roberto Valdivieso. Cochabamba, Ed. Los Amigos del Libro. 1995b Los Mercados Vallunos de Tierras. With Alberto Rivera and Juan Torrico. La Paz, Ed. Ildis, Ceres.1994 a Paradojas de la Modernidad. Sociedad y Cambios en Bolivia. La Paz, Ed. Fundación Milenio. 1991 La Nueva Dependencia. Cambio tecnológico y reestructuración socio-económica en América Latina. Cochabamba, Ed. CERES. 1989 Desktop Mapping for Planning and Decision Making. San Jose, Strategic Mapping. 1979 La Pobreza en Cochabamba. With Fernando Cosío. Cochabamba, Publicaciones IESE.

On the author: Caceres Romero Adolfo, Diccionario de la Literatura Boliviana, Ed Los Amigos del Libro. Molina Fernando, El pensamiento boliviano sobre los recursos Ed. Pulso, La Paz. Guttentag Tichauer Werner, Bio-bibliografia boliviana. By the author: Urbanizacion y Ed. Pulso, La Paz, 2007 La trampa del rentismo, Ed. Milenio, La Paz, 2006 La democracia en el ch ` Ed. Milenio/Ceres, La Paz, 2005 20 conceptions on coca and cocaine, Ed. Clave, La Paz, 1997 See also: Socio-political conflict and economic performance in Bolivia, with Jose Luis Evia and Stergios Skaperdas, http://SSRN.com/abstract=1104954 Decentralization, Local Iniktiatives and Cirizenship in Bolivia, 1994–2004, in the book Participatory Innovation and Representative Democracy in Latin America, edited by Andrew Selee and Enrique Peruzzotti, The Johns Hopkins University/Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2009

2015 Irwin Tools Night Race

The 2015 Irwin Tools Night Race was a NASCAR Sprint Cup Series race held on August 22, 2015, at Bristol Motor Speedway in Bristol, Tennessee. Contested over 500 laps on the.533 mile concrete short track, it was the 24th race of the 2015 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series season. Joey Logano won the race, making this his second consecutive and overall at the track and his third of the season. Kevin Harvick finished second for the tenth time in the season while Denny Hamlin, Jimmie Johnson and Clint Bowyer rounded out the top five. Hamlin led 54 laps on his way to a third-place finish. Kyle Busch led a race high of 192 laps on his way to an eighth-place finish; the race had 14 lead changes among five different drivers, as well as eight caution flag periods for 52 laps. This was the 11th career victory for Joey Logano, third of the season, second at Bristol Motor Speedway and 12th at the track for Team Penske. Despite winning the race, he left Bristol trailing Kevin Harvick by 43-points in the drivers points standings.

Ford left Bristol trailing Toyota by one-point for second in the manufacturer standings and Chevrolet by 71 for the points lead. The Irwin Tools Nights Race was carried by NBC Sports on the cable/satellite NBCSN network for the American television audience; the radio broadcast for the race was carried by the Performance Racing Network and Sirius XM NASCAR Radio. Bristol Motor Speedway known as Bristol International Raceway and Bristol Raceway, is a NASCAR short track venue located in Bristol, Tennessee. Constructed in 1960, it held its first NASCAR race on July 30, 1961. Despite its short length, Bristol is among the most popular tracks on the NASCAR schedule because of its distinct features, which include extraordinarily steep banking, an all concrete surface, two pit roads, stadium-like seating, it has been named one of the loudest NASCAR tracks. Kevin Harvick entered Bristol with a 48–point lead over Joey Logano. Dale Earnhardt, Jr. entered 82 back. Martin Truex, Jr. entered 111 back. Brad Keselowski entered 112 back.

The entry list for the Irwin Tools Night Race was released on Monday, August 17 at 11:17 a.m. Eastern time. Forty-six cars were entered for the race. All but two cars were entered in the previous week's race at Michigan; the only driver change for this race was the No. 33 Hillman-Circle Sport LLC Chevrolet, driven by Mike Bliss. Kyle Larson was the fastest in the first practice session with a time of 14.779 and a speed of 129.833 mph. Towards the tail-end of the session, Martin Truex, Jr. blew a right-front tire and slammed the wall exiting turn 2. The damage done to the left-front control arm forced him to switch to his backup car; because this change took place prior to qualifying, he won't start the race from the rear of the field. Kyle Busch was the fastest in the final practice session with a time of 14.631 and a speed of 131.146 mph. Denny Hamlin won the pole with a speed of 131.407 mph. "Our FedEx Ground Camry was fast that last round and Dave made the great adjustments to it to pick up the speed and I think that we’ll have something that we can race with them tomorrow night,” Hamlin said.

“The first round just got loose and that kind of put us behind the whole time," Kevin Harvick said after qualifying seventh. "Other than that the car drove pretty good throughout every round. Had a little bit of trouble with all the engine stuff shutting off at the end of the straightaway so, hurting us." “All of our cars have had good speed today, we just missed the setup there a little bit for qualifying and couldn’t fix it from the pit box," said Matt Kenseth after qualifying 13th. "We got the best lap we could out of it – wish we could have made it to the last round there. Just didn’t quite have enough in it.” "We didn’t qualify good here the last time we were here and heck, I think this time we were worse than we were the last time," Jeff Gordon said after qualifying 24th for his final start at Bristol. "But we raced good. I thought. It’s hard to pass; the groove is up top there, so I was hoping we were going to qualify better than this with this pretty awesome Rainbow paint scheme that Axalta has this weekend for us.

But, it just wasn’t meant to be. I don’t know. We were just struggling when we put it into qualifying trim.” Jeb Burton, Travis Kvapil and Reed Sorenson failed to qualify for the race. Under a clear East Tennessee evening sky, Denny Hamlin led the field to the green flag at 7:52 p.m. Starting on the bottom line, which isn't the norm at Bristol, he shot ahead of teammate Kyle Busch to lead the first lap. By lap 15, Hamlin caught the tail-end of the field and completed the short track conveyor belt. By lap 18, Busch pressured him for the lead; the No. 18 Toyota used the lap traffic to pass the No. 11 and take the lead on lap 28. The lapped traffic allowed Kyle to pull away from Denny in the ensuing laps. A. J. Allmendinger bumped Paul Menard in turn 3 and about sent the No. 27 car spinning in front of the race leader, but he saved his car and the race continued. Debris in turn 3 brought out the first caution of the race on lap 52. Kyle Busch and Denny Hamlin swapped the lead on pit road with the former pitting on the backstretch.

It was Busch whom exited pit road with the lead. Ryan Blaney and Danica Patrick were tagged for speeding on pit road and restarted the race from the rear of the field; the race restarted on lap 58. He shot ahead of Kyle Larson on the outside line and drove away from the field followed by teammate Denny Hamlin, he too was caught off by lapped traffic and Busch drove away. Matt Kenseth was

Cow corner (cricket)

Cow corner is a region of the field in cricket. The location of cow corner depends on a batsman's handedness, but it is always a part of the field in the deep on the batsman's leg side stretching from forward of deep midwicket to backward of long on; the diagram shows the location of cow corner for a right-handed batsman. Cow corner is named because, where'cow shots' are intended to go. Cow shots are wild and risky shots which were considered to be played by players with little knowledge of, or ability to apply, the more difficult techniques of the game; such players were supposed to be prominent in the type of cricket played in rural or agricultural areas, where players did not have exposure to more sophisticated methods of playing. Such shots are called agricultural; this region of the field has been somewhat more frequented in more recent forms of the game, including T20 matches, as batsmen have had to find ways to hit the ball to the boundary for yorker-length deliveries. Cricket terminology Leg side Fielding Batting