click links in text for more info

LMS Jubilee Class

The London Midland and Scottish Railway Jubilee Class is a class of steam locomotive designed for main line passenger work. 191 locomotives were built between 1934 and 1936. They were built concurrently with the LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0; the last five locomotives of Henry Fowler's Patriot class on order, 5552 to 5557, were built with William Stanier’s taper boiler and so became the first of the Jubilee class. 113 locomotives were ordered straight from the drawing board. They were a disappointment. Changes to the blastpipe and chimney dimensions helped to transform them. On 29 April 1935 no. 5552, the first of the class, permanently swapped identities with no. 5642, named Silver Jubilee on 19 April 1935 in recognition of the Silver Jubilee of King George V on 6 May of that year. This change gave the name to the rest of the class, see LMS Jubilee Class 5552 Silver Jubilee. Earlier on, they had been known as the "Red Staniers", to distinguish them from the "Black Staniers", they are associated with the Midland Division, i.e. the lines inherited from the former Midland Railway.

This is. Until Jubilees were the largest express engine found on the lines running out of St Pancras or radiating from Derby, they could be found on main lines throughout the former LMS system. The power classification was 5XP, in common with the earlier Patriot class. In January 1951, the classification was revised to 6P; the two rebuilt locomotives were reclassified 6P in July 1943, being revised to 7P in 1951. Five members of the class were fitted with a double chimney at different times. 5684 Jutland was the first, fitted with a double Kylchap in 1937. The double chimney did improve the power of the locos and improved the coal consumption, it only carried this fitment for one year. 5742 Connaught was the next, being fitted with a plain double exhaust in 1940 which it carried until 1955. 5553 Canada was so fitted in 1940 but carried the double chimney for a short time. As part of experiments at Rugby test plant, no. 45722 Defence was fitted with a double chimney from 1956 to 1957. In 1961 a double exhaust was fitted to no. 45596 Bahamas which carried it through withdrawal and into preservation.

Two further engines, 5735 Comet and 5736 Phoenix were rebuilt with a 2A taper boiler and double chimney in 1942. They were to have been a prototype for the rebuilding of the entire class but, in the end, the only Jubilees so to be treated. All the Royal Scot class were rebuilt along similar lines. Although built over only a three-year period the class had many variations due to improvements being made as they were built; the major differences were: Boilers – 10 variations affecting the number of tubes. The earlier boilers were domeless but boilers were domed. There were two sizes of fire grate area depending on whether the firebox throatplate was straight or sloping. Bogies – Approximately 50 of the earlier locomotives were built with ex-Claughton bogies which had a 6’3" wheelbase compared to the locomotives built with new bogies that had a wheelbase of 6’ 6". Smokebox Saddle – The first 113 locomotives were built with a two piece saddle. Tenders – Four basic patterns were fitted. Fowler high-sided, Stanier 4,000 gall and Stanier 3,500 gall.

These last tenders were difficult to identify, combining the high curved sides of the Stanier tender with the chassis from the earlier type Fowler tender. The easiest way to spot them is by the top row of horizontal rivets lower than on the 4,000 gall version. However, taking into account rivets and welds this can be subdivided into a total of eight patterns. No. 45637 Windward Islands was scrapped in 1952 due to accident damage. The remaining 188 locomotives were withdrawn between 1960 and 1967; the first of the standard withdrawals being 45609 Gilbert and Ellice Islands in September 1960 and the last engine to be withdrawn was No. 45562 Alberta from Leeds Holbeck shed on 4 November 1967. On 21 January 1938, locomotive No. 5568 Western Australia was hauling an express passenger train, in a head-on collision with an empty stock train at Oakley Junction due to a combination of driver and signalman's errors. Three people were killed and 46 were injured. On 11 October 1943 locomotive 5581 Bihar and Orissa hauling the Leeds - Edinburgh express collided with a freight train being shunted into sidings at Steeton, West Yorkshire.

No one was killed but four people were injured. On 18 May 1948, locomotives 5609 Gilbert and Ellice Islands and 5605 Cyprus, hauling the 11:45 am down express were derailed, along with 8 coaches of a 12-coach train on a 30 ft high embankment near Wath Road Junction, South Yorkshire; the cause was track distortion in hot weather. Poor track maintenance was a contributing factor. 8 people died and 56 were injured. Both locos were returned to traffic following repairs. On 8 October 1952, a a three-train collision occurred at Wealdstone station, Middlesex. Locomotive No. 45637 Windward Islands was one of two locomotives hauling an express passenger train which crashed into wreckage. A total of 112 people were killed and 340 were injured; this remains the worst peacetime rail crash in the United Kingdom. The locomotive was scrap

Rajkot Gramya

Rajkot Gramya assembly constituency is one of the 182 assembly constituency of Gujarat, western India. It is located in Rajkot District; this seat is reserved for members of Scheduled tribes. This assembly seat represents the following segments: Kotda Sangani Taluka. Rajkot Taluka Villages – Aniyala, Bhangda, Bhupgadh, Dhandhiya, Dungarpar, Hadmatiya, Haripar, Kalipat, Kasturbadham, Kharachiya, Kothariya, Lampasari, Lothada, Mota Mava, Navagam, Ramnagar, Sajadiali Lili, Sajadiali Suki, Sar, Umrali, Vavdi, Vadali. Lodhika Taluka – Entire taluka except village – Und Khijadiya. Rajkot Taluka – Rajkot Municipal Corporation Ward No. – 21. Some of the above villages have been the seat of one. 2007 - Bhanuben Babariya, Bharatiya Janata Party 2012 - Bhanuben Babariya, Bharatiya Janata Party 2017 - Lakhabhai Sagathiya, Bharatiya Janata Party

Jan Baptist van Helmont

Jan Baptist van Helmont was a chemist and physician from the Spanish Netherlands. He worked during the years just after Paracelsus and the rise of iatrochemistry, is sometimes considered to be "the founder of pneumatic chemistry". Van Helmont is remembered today for his ideas on spontaneous generation, his 5-year tree experiment, his introduction of the word "gas" into the vocabulary of science, his name is found rendered as Jan-Baptiste van Helmont, Johannes Baptista van Helmont, Johann Baptista von Helmont, Joan Baptista van Helmont, other minor variants switching between von and van. Van Helmont was the youngest of five children of Maria Stassaert and Christiaen van Helmont, a public prosecutor and Brussels council member, who had married in the Sint-Goedele church in 1567, he was educated at Leuven, after ranging restlessly from one science to another and finding satisfaction in none, turned to medicine. He interrupted his studies, for a few years he traveled through Switzerland, France and England.

Returning to his own country, van Helmont obtained a medical degree in 1599. He practiced at Antwerp at the time of the great plague in 1605. In 1609 he obtained his doctoral degree in medicine; the same year he married Margaret van Ranst, of a wealthy noble family. Van Helmont and Margaret lived in Vilvoorde, near Brussels, had six or seven children; the inheritance of his wife enabled him to retire early from his medical practice and occupy himself with chemical experiments until his death on 30 December 1644. Van Helmont is regarded as the founder of pneumatic chemistry, as he was the first to understand that there are gases distinct in kind from atmospheric air and furthermore invented the word "gas", he perceived that his "gas sylvestre" given off by burning charcoal, was the same as that produced by fermenting must, a gas which sometimes renders the air of caves unbreathable. For Van Helmont and water were the two primitive elements. Fire he explicitly denied to be an element, earth is not one because it can be reduced to water.

On the one hand, Van Helmont was a disciple of a mystic and alchemist. On the other hand, he engaged in the new learning based on experimentation, producing men like William Harvey, Galileo Galilei and Francis Bacon. Van Helmont was a careful observer of nature, he performed an experiment to determine. He grew a willow tree and measured the amount of soil, the weight of the tree and the water he added. After five years the plant had gained about 164 lbs. Since the amount of soil was the same as it had been when he started his experiment, he deduced that the tree's weight gain had come from water. Since it had received nothing but water and the soil weighed the same as at the beginning, he argued that the increased weight of wood and roots had been formed from water. Although a faithful Catholic, he incurred the suspicion of the Church by his tract De magnetica vulnerum curatione, against Jean Roberti, thought to derogate from some of the miracles, his works were collected and edited by his son Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont and published by Lodewijk Elzevir in Amsterdam as Ortus medicinae, vel opera et opuscula omnia in 1648.

Ortus medicinae was based on, but not restricted to, the material of Dageraad ofte Nieuwe Opkomst der Geneeskunst, published in 1644 in Van Helmont's native Dutch. His son Frans's writings, Cabbalah Denudata and Opuscula philosophica are a mixture of theosophy and alchemy. Over and above the archeus, he believed that there is the sensitive soul, the husk or shell of the immortal mind. Before the Fall the archeus obeyed the immortal mind and was directly controlled by it, but at the Fall men received the sensitive soul and with it lost immortality, for when it perishes the immortal mind can no longer remain in the body. Van Helmont described the archeus as "aura vitalis seminum, vitae directrix". In addition to the archeus, van Helmont believed in other governing agencies resembling the archeus which were not always distinguished from it. From these he invented the term blas, defined as the "vis motus tam alterivi quam localis", that is, natural motion and motion that can be altered or voluntary.

Of blas there were several kinds, e.g. blas humanum, blas of stars and blas meteoron. Van Helmont "had frequent visions throughout his life and laid great stress upon them", his choice of a medical profession has been attributed to a conversation with the angel Raphael. and some of his writings described imagination as a celestial, magical, force. Though Van Helmont was skeptical of specific mystical theories and practices, he refused to discount magical forces as explanations for certain natural phenomena; this stance, reflected in a 1621 paper o


Biseridens is an extinct genus of anomodont therapsid, one of the most basal anomodont genera known. Known from a partial skull misidentified as an'eotitanosuchian' in 1997, another well-preserved skull was found in the Xidagou Formation, an outcropping in the Qilian Mountains of Gansu, China, in 2009 that clarified its relationships to anomodonts, such as the dicynodonts. Biseridens is known from skull and jaw material, as well as a series of 14 vertebrae associated with one skull. Like other anomodonts, the region of the skull in front of the eyes is short compared to other therapsids; the orbits are large and rounded, the temporal fenestra are large and wide and broad zygomatic arches, similar to but not as developed as those of dicynodonts. The skull is estimated to be at least 17 centimetres long small compared to other basal anomodonts; the holotype and paratype of Biseridens were referred to Eotitanosuchia, a former suborder of therapsids that included various groups of early therapsids.

The genus was named from the Latin biseri- for "double rows" and -dens to refer to the paired double rows of cheek teeth in each jaw, while the species was named after the Qilian mountains where the fossils were discovered. They assigned Biseridens to a distinct new family of eotitanosuchians, the Biseridensidae, although they did not provide a diagnosis for this family outside of the genus itself. Although primitive, a number of shared traits ally Biseridens with anomodonts including the shortened snout, raised zygomatic arch and exclusion of the septomaxilla between the maxilla and nasals. However, it retains a number of primitive traits that exclude it from the more derived anomodonts, including the differentiated tooth row, palatal teeth, contact between tabular and opisthotic. Several cladistic analyses indicate that Biseridens is the most basal anomodont known, including that of Liu and colleagues shown below, as well as those of Cisneros and colleagues and Kammerer and colleagues: List of therapsids

Tom Veryzer

Thomas Martin Veryzer was an American baseball shortstop. He played 12 years in Major League Baseball, appearing in 979 games for the Detroit Tigers, Cleveland Indians, New York Mets, Chicago Cubs, he ranked third in the American League in 1977 with a range factor of 5.16 per nine innings at shortstop. His career range factor of 4.841 per nine innings at shortstop ranks as the 25th best in Major League history. Veryzer was born in Port Jefferson, New York, in 1953, he attended Islip High School in New York. In high school, he compiled a. 467 batting average. He played soccer and basketball at Islip where his father was the athletic director and basketball coach. Veryzer was drafted by the Detroit Tigers in the first round of the 1971 Major League Baseball Draft, he signed a bonus contract with the Tigers in June 1971. His older brother, had been drafted by the Kansas City Athletics in the 49th round of the 1967 Major League Baseball Draft, but had moved to the Tigers' organization by 1971 as well.

Veryzer played for the Bristol Tigers upon graduating from high school in 1971. He batted just.225 with four home runs and 20 RBIs, but his defensive play earned him Appalachian League MVP honors. He was promoted to the Montgomery Rebels in the Southern League in 1972 where he hit.220. During spring training in 1973, Veryzer received acclaim for his potential. A Detroit scout predicted. A Chicago scout predicted. Detroit manager Billy Martin called Veryzer "the best looking young shortstop I've seen." Despite the acclaim, Veryzer began the 1973 season with the Toledo Mud Hens of the International League where he raised his batting average to.250. In August 1973, Veryzer was called up by the Tigers. At age 20, he was the sixth youngest player in the American League. With Ed Brinkman at shortstop, Veryzer saw little playing time in 1973. Veryzer returned to the minor leagues in 1974 season, batting.296 in 223 at bats with the Evansville Triplets. In August, 1974, he was again called up by the Tigers when the team dealt Jim Northrup to the Montreal Expos.

On September 20, 1974, he hit a two run home run in the second inning to give the Tigers a 2-1 lead. After the Tigers surrendered the lead, he hit. In all, he went three-for-four with two walks and four runs batted in; the Tigers traded Brinkman in November 1974, Veryzer became the Tigers' starting shortstop in 1975, appearing in 128 games at the position. On June 8, 1975, he doubled with two out in the ninth inning to break-up a no-hitter by Ken Holtzman. For the season, he batted.252 with five home runs and 48 RBIs while hitting thirteen doubles to be named the shortstop on the Topps Rookie All-Star team. However, his 24 errors at short were fourth highest in the league. Injuries limited Veryzer to 97 games in 1976, he returned healthy in 1977, but a horrible month of May caused him to lose playing time to Mark Wagner and Chuck Scrivener. The three combined to bat.174 with 33 RBIs while committing 26 errors. In December 1977, Veryzer was dealt to the Cleveland Indians for outfielder Charlie Spikes, opening the door for Alan Trammell to assume the starting shortstop job in Detroit for the next 16 years.

Larvell Blanks won the starting shortstop job out of Spring training 1978, but inconsistent fielding led to his being replaced by Veryzer at the start of May. With Duane Kuiper at second and Buddy Bell at third, the Indians boasted one of the better fielding infields in the American League, light hitting relegated them to a sixth-place finish in the American League East. For his part, Veryzer batted.271 with 32 RBIs. His most memorable moment of the season may have come on September 13 when he drove in the winning run of the Indians' 2-1 victory over the Boston Red Sox with a successful suicide squeeze bunt, knocking the Red Sox out of first place, his offensive numbers slumped to.220 with no home runs and 34 RBIs, but he had his finest season with the glove in 1979. Veryzer figured in ninety double plays while logging a career high.974 fielding percentage in a career high 702 chances. Tendinitis caused Veryzer to miss two weeks at the start of June, a month of play in the second half of the 1980 season.

He was at his best when healthy, batting.271 and putting up a.971 fielding percentage. Injuries caused Veryzer to miss two weeks toward the end of the 1981 season. On May 15, 1981, Veryzer made a brilliant play on an Alfredo Griffin ground ball up the middle to record the first out of the day's match-up with the Toronto Blue Jays. From there, Indians pitcher Len Barker retired the next 26 batters he faced for the first perfect game in the majors since 1968. In January 1982, Veryzer was traded to the New York Mets for pitcher Ray Searage. Veryzer competed with Ron Gardenhire for the starting shortstop role with Gardenhire winning the spot. Veryzer appeared in only 16 games at shortstop for the Mets, though he filled in for 26 games at second base, he was batting.333 on June 1. Veryzer sustained a clean break in the left fibula. In April 1983, Veryzer was traded to the Chicago Cubs for two minor league pitchers. With Larry Bowa at short and Ryne Sandberg beginning his Hall of Fame


Urospatha is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae that consists of 10 known species. They are found growing in South America and Central America in swamps, wet savannahs, brackish water; the leaves of the species in this genus are upward sagittate. The inflorescences are quite unique; the seeds have a texture similar to cork that allows them to float. They quickly germinate in water. Urospatha angustiloba Engl. - northwestern Brazil Urospatha antisylleptica R. E. Schult. - Colombia Urospatha caudata Schott - Peru, northwestern Brazil Urospatha edwallii Engl. - southeastern Brazil Urospatha friedrichsthalii Schott - Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama Urospatha loefgreniana Engl. - central + southern Brazil Urospatha meyeri Schott - Suriname Urospatha riedeliana Schott - northeastern Brazil Urospatha sagittifolia Schott - Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, the Guianas Urospatha somnolenta R. E. Schult. - Colombia Urospatha wurdackii A. Hay - Colombia, Venezuela